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Index Volume XLII 

April, 1919 — September, 1919 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a few cases 
under titles, except poems and book reviews, which are listed only under those head- 
ings. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under their subjects. The 
precise wording of titles has not been retained where abbreviation or paraphrase has 

seemed more desirable. 

Abbott, Grace, 738. 

Accident prevention, contests, 120. 

Accidents, industrial, Calif., 851. 

Actors, organization, 568. 

Actors' Equity Association, 733. 

Addams, Jane, 428. 

Addams, Jane, and Alice Hamilton. Food 

conditions in Germany, 793. 
Additon, Henrietta S., and Neva R. Dear- 

dorff. Children's courts and the 

schools, 185. 
Adler, Felix, 484. 
Adler, Theresa. King James and tobacco, 

Adolescence, standards for children's 

health, 272. 
Africa, self-government, 39. 
Agricultural legislation, 116. 

For soldiers (letter), 290. 

France, 347. 

French medal, 203. 

In the League of Nations (mem. of 
Butterfield), 378. 

Ireland's invitation, 117. 
Air control, 130. 
Akron, housing, 752. 
Alabama, child welfare, 325. 
Alameda, Cal., 115. 

Health center, 904. 
Albanian refugees, 524. 
Alberta, Canada, 761. 
Albrecht, A. E. Soldier teachers, 611. 
Aldrich, Chester. Child welfare in Italy, 

Alexander, M. W., 313. 
Alien and sedition bills, 590. 

Bills as to, 590. 

Deportations, 196. 

Emigrating to Europe, 678. 

Enemy aliens on parole, 636. 

Rights, 279. 
Allen, W. H. Exec, budget — danger, 306. 
Allies (cartoon), 168. 
Almshouses, 624, 824. 
Almy, Frederic. 

"Dope" (letter), 908. 

25 yrs. of social service, 309. 

Portrait, 366. 

Where a name hurt, 472. 
Amalgamated Textile Workers of Amer., 

America overseas — department, 48, 203, 

369, 544, 670, 820. 
American Anti-Boycott Ass'n, 128. 
Amer. Assoc. Agricultural Legis., 116. 
Amer. Assoc, for Organ. Family Social 

Work (Charity), 468, 472. 
Amer. Assoc, of Hospital Social Workers, 

262, 416. 
American Child, The (periodical), 441. 
American City Bureau, 851. 
Amer. Fed. of Arts, peace program, 301. 
Amer. Fed. of Labor. 

Beer and work, 458. 

Convention, report, 515. 
Amer. Fed. of Teachers, locals for college 

teachers, 314. 
American Friends of Russia, 738. 
American Legion, 280. 

Ohio, 440. 
Amer. Library Assoc, 581. 
Amer. Med. Assoc, 470. 
Amer. Numismatic Soc, 33, 509, 539. 
Amer. Sunday-School Union, 161. 
American University Union, 823. 

Cleveland, 603. 

Conference in Washington, 312. 

Federal work, 200. 

Gary, 480. 

Gen. Fed. of Women's Clubs plan, 485. 

History as a basis, 319. 

Leadership in, 746. 

N. Y. state commission on reconstruc- 
tion plan, 484. 

Sections of the U. S., 359. 

"Shut-ins," 317. 
Amnesty for political prisoners, growing 

mov't for, 882. 
Anderson, Lyda, 705. 
Anderson, Mary, 738. 
Anderson, W. C, 98. 
Andrews, J. B., 710, 901. 
Anthony, Susan B., 896. 
Ap't houses, owner tenants, 488, 489. 

Compulsory, experiment of War Labor 
Board, 192. 

Voluntary, 211. 
Archangel, 141. 
Arctic commonwealth, 140. 
Arizona deportations, 457, 637. 
Armenia, verses, 823. 
Aronovici, Carol, 757, 908. 
Arragona, Signor d', 658, 667. 
Arsenal, cooperative management of, 846. 

Immigrants' contributions, 361, 362- 

Making it free for democ, 301. 
Art, Labor and Science Conf., 199. 
Art museums, 301. 
Association of Producers of Petroleum in 

Mexico, 907. 
Asylum, right of, 674. 
Athens, child labor (ills.), 814, 815. 
Atlantic City. See Nat. Conf. of Social 

Auchterlonie, W. J., 152. 
Augusta, Me., 207. 

Dealing with labor disputes, 399. 

Employment for soldiers, 211. 

Women workers, 861. 
Ayres, L. P., 909. 


Babcock, D. C, 752. 

Bread and, 619 

Clinics, St. Louis, 705. 

New South Wales, 903. 
Baden-Powell, Sir Robert, 368. 
Bahrenberg, P. H. L., 908. 
Bailey, L. H., 116. 
Bailey, W. L., The Greater Community, 

Baker, N. D„ 846, 850. 

Conscientious objectors, 571. 
Bakeries, boycotting, 326. 
Baking industry, night work, 148. 
Baldwin, R. N„ 437, 504. 

Prison transfer, 416. 
Balkans, child labor, 789, 813-817. 
Ball, C. B., 130. 
Balli, Charles, 279. 

Democratic education, 456. 

Polish widow's menu card, 599. 

Primaries — a workshop, 118. 
Bannwart, Carl, 753. 
Barnes, M. E., 52. 
Barnett, Canon, 873. 

Offer of biography, 883. 
Beach, Chester, 169, 509, 539. 
Beck, F. O., 115. 

Beeby, George. Australian labor, 399. 
Beer and saloons, 736. 

Blind, 88. 

Columbus, 255. 

Louisville, 87, 88. 

Child Welfare, 541. 

Reconstruction miscellany, 389. 

Relief, 56. 

Remaking (poster), 547. 
Belgrade, news girl (ill.), 814. 

Bell, G. L., 843. 

To meet the changing problems, 845. 
Benedict, Justice, 442. 
Benjamin, G. G., 417. 
Benjamin, Paul, 909. 
Berger, Attorney-General, 704. 
Berlin, Sexual Science Inst., 852. 
Bernard, Hans, 635. 
Berne document on food blockade, 505. 
Bertillon, Jacques, 86. 
Besant, Annie, 660. 
Bethlehem, 367. 

Bethlehem, Pa., home for children, 115. 
Bicknell, Mrs. E. P., 262. 
Billikopf, Jacob, 570. 
Birrell, Francis. 

Cooperation for rural France, 347. 

Good folks of Sommeilles, 530. 
Birthrate, 621. 
Bisbee, Ariz., 457. 

Defendants in deportation cases, 637. 
Bittinger, Lucy T. Pan-American child 

welfare, 580. 
Blakey, G. C. and R. G. Exec. vs. legis. 

budgets, 307. 
Blashfield memorial fountain, 367. 

Bombay, 862. 

Massachusetts register, 708. 

Report of New York Inst., 583, 860. 
Blockade. See Food blockade. 
Bloemfontein, 464. 
Bloomfield, Meyer. Harvester works 

council, 74. 
Bloomfield and Bloomfield, 825. 
Bohemia, 528, 529. 

Socializing, 822. 
Bolshevism, 612. 

America, 148. 

Ministers' plea, 542. 
Bolt, R. A. Child welfare in Italy, 544. 
Bombay, blindness, 862. 
Bondfield, Margaret, 775. 
Book reviews. 

Adolescence (Paget), 730. 

Adopted Husband, An (Futabatei), 880. 

After the War What? (Baker), 382. 

After the Whirlwind (Russell), 830. 

Altruism, Its Nature and Varieties 
(Palmer), 435. 

Amer. Labor and the War (Gompers), 

Amer. Labor Policy (Cohen), 760. 

Amer. Marriage Laws in Their Social 
Aspect (Hall and Brooke), 779. 

Amer. Municipal Exec. (Story), 94. 

Amer. Year Book, The Record of 1918 
(Wickwire), 288. 

Americanization and Citizenship (Web- 
ster), 630. 

Avenir de la France, L' (Herbette), 95. 

Beverages and Their Adulteration 
(Wiley), 759. 

Blind, The (Best), 434. 

Blind Alley (George), 712. 

Bodega, La (Ibaflez), 710. 

British Labor and the War (Kellogg and 
Gleason), 855. 

Brit. Rev. and Amer. Democ. (Angell), 

Broken Homes (Colcord), 730. 

Bulwark Against Germany, A (Vosn- 

Burdett's Hospitals and Charities, 1918 
(Burdett), 434. 

Camp Cookery (Milan, Johnson and 
Smith), 730. 

Canon Barnett; Warden of Toynbee 
Hall; His Life, Work and Friends, 

Chambres de Metiers, Les (Bouilloux- 
Lafont), 905. 

Chicago Standard Budget for Depend- 
ent Families, The (Nesbit), 577. 

Child, The, That Does Not Stumble 
(Wilson), 630. 

Child Welfare Wk. in Louisville (Sling- 
erland), 712. 

Child's Unconscious Mind, The (Lay), 
288, 326. 

Christian Internationalism (Merrill), 

Civilization (Duhamel), 731. 

Colleges, The, in War Time and After 
(Kolbe), 711. 

Common Sense Working Methods in 
Factories (Meron), 779. 

Comparative Education (Sandiford) , 

Convictions of Christopher Sterling, 
The (Begbie), 857. 

Cooperation and the Future of Ind. 
(Woolf), 710. 

Country Church, The, in the New 
World Order (Brunner), 288. 

Delinquency and Spare Time (Thurs- 
ton), 609. 

Democracy (Desmond), 552. 

Democ. and Reconstruction (Schafer 
and Cleveland), 830. 

Democ. at the Cross-Roads (Petre), 

Democracy in Earnest (Southern Socio- 
logical Congress) , 159. 

Democ. Versus Autocracy (Geiser), 258. 

Diet, of Apostolic Ch. (Hastings), 578. 

Disabled Soldiers' and Sailors' Pensions 
and Training (Devine and Brandt), 

Employment Management (Bloom- 
field), 905. 

Employment Psychology (Link), 879. 

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics 
(Hastings), 578. 

Essentials, The, of an Enduring Victory 
(Cheradame), 257. 

Executive, The, and His Control of Men 
(Gowin), 880. 

Experiments in International Adminis- 
tration (Sayre), 257. 

Experts in City Gov't (Fitzpatrick), 

Factory Layouts and Equipments 
(Meron), 779. 

Farmer, The, and the New Day (Butter- 
field), 387. 

Fighting the Spoilsmen (Foulke), 258. 

Food Crisis, The, and Americanism 
(Stull), 123. 

Force Supreme, The (Wellman), 257. 

Forgotten Man, The, and Other Essays 
(Sumner), 631. 

From Warfare to Welfare (Stocker), 

Gary Schools (Flexner and Bachman), 

Geriatrics (Therolis), 856. 

Gospel, The, for a Working World 
(Ward), 258. 

Government, The, of the U. S.(Munro), 

Great Change, The (Wood), 289. 

Great Peace, The (Powers), 257. 

Greater Task, The (Schaeffer), 556. 

Health Ed. in Rural Schools (.Andress), 
630. _ , 

Heredity, Disease and Human Evolu- 
tion (Ribbert), 159. 

History, A, of the Great War (Bene- 
dict), 610. 

Hobo Philosopher, The (Payne), 576. 

Home, I Want, The (Reiss), 435. 

Housewifery (Balderston), 322. 

How to Face Peace (Shelby), 833. 

Human Element, in Org. (Meron), 779. 

Human Infection Carriers (Simon), 288. 

Idealism and the Modern Age (Adams), 

Industrial Goodwill (Common), 433. 

Industry and Humanity (King), 321. 

Instructor, The, the Man and the Job 
(Allen), 287. 



e x 

Ireland (Hackett), 123. 

Irlande, L', Dans la Crise Universelle 
(Treguiz), 123. 

Italian Women in Ind. (Odencrantz), 

Jewish Ed. in N. Y. C. (Dushkin), 630. 

Junior High School (Bennett), 578. 

Labor and Reconstruction in Europe 
(Friedman), 551. 

Labor Law of Maryland, The (Lauch- 
heimer), 577. 

Labour Difficulties and Suggested Solu- 
tions (Deeley), 579 

Labrador Days (Grenfell], 579. 

Land, The, and the Soldier (Howe), 551. 

Land of Tomorrow, The (Stephenson), 

League of Nations bks., 257. 

League of Nations (Jackson), 760. 

League of Nations, The, Today and 
Tomorrow (Kallen), 257. 

Legal and Political Status, The, of 
Women in Iowa (Gallaher), 631. 

Liberal Policy, 382. 

Liberalism in Australia (Evatt), 731. 

Lice and Their Menace to Man (Lloyd), 

Little Town, The (Douglass), 158. 

Maladies, Les, des Soci^tes (Hericourt), 

Man to Man (Leitch), 122. 

Management and Men (Bloomfield), 

Manual of Home-Making, A (Van 
Rensselaer and Others), 322. 

Master of the Far East, The (Brown), 

Mayor's Committee, The, National De- 
fense, 93. 

Meaning of Reconstruction, The (De- 
mos), 382. 

Methodist Church, A, and Its Work 
(Tippy and Kern), 94. 

Mexico Today and Tomorrow (Trow- 
bridge), 93. 

Military Pensions in the United States 
(Glasson), 609. 

Morale and Its Enemies (Hocking), 

Morals and Morale (Gulick), 906. 

Mortality Statistics of Insured Wage- 
Earners and Their Families (Dublin), 

Natality La (Rageot), 93. 

Nat'l Self-Gov't (Muir), 759. 

Nationality and Gov't (Zimmern), 257, 

Native Races and Their Rulers (Tem- 
ple), 857. 

Natural Ed. Without Taxation (Brunk) , 

New Citizenship, The (Robertson), 386. 

New Municipal Program, A (Wood- 
ruff), 711. 

New Schools For Old (Dewey), 778. 

New York Charities Directory, 1919. 
(Miller), 434. 

On Becoming an American (Bridges), 

On Uncle Sam's Water Wagon (Moore), 

Only Possible Peace, The (Howe), 257. 

Opportunities in Farming (Dean), 434. 

Otis Group Intelligence Scale (Otis), 

Out of the Shadow (Cohen), 731. 

Outlines of Social Philosophy (Mac- 
kenzie), 906. 

Oxford Book of Australian Verse (Mur- 
dock), 435. 

Past and Present-^A Collection of 
Jewish Essays (Friedlaender), 630. 

People's Part in Peace, The (Tead) , 382. 

Place, The, of Agriculture in Recon- 
struction (Morman), 828. 

Plea, A, for the Insane (Weatherly), 

Pool, Billiards and Bowling as a Phase 
of Commercialized Amusements 
(Phelan), 759. 

Pour la Reconstruction des Cites Indus- 
trielles (Duchene), 830. 

Problems of Internat'l Settlement, 257. 

Problems of Reconstruction (Lippin- 
cott), 830. 

Proposed Roads to Freedom (Russell), 

Question Before Congress, The (Mit- 
chell), 158. 

Reconstructed School, The (Pearson), 

Reconstruction and Nat'l Life (Lavell), 

Reconstruction books, 828. 

Redemption of the Disabled, The 
(Harris), 778. 

Reforme Economique et Sociale, La 
(Valois), 711. 

Republic of Nation, A (Minor), 257. 

Road, The, to a Healthy Old Age 
(Scott), 256. 

Rosenberg, Henry, 557. 

Rural Reconstruction in Ireland (Smith- 
Gordon and Staples), 553. 

Rural School, The, and the Community 
(Lewis), 880. 

School Work and Spare Time (Bonse), 

Science of Labor, The (Ioteyko), 905. 

Select Articles on a League of Nations 
(Phelps), 257. 

Sex-Lore (Herbert), 288. 

Sex Side of Life, The (Dennett), 760. 

Shop Committee, The (Stoddard), 730. 

Small Things (Deland), 711. 

Social and Religious Life of Italians in 
America (Sartorio), 159. 

Social Games and Group Dances 
(Elsom and Trilling), 880. 

Social History, A, of the American 
Family, etc., Vol. Ill (Calhoun), 435. 

Social Purpose (Hetherington and 
Muirhead), 551. 

Social Service Directory of Philadelphia 
(Stern), 759. 

Social Work (Cabot), 576. 

Socialism and American Ideals (Myers), 

Ten Years Near the German Frontier 
(Egan), 289. 

Thrift and Conservation: How to 
Teach It (Chamberlain), 905. 

Thrift and Success (Jackson and 
others), 760. 

Tragedy of Labor, The (Halstead), 91. 

25 Yrs. in the Black Belt (Edwards), 

Unbroken Tradition, The (Connolly), 

U. S. Reclamation Service, The, 631. 

Victory Over Blindness (Pearson), 577. 

Vision for Which We Fought, The 
(Simons), 382. 

Vital Issues, The, of the War (Boyn- 
ton), 257. 

W. E. A. Ed. Yr. Bk., 1918, 759. 

War Aims and Peace Ideals (Brooke 
andCanby), 388. 

War Garden Victorious, The (Pack), 

War Romance, The, of the Salvation 
Army (Booth and Hill), 730. 

War Thrift (Carver), 502. 

What Happened to Europe (Vanderlip) , 

What Is America? (Ross), 731. 

What of the City? (Moody), 610. 

What We Eat and What Happens to It 
(Hawk), 123. 

Wholesome Citizens and Spare Time 
(Gillen), 609. 

Why We Fail as Christians (Hunter), 

Wise Parenthood (Stopes), 711. 

Woman Question, The (Smith), 288. 

Women and World Fed. (Tuttle), 880. 

Women Wanted (Daggett), 502. 

Workmen's Compensation and Insur- 
ance (Van Doren), 92. 

World-Power and Evolution (Hunting- 
ton), 551. 

Young Wage-Earner, The (Findlay), 93. 

Your Neighbor and You (Garesch6), 

Zionism and the Future of Palestine 
(Jastrow), 828. 
Books, for Ellis Island, 290, 439. 
Bookstaber, P. D., 908. 
Borrowers, protection of, 627. 
Borst, H. W., Case-work, 847. 

City Hospital maternity wk., 755. 

Housing law (letter), 289. 

Jewish district centers, 156. 

Jobs for soldiers, 237. 

Police strike, 881. 

Teaching Eng. to adult women, 156. 

Trade Union College, 1. 
Boy Scouts. 

Police and, 629, 715. 

Seafaring life, 441. 
Brace, W., 658 
Bradford, Cornelia F., 411. 
Brandt, Lilian. Nat'l Conf. gen. account, 

Branting, Hjalmar, 658, 667. 
Braucher, H. S., 870. 
Bray, Elizabeth, 89. 

Babies and, 619. 

Boycott of bakers, 326. 
"Bread just," 599. 
Bremer, Edith T. Reply to " Letter from 

the provinces," 874. 
Brenner, V. D. Peace of Versailles, 332. 
Briggs cartoon, 255. 

British colonies, women workers in, 861. 
British Labor Party, 412. 

League of Nations, 541. 

Posters, 189, 190-191. 

Southport Conference, 654. 
Broening, W. F., 456. 
Bromley, J., 658. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Bureau of Charities work, 121. 

Health Center, 708. 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., conductor- 

ettes, 410. 
Brophy, E. V., 161. 
Brotherhood of St. Andrew, 208, 283. 
Brunner, E. de S., 676. 
Bryn Mawr College, 858. 
Bubin, Maurice, 908. 

Community (letter), 290. 

Executive — danger, 306. 

Executive vs. legislative, 307. 

Family, 313. 

Federal, proposals, 408. 

Household, 573. 

National bill, 401. 

National committee formed, 278. 

Social agencies, 344. 


Budish, J. M., 199. 

Charity Org. Soc. and F. Almy's work, 

Drug addicts (letter), 908. 
Burgess, Wm. Stage deteriorating, 160. 
Burleson, A. S., 146. 
Burns, A. T. Native and foreign-born 

(Nat'l Conf.), 453. 
Busby, E. W„ 282. 

Business and sickness prevention, 798. 
Butterfield, K. L. Agriculture in the 

League of Nations, 378. 

Cabinet, proposals, 408. 
Cabot, R. C. 

Case-worker's pyramid, 626. 

Creative listening in social treatment, 

Hospital maternity work, 755. 

How to give in social treatment, 572. 

Order in social treatment, 413. 

Presence of mind in social work, 430. 

Club women and work, 614. 

Country relief, 604. 

Feudalism in (large land holdings), 310. 

Immigration and Housing Commission, 

Indians, 280. 

Industrial injuries, 851. 
Camden, S. C, 736. 
Camp Seeley, 648. 

Doukhobors, 129. 

Immigration bill, 458. 

Industrial conference, 894. 

Reconstruction miscellany, 389. 

Reconstruction program, 64. 

Trade unions, 161-162. 
Canadian Public Health Assoc, 412. 
Cancer control, 827. 
Cannes, 79. 

Red Cross meeting, 333. 

Red Cross meeting, sectional reports on 
health and child welfare, 491. 
Canning, instruction for France, 673. 
Cannon, M. A. Hospital social service, 

Canton, Ohio, 909. 

Capper, Arthur, on Kansas jails, 809. 
Capus, L., 71. 
Caravans, 638. 
Carelessness, poster, 567. 
Carnegie, Andrew, 733. 
Carstens, C. C. 

Educ. in Mass., 425. 

Social reconstruction (report of com- 
mittee), 402. 
Case, Elizabeth. The maligned volun- 
teer, 818. 
Case work. 

Limitations, 847. 

New York, indemnity, 902. 

Reconstruction, 84. 

Standardization, 729. 
Catholic Educ. Assoc, 612. 
CatteU, J. M., 629. 
Cattle, tubercular, 677. 
Caughy, May. Solitary, 581. 
Cave-dwelling, 433. 
Censorship, 97. 

Census Bureau, health index, 596. 
Census, fourteenth, committee to assist, 

Central Park, 629. 

C. G. T. See France, labor conditions. 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Industrial principles, 151. 

N. Y. State, and thrift, 201. 
Chamberlain, J. P. "Dope," 797. 
Chamberlain, Mary. Women at Zurich, 

Chapin.F.S. Training for social work, 105. 
Chaplains, 673. 

"Characters" for employers, 285. 
Charitably minded, 623, 713. 

Home Service and civilian charities, 

Philadelphia, reorganizing, 91. 
Charity org., St. Louis standards, 254. 
Charity org. soc, name of London soc, 

Charleston, S. C, dormitory of Y. W. 

C. A., 54. 
Chattanooga, 414. 
Cheney, W. L. 

"Ind. democ" on strike, 892. 

Joint council in the clothing ind., 843. 

Railroad crisis, 721. 
Chester, Pa. 

League of nations pageant, 86. 

Race relations, 736. 

Child welfare conf., 417. 

Churches on Mexican intervention, 852. 

City Club, 251. 

Clothing workers, 326. 

Commons, 308. 

Cooperative buying for social agencies, 

Council of Social Agencies, 634. 

Election result, 83. 

Home nursing, 733. 

Housing association, 674. 

Italians, 115. 

Juvenile Protective Assoc, 92. 

Plan for soldiers' employment, 56, 57. 

Race riots, 695. 

Race situation after the riots, 782. 

Reconstruction program of city plan 
commission, 704. 

School of Civics and Philanthropy, 761, 

Schools and politics, 724. 

Street car strike, 703. 

Street railway men on wages, 114. 

Strike epidemic, 645. 

Training of community center workers, 

Vice as a nuisance, 464. 

Volunteer educators, 120. 

Volunteer social work, 154. 

Woman's Church Fed., 776. 

Woman's City Club, 506. 
Chicago Tuberculosis Inst., 540. 
Chicopee Falls, Mass., 121. 
Chihuahua, 442. 
Child Health Org., 24. 
Child labor. 

Balkans (photo story), 789, 813-817. 

Cotton and, 857. 

End of, 747, 785. 

Injunction of Judge Boyd on federal 
provision, 262. 

Ruling of Judge Boyd, further details, 
Child welfare. 

Alabama (letter), 325. 

Belgium, 541. 

Cannes Red Cross medical conf. report, 

Europe, 673. 

International conf. announced, 56. 

Italy, 544, 820. 

Kentucky, 96. 

Pan-American conf., 580. 

Regional conf. in Chicago, 417. 

Serbia, 373. 

South Carolina, 417. 

Standards adopted at conf. May 5-8, 

See also Pan-Amer. Child Welfare Con- 

Chicago, 92. 

Courts and schools, 185. 

England, removal from work-houses, 

European suffering, 528. 

Health crusade, 429. 

Home in Pa. described, 115. 

Kansas bills, 201. 

National Conf. program, 454. 

Oklahoma, 85. 

Philadelphia work, 703. 

St. Paul, Minn., 732. 

Weight, Milwaukee, 904. 
Children's Bur., conf. on child standards, 

Children's courts. 

Belgium, 541. 

Place in the schools, 185. 
Children's Year, 169. 

Summary of results, 81. 

Educational influences, 204. 

Y. M. C. A., 629. 
China Continuation Committee, 823. 
Choir boys, French, 1, 49. 
Cholmeley-Jones, Col., 599. 
Chomeuse, Madame la, 771. 
Choy, Soonie. Plea for Korea, 582. 
Christmas seals, 884. 

Cooperation in St. Louis, 282. 

Educational work, 89. 

Mobilized, 776. 

New spirit, 207. 

On Mexican intervention, 852. 

Reconstruction, 59. 

Rural, survey begun, 676. 

Social reconstruction (Methodists), 549 

Social reconstruction program of the 
Protestant churches, 685-689. 

Survey, recommendations, 121. 

Welcome committee for soldiers, 283. 
Chute, C. L. Courts and clinics, 466. 
Cigarettes, 313. 

Cigarmakers' strike (letter), 906. 

Aliens, 279. 

By-products of the flu, 463. 

Community center equipment, 729. 

Housing course, 753. 

Italian welfare work, 637. 

Negro health, 596. 

Social Unit experiment, 869. 

"Bolshevik." 423. 

Chain of new (Europe), 802. 

New type of dep't in Indianapolis, 605. 

Reconstruction program; housing; de- 
centralization, 58. 

Seattle employes, 582. 

Zoning, 115. 

See alto Local gov't. 

Bureau proposed, 59. 

Grand Rapids. 432. 

How to train for, 777. 

Local history and, 319. 
City clubs and social service, 775. 
City planning. 

Chicago, 704. 

St. Paul exhibition, 417. 

South Si. Paul, 677. 
Undelivered speech of B. Lasher, 433. 





East St. Louis, 274. 

Local history as aid, 319. 
Civil rights. See Rights. 
Civil service. 

County, 279. 

Soldiers and, 313. 

Soldiers and (letter), 440. 
Civil Service Reform Assoc, annual meet- 
ing, 313. 
Civilian Relief, Dep't of, 81. 

See also Home Service. 
Claghorn, Kate H. 

Alien and sedition bills up-to-date, 590. 

More about the deportations, 196. 
Clark, Mary V. Passing of the county 

farm, 624. 
Clarke, D. T., 676. 
Clarkson, G. B., 850. 

Cleghorn, Sarah N. The feel of a jail, 581. 
Clementel, iStienne, 128. 

Americanization, 603. 

City Club and Bolshevism, 148. 

Public health nursing, program adopted, 

Social finance, 345. 

Women workers on peace-time ban- 
dages, 603. 
Clinics and courts, 466. 
Cloak-makers, 312. 
Clopper, E. N., 417. 

A champion of child welfare, 293. 
Clothing industry. 

Employers' organization, 633. 

First step taken in democ, 843. 

New York strike, 149. 
Clothing workers. 

Chicago, 326. 

Strike against idleness, 312. 
Clubs and Social Service, 775. 
Clynes, J. R., 654, 659, 668. 

English settlement, 248. 

Ohio legislation, 438. 
Coal Commission. See under England. 
Codification of family names, 283. 
Coffee house, 564. 
Colcord, Joanna C. 

Broken homes, 303. 

Family at the Nat'l Conf . , 452. 
Cold Storage, municipal, 628. 
Cole, G. D. H., 228. 
Cole, W.T., 780. 

Collective bargaining, Winnipeg, 437. 
College girls, community service, 469. 
College Settlements Assoc, 469. 

Debating and citizenship, 256. 

Teachers' federation, 314. 

Trade Union College of Boston, 113. 
Collier, John, 483. 

Self-determination in community enter- 
prise, 870. 
Colt, Josephine B. Visiting teacher, 440. 

Begging, 255. 

Central Philanthropic Council, 727. 
Colyer, W.T. Fire and the Fourth, 714. 
Comey, A. C.,488, 489. 
Commission manager system, 120. 
Commons, J. R. Reconstruction health 

program, 798. 
Community, Greater, 706. 
Community budget, 290. 
Community cafes, 252. 
Community centers, Cincinnati, 729. 
Community Church of N. Y., 442. 

Objections, 628. 
Community houses as memorials, 851. 
Community organization, 377, 679. 

Self-determination in enterprise, 870. 
Community service and college girls,469. 
Community Service Soc, 316. 
Community study, Sandwich, N. H., 752. 
Community welfare dep't, Indianapolis, 

Community Workers, Training School for, 

Competitions, neighborhood, 776. 
Conductorettes, 326. 

Conferences, 709. 

Americanization, Washington, D. C, 

Anti-Lynching, 292. 

Failures and why, 87. 

National Country Life, 292. 

Pan-Amer. Child Welfare, notice, 293. 

Various reports, 465, 500, 853. 
Congress, U. S. 

Medical bills, 761. 

Narcotic problem, 797. 

Opening of 66th, and President's mes- 
sage, 375, 376. 

Price reduction and, 734. 
Connecticut legis., 436. 
Connor, J. F., 82. 
Conscientious objectors, 581. 

Abuse at Fort Leavenworth, 534. 

Baker's letter on, 571. 

Military prisons for, 276. 

Prison terms, 53. 

See also Amnesty. 
Conscription of wealth, 98. 
Constantinople, 371. 
Constitution Day, 849. 
Consumers' cooperation, 255. 
Consumers' League, 713. 

Figure symbolic of its spirit (ill.), 4. 

Statement of a new program, 5. 

Consumers' side, 504. 

Contagion from the dead, 751. 

Conventions, perambulating, 761. 

Cook Islands, 637. 

Cooley, R. B. Negro soldiers, 858. 


Consumers' 255. 

Iowa University study ,54 17. 

Rural France, 347. 

Seattle, 324. 
Cooperative buying, 729. 
Cooperative Internationale, 31. 
Cooperative "wholesale," 676. 

International Cooperative Alliance, 

Joint conf. with trade unionists in Lon- 
don, 112. 
Corbin.A.F., 118. 
Coronado Coal Co., 282. 
Cost of living, 313, 619, 860. 

Begging (cartoon), 366. 

Down with it, 95. 

Effect on health, 702. 

Food facts, 702. 

Gov't and the problem, 734. 

Reasons and methods of meeting, 850. 
Cotton and child labor, 857. 
Cotton mills, 736. 
Council of Nat'l Defense, on cost of living, 


Cartoon by Du Maurier of London 
Punch, 319. 

" Rambling rules, " 285. 

See also Agriculture; Nat'l Country Life 
Country life, Proposals, 405. 
County civil service, 279. 
County farm, 624. 
County Public Health Assoc, 89. 
County relief and welfare work in Calif. 

Courts and clinics, 466. 
Cramp, C. T., 654, 660, 666. 
Crane Company, 751. 
Crawford, Ruth, 52. 
Creston, la., 706. 
Cripple Day, 259. 

Adult, Illinois, 714. 

Minnesota legis., 438. 
Criticisms and corrections, 907. 
Cromwell, Mary. Negro soldiers, 505. 
Crowell, Elizabeth, 909. 
Cummin, G.C. Free trolleys, 472. 

Current events, courses for study, 281. 
Curry, H. Ida. Nat'l Conf. 1920, 504. 
Czechoslovakia, social work, 822. 

Dallin, C. E. American soldier, 375, 377 
Daniels, Roger. Church Welcome Com- 
mittee, 283. 
Danner, W. M., 823. 
Danville (111.) Cooperative Soc, 255. 
Davison, H. P. Red Cross conf. of 

Cannes, 79. 
Day, A. H. Temp. Bars, 415. 
Day, Jonathan, 262. 
Daylight saving repeal, 483. 
Deacon, J. B., 699. 

Reply to "Letter from the provinces," 
Deardorff, Neva R. 

Child welfare standards — conf., May 
5-8, 269. 

Home Service brought to date, 699. 

To unshackle Philadelphia, 19. 

See also Additon, Henrietta S., and 
Neva R. Deardorff. 
Death, infection from, 751. 
Debating, 256. 
Debs, E. V., 116. 

Decentralization in Switzerland, 635. 
De Forest, C. M., 429. 
De Forest, R. W. Peace program of the 

Amer. Fed. of Arts, 301. 
Degrees, a college without, 824. 
Delano, Jane A., obituary, 148. 
Demobilization, 57, 206. 

France, 63. 

Tasks, 756. 

City zoning, 115. 

In industry — President's message, 376. 

Making art free for, 301. 

Race riots in relation to, 697. 
Demuth (William) & Co., 892. 

France, 545. 

Univ. of Minnesota Hospital, 708. 
Denver, tuberculosis problem, 320. 
Department stores, council of employes, 

Dependency Index, 77, 87. 

Bisbee, Ariz., 457, 637. 

See also Aliens. 
Desertion, family, 303. 
Des Moines, la., 128. 
Des Moines, la., decent homes, 713. 

Aid for home builders, 723. 

Carolers' Service Flag Carol sung in 
Bethlehem, 367. 

Case work, 84. 

Complaint bureau, 98. 

Negro social settlement, 637. 

New prison board, 96. 

Prohibition vote, 245. 

Public Welfare Commission, 161. 

Safety campaign, 566. 
Detroit Urban League, 571. 
Devine, E. T. 

Americanization of 5 sections of U. S. 

Cincinnati Social Unit experiment, 869. 

Effort to save the fed. Housing Bur., 

Fed. employment service — outline for 
permanent system, 9. 

Social reconstruction, 402. 

War Risk Insurance, 360. 
Diehl, Edith, 490. 
Dike, Mrs. A. M., 203. 
Diplomats, sociological, 676. 
Direct settlements, 82. 
Documents, British circular on, 440. 
Domestic service. See Housework. 
Dominican laborers, 860. 
"Dope," 797, 908. 
Dorland, J. W. Dental relief work in 

France, 545. 
Doukhobors in Canada, 129. 
Dover, N. J., 152. 
Downs, Lois, 161. 

Actors organize and strike, 568, 733. 

Religion and, 608. 

Stage deteriorating, 160. 
Dress and health, 898. 
Drug addicts, 738. 

Buffalo, 908. 

Care for, 324. 

Scranton, 797. 

South, 147. 

Treatment, 147. 
Dublin, L. I. Health conditions in south- 
ern Europe, 36. 
Duke, Emma, 909. 
Dunphy, Mrs., 151. 
Durnall, Ethel. Southern cotton mills, 

Dutton, S. T., obituary, 56. 


East St. Louis, 695. 

Rebirth, 274. 
East Side portraits, 362-363. 
Easter card, 205. 
Eastman, P. R., 149, 323. 
Eaton, Allen, 302. 
Economic readjustment, 547. 
Economies, doubtful, 599. 
Edgerton, C. E. Aid to Russia, 610. 

Baltimore's contribution, 456. 

International, 548. 

Massachusetts behind? 425. 

Proposals for public, 403. 

Reconstruction, 208. 

Reports, free, 582. 

Social service standard in, 636. 
Edward Sanatorium, 540. 
Edwards, Glen. Schools and politics in 

Chicago, 724. 
Egotist, the, 277. 
Eight-hour day. 

Cartoon illustrating, 900, 901. 

French posters, 243. 
Electric power supply, 315. 
Eliot, C. W. Labor in democ. soc, 73. 
Eliot, T. D. Community budget, 290. 
Elkus, A. I., 394. 
Ellis Island. 

Books acknowledged, 439. 

Books wanted, 290. 
Emerson, F. V. Place of the maternity 

home, 772. 
Emigration, 678. 

"Characters" for, 285. 

Org. in clothing ind., 633. 
Employers' Ind. Commission, report on 

Eng„ 251. 
Employment, 549. 

Demobilization and, 678. 

Situation, 378. 

Soldiers, 237. 

Soldiers, Chicago plan, 56, 57. 

See also Unemployment. 
Employment managers, 152. 
Encephalitis. See Sleeping sickness. 
Endicott, William, 205. 

Children removed from work-houses, 

Coal Commission — hearings and report, 

Coal Commission — Robert Smillie, 519. 

Coal settlement, 248. 

Cooperative Wholesale Soc, 440. 

Ind. Conf. report (in full), 215-230. 

Insurance, doles, donations, 249. 

Labor gains, 305. 

Land settlement, 314. 

Middle Classes Union, 85. 

Ministry of Health, 247. 

National kitchens, 456. 

Nursery schools, 157. 

Report of Employers' Ind. Com., 251. 

Retail trade wage-earners, 282. 

Social service, 457. 

Unemployment, 249. 

Wage payment, new method, 729. 

War lessons in factory welfare work. 

War weariness, 598. 

Works councils, 98. 

Y. M. C. A. under fire, 603. 
English language. 

Mine fatalities and, 440. 

Teaching adult women, 156. 
Equity (periodical), 761. 
Esher, Viscount, 520. 
Espionage act, 326. 

Eubank, E. E. Tasks for returning citi- 
zens, 756. 

Child relief, 673. 

Condition of, 528, 783. 

General relief wk. notes, 374. 

Health conditions in southern, 36. 

Need for American relief, 410. 

Refugees (photo story), 523, 661. 
Exhibit of war and peace activities, 375, 



Elections in, 707. 

Southern cotton mills, 736. 

War lessons in welfare wk., 627. 
Fairhope, Ala., 440-441. 
Fall, Senator, 885. 

Misspelled names, 283. 

Nat'l Conf. program, report, 452. 

Preventive treatment of desertion, 303. 
Family Social Work. 468, 472. 
Farm colony for women, 129. 
Farm labor, 548. 

Passing of the county farm, 624. 

Wages, 128-129. 
Farrington, Frank, 54. 
Fatherless Children of France, 205. 
Fatigue, 436. 
Fauset, Jessie. Reply to E. B. Reuter, 

Federal Council of the Churches of Christ. 

Resolutions on soc service, 548. 

Soc. reconstruction program, 685-689. 

Arousing interest, 158. 

Florida, 705. 

Louisiana, 780. 

Massachusetts, 737. 

Meeting of Amer. Assoc, for the Study, 
etc., 501. 

Ohio institutions, 250. 
Feiser, J. L„ 437. 
Feiss. P. L., 262. 

Fellow, H. C. The Refugee (verse), 202. 
Fernandis, Sarah C. Riots and Recon- 
struction, 736. 
Field, W. S„ 439. 

Jobs for soldiers — the Boston plan, 237. 
Filene's (William) Sons Co., 707. 
Filing names, 283. 

Nat'l Budget Committee, 278. 

Social agencies, 342. 
Financial federation, 728. 
Finley, J. H. Armenia (verse), 823. 
Fisher, H. A. L., 575. 
Fisher, Isaac, 754. 
Fisher, Katharine. In the War Risk 

Bureau (verse), 758. 
Fishing industry, 647. 
Fisk Rubber Co., 121. 
Fitch, G. A., 629. 
Fitch, John A. 

A. F. L. convention, 515. 

Lawrence strike, 42. 

"Manufacturing for their gov't," 846. 

Strike in the steel ind., 891. 

War Labor Board, 192. 
Flint, Esther M., 315. 
Florida, feeblemindedness, 705. 
Folks, Homer, 410. 

Work in the Near East, 203. 

See also Hine, L. W., and Homer Folks. 
"Fomenters of discord," 485. 
Fonde, Elizabeth. Alabama child wel- 
fare, 325. 
Food, 619. 

British national kitchens, 456. 

Conditions in Germany, 793. 

Economy, 646. 

Facts, 702. 

Germany's need, 570. 

Municipal cold storage, 628. 

Polish widow's, Baltimore, 599. 
Food blockade, Berne, 505. 
Ford, G. B. 

Chain of new cities, 802. 

Rural community bldg. (France), 670. 
Ford, Henry, on cigarettes, 313. 

Courses for workers among, 852. 

Gov't work with, 200. 

Uniting native and foreign-born (Na- 
tional Conference), 453. 
Foreign language press, 200. 
Foreign policy, common action on, 597. 
Foreman, 280. 
Fort Leavenworth, 276. 

Disciplinary Battalion, 531, 536. 

Interplay of military and penal dis- 
cipline, 531. 

New head of military prison, 781. 

Solitary life, description, 350. 
Fosdick, R. B„ 441, 546. 




Fountain, memorial, 367. 
Fourth of July, 259. 

Observance, 714. 
Fowle, L. R„ 371. 

Fox, Anna L. Jewish soc. service, 467. 
Fox, J. P., 472, 473. 

Increased trolley fares, 323. 

Agr. medal and cross of merit, 203. 

Amer. agr. exhibits, 52. 

Amer. soc. efforts, 48. 

Amer. soc. wk. in two cities, 374. 

Cooperation for rural France, 347. 

Dental relief, 545. 

Employment for women, 771. 

Finding wk. for the poilu, 537. 

Health posters, 673. 

Indemnities; demobilization; soc. re- 
form, 63. 

Labor disputes and employers' fed., 

Labor 5 mo. after the armistice, 241. 

Leagues for reform, 315. 

Loss of man power, 86. 

Munition women, 137. 

Poster promising Amer. aid, 51. 

" Reconstitution " of ind., 62. 

Reconstruction, 549. 

Reconstruction misc., 380, 681. 

Rural community bldg., 670. 

Tuberculosis, 177. 
Franchise. See Woman suffrage. 
Franklin, Fabian, 326. 
Free Acres, N. J., 124. 
Free speech, Toledo, 116. 
Free trade and air control, 130. 
French orphans, 205. 
Fresno, Cal., 677. 

Friends' War Victims' Relief Com., 50. 
Fry, A. Ruth, 50. 
Funerals, contagion from, 751. 
Furuseth, Andrew, 515. 


Galsworthy, John, 97. 
Gannett, L. S. Cooperative Interna- 
tionale, 31. 

French labor 5 mo. after armistice, 241. 

International labor legis., 107. 

"Permanent agency" for labor legis., 

Toward international cooperatives, 

Tschaikovsky and soc. program, 140. 
Garden cities in France, 804. 
Garden City Assoc, 111. 
Gardens, vacant lot, 753. 
Garment workers. See Clothing ind.; 

Clothing workers. 
Garvin, A. H., 908. 
Gary, E. H., 891. 

Gary, foreigner's opportunity in, 480. 
Gary Survey report, 582. 
Gearn, Mrs., 908. 
Gedalecia, Joseph. Americanizing the 

"shut-ins," 317. 
Gen. Educ. Board, free reports, 582. 
General Electric Co., 253. 

Aid to sufferers from the United States, 

Food conditions, 793. 

Food need, 570. 

Minimum wage, 440. 

Reconstruction, 209, 550. 

Relief, 51. 

Women in industry, 441. 
Gibling, Pauline, 909. 
Gibson, Mrs. F. A., 485. 
Gilbreth, F. B. Cripple Day, 259. 
Gilchrist, H. L., 673. 
Gipsies, Americanization, 826. 
Girls' clubs, course in org. and leading, 

Gladden, Washington, memorials, 97. 
Gleason, Arthur. 

British Coal Commission — hearings and 
report, 335. 

Ind. hist, in the making, 144. 

Stirrup of youth (British Labor Party 
at Southport), 654. 

Way they do it in Eng., 305. 

Whitley councils, 27, 75, 109. 
Glueck, Bernard, on morale-making in 

prison, 240. 
Godfrey, Hollis, 280. 
Goldmark, Josephine, 436. 
Gompers, Samuel, 515. 

Portrait, 486. 
Good, J. A., 401. 
Goodwin, Agnes J., 319. 
Gosling, Mr., 657, 669. 
Gospel applied, 415. 
Governors' conference, 826. 
Graham-Mulhall, Sara. Care for drug 

addicts, 324. 
Graham Taylor Hall, 365. 
Grand Rapids, social construction, 432. 
Great Britain. 

Labor unrest, 62. 

Reconstruction ministry, 59. 

Reconstruction miscellany, 680. 

See also England. 
Greater Community, 706. 

American college wanted, 52. 

Child labor, 814. 
Greek refugees, 524, 525, 526, 661, 662. 
Greeks of Massachusetts, 780. 

Gregory, T. W. Refusal of admittance to 

gov't prisons, 807. 
Groom, J. F., 715. 
Group houses, 91. 
Gruenberg, F. P. Philadelphia's charter 

victory, 700. 
Guild, A. A.. 575. 
Gulick, L. H., 870. 
Gunn, Selsgar M., 909. 


Halbert, L. A. Soc. reconstruction (re- 
port of committee) , 402. 
Halifax, 583, 860. 
Hall, Bolton. 

Agr. as a career, 290. 

Free Acres, 124. 
Hall, G. C, 782. 
Hall, W. S., 738. 
Halliday, Dean. The adventure of tub 

and scrub, 429. 
Hamilton, Alice. See Addams, Jane, and 

Alice Hamilton. 
Hampton Institute, 207, 208. 
Hanson, J. M., 316. 
Hardwick, Rose S., 754. 
Hare system, 755. 
Harmsworth, Cecil, 804. 
Harris, L. T., 702. 
Harris, Montagu, 804. 
Harrison, T. S., 441. 

Hart, Howell. Finding misspelled fami- 
lies, 283. 
Hart, Schaffner & Marx, 161, 843, 844. 
Hartford, Jewish Charities, 729. 
Hartman, E. T. Boston housing law, 289. 
Harvester works council, 74, 152. 
Harvey, Mrs. M. T., 778. 
Hawaii, Korean Girls' League, 582. 
Hayes, F. J., 54. 
Haynes, G. E. Race riots in relation to 

democ, 697. 

Child Health Org., 24. 

Cost of living and, 702. 

Employer's responsibility, 627. 

England, Ministry of Health, 247. 

French art posters, 673. 

Keynote of convention of Amer. Med. 
Assoc, 470. 

Mines, care of workers, 286. 

Modern Health Crusade (of children), 

Nat'l Conf. program, report, 452. 

Propaganda by game, 89. 

Reconstruction program, 798. 

Southern European conditions, 36. 

Texas State Dept., 728. 

Women's dress and, 898. 

Workers in Pennsylvania, 199. 

•See also Public health. 
Health center, 904. 
Health index, 596. 
Health insurance, 798. 
Helms, E. J., 737. 
Henderson, Arthur, 214, 215, 228, 654, 

655, 666, 782. 
Henry Street, 776. 
Hercules Powder Co., 152. 
"Hiking" rules, 285. 
Hindus in Seattle, 674. 
Hine, L. W., and Homer Folks. 

Child's burden in the Balkans (photo 
story), 789, 813-817. 

Pull of the home tie, 523. 

"They departed into their own coun- 
try," 661. 
History, citizenship aided by local re- 
cords, 319. 
Hodges, Frank, 654, 667. 
Hodges, George, obituary, 603. 
"Hoggism in business," 612, 614. 
Holidays, rules for, 575. 
Hollander, Walter, 118. 
Hollingsworth, H. S. Decent homes, 713. 
Holmes, J. H.. 442, 628. 
Holt, A. E., 628. 

Children's, in Bethlehem, Pa., 115. 

Decent homes (Des Moines), 713. 

Ideal (ill), 678. 
Home economics, field work course, 115. 
Home missions, 676. 
Home Service. 

Civilian charities and, 139. 

Entry into social reform, 847. 

Extension, national, 81. 

To date, 699. 

Training for, 250. 
Home tie (photo story), 523. 
Hooker, G. E., 251. 
Hoover, H. C, 48, 374, 570. 

On Germany's suffering, 529. 
Hospital Soc. Service Assoc, 416. 
Hosp. Soc Service Quarterly, 262, 416. 

American in London, 703. 

Deficits, 861. 

Edith Cavell memorial, 374. 

English employes, 637. 

Maternity work in Boston City Hosp., 

New York state, wages, 54. 

Small communities, 706. 
Hours of work. 

British coal miners, 738. 

Cartoons illustrating, 900, 901. 

Five day week for brain workers, 637. 

Illinois fight, 411. 

Italy, 412. 

Massachusetts, 250. 

Mines, 54. 
Hourwich, I. A. Is Russia rural? 96. 

Budget clubs, 573. 

Humanizing, 55. 

Negro women helpers, 571. 

Akron, 752. 

Ancestral abode in trees, 433. 

Boston law, 289. 

Building of houses, 678. 

Canada, 66. 

Chicago association, 674. 

Cincinnati course on, 753. 

City aid for home owners, 287. 

City reconstruction problem, 58. 

Des Moines, 713. 

Detroit, aid for home builders, 723. 

Financing large scale building, 366. 

French official program, 670, 671. 

Group houses, 91. 

In a reconstruction program, 341. 

Iowa bill, 96. 

New schemes, 735. 

New York city, 735. 

Ontario committee, 389. 

Owning an ap't as tenant, 488. 

Portland, Ore., 636, 734. 

Powder plant, 152. 

Proposals, 407. 

Saving the federal bureau, 438. 

Springfield, Mo., 755. 

Sure cure for high rents, 629. 

Tenants' strikes, 365. 

Toledo, 575. 

Y. W. C. A., 54. 
Housman, Lawrence. Pax vobiscum, 332. 
Howard, E. D., 843. 

Industrial government, 844. 
Howarth, W. J., 157. 
Howe, F. C, 678. 

Hudson Guild, cartoon by Briggs, 255. 
Hungary, Work or Fight, 440. 
Hunt, R. D., 59. 
Hurlbutt, Mary E. Socializing Bohemia, 

Huysmans, Camille, 660. 



Adult cripples, 714. 

Farm colony for women, 129. 

Hours fight, 411. 

Labor Party, 247. 

Legislation, 592. 

Nursing situation, 2V5. 

Prohibition, 634. 

Public Welfare report, 851. 

Race relations commission, 826. 

Contribution to Amer. art, 361, 362- 

N. Y. bill for education, 412. 

Utilizing, 312. 

Bills, 591. 

California, 200. 

Canadian, 458. 

Discussion of the law, 196. 

Dependency, 77, 87. 

Reconstruction, 98. 
Indexing names, 283. 
India, appeal for moral support, 117. 

Legislation, 150. 

Nicholson and, 565. 

Reconstruction, 580. 

New type of city department, 605. 

War Chest Board, 605, 606. 
Indians, California, condition, 280. 
Industrial and economic problems, Nat'l 

Conf. program, 453. 
Industrial conf., report of Provisional 

Joint Committee of British, 215-230. 
Industrial Conference of Canada, 894. 
Ind. council of Harvester Co., 74, 152. 
Industrial democracy. 

First actual step, 843. 

In Canada, 895. 

On strike, 892. 
Industrial education in N. Y. C, 872. 
Industrial hygiene. 

Joint clinics, 414. 

Medical examination of workers, 440. 
Industrial medicine in mines, 286. 
Industrial notebook, 608. 
Ind. org. in printing trades, 487. 
Industrial physiology, 436. 
Industrial Relations (Bloomfield's labor 

digest), 825. 
I. W. W., 738, 806. 

Deportations, 196. 

Kansas, 851. 

Central power supply, 315. 

Democratization — President's message, 

England, hist, in the making, 144. 

Foremen, training, 280. 

Harmonv in Eng., report of Employers' 
Com..' 251. 

Negroes, 900. 

Principles of ind. relations of Chamber 
of Commerce, 151. 

Proposals, 406. 

Readjustment symposium, 57. 

Way they do it in Eng., 305. 

Women as managers, etc., 858. 
Infant mortality. 

New York state, 149. 

Reasons for, 323. 
Infant welfare, 157. 

See also Babies ; Child welfare. 

By-products, 463. 

Prophecy and preparedness, 899. 

South Africa, 464. 
Inman, S. G. 

Reply to letter of petroleum producers 
as to Mexico, 907. 

Young Mexicans, 767. 
Inn, converted. 111. 

Proposals, 403. 

War risk, important decision, 279. 

See also Health insurance. 
Interchurch World Movement, 282, 676. 
Intercollegiate Community Service Asso- 
ciation, 469. 
Intercollegiate Socialist Soc, summer 

conf., 580. 
Interior, Dept. of the, exhibit of war and 

peace activities, 375, 377. 
International Cooperative Alliance, 709. 
International Harvester Co., 74. 
International Labor Conf. 

Questionnaire in regard to agenda of, 

Shotwell, J. T., on origin of, 589. 
International Reform Bureau, 417. 
International Trade Union Fed., 637. 
Internationalism, review of books on, 257. 
Intervention. See Mexico. 

Housing bill, 90. 

Rural Life Conference, 710. 
Iowa University, 417. 
Ireland, invitation to agr. conf., 117. 
Irvine, E. Marie. Babies in New South 

Wales, 903. 
Italians in Chicago, 115. 

Child welfare, 544, 820. 

Hours of work, 412. 

Nursing, 857. 

Nursing needs, 672. 

Profit-sharing decree, 162. 

Reconstruction miscellany, 679. 

Red Cross work, 369. 

Jackson, Anna P. Letter on J. P. Mur- 
phy, 885. 
Jacobi, Abraham, obituary with portrait, 

Jacobs, P. P. Nat'l Tuberculosis Assoc, 

Jacobson, E. B., 252. 
Jacobson, O. B., 303. 

Kansas. 806. 

Shaw, G. B„ on, 540. 
.lames, Linda, 286. 

Settlement work, 278. 

Treatment of Korea, 582. 
Jenkins. F. W. Books and men (A. L. A. 

meeting), 581. 
Jersey City, 411. 
Jewish Charities. 

Conference, twentieth meeting, 467. 

Hartford, Conn., 729. 
Jewish Educational Alliance, art work, 

361, 362-363. 
Jewish Social Research, Bur. of, 761. 

Boston district centers, 156. 

Poland, 569, 570. 

Political strike of sympathy, 365. 

Refugees in Europe, 662. 
J. I. C. See Whitley councils. 
Johnson, Alexander. Feeblemindedness, 

Assoc, meeting. 501. 
Johnson, F. R., 415. 

Michigan stays dry, 24.">. 

Reducing the hazards of peace, 566. 
Johnson, Marietta L., 440—441. 
Johnstown, Pa., 89. 
Jonas, Lucien, 168. 
Jones, E. K. Reconstruction program for 

the Negro, 679. 
Jones, H. H„ 628. 908. 
Jonesville, 489. 
Jordan, D. S. Letter (with enclosure 

from Berne) on food blockade, 505. 
Jouhaux, M., 659, 667. 
Judges, G. B. Shaw on. 510 
Juvenile courts. See Children's courts. 

Kalamazoo, Mich., 120. 

Children's bills. 201. 

Director of social and physical educ in 
reformatory. 7 1 5 

Government jails, S06. 

Vagrancy law ami I. W. W., 850. 
Kappelman, J. A., 90S. 
Kefley, Florenoe, .i03. 712. 

Challenge to social workers, 896. 

Consumer and the near future, 5. 

Consumers' side, the, 504. 



Industrial and economic problems 
(Nat'lConf.), 453. 

Minimum wage protest to T. C. Sweet, 

On European children, 528. 

Reply to Mr. Weld, 713. 
Kellogg, P. U. 

Stevenson, Archibald, and the Soviet 
bureau's mailing list, 485. 

"To the unfinished work," 513. 
Kellogg, V. L., 374. 
Kelso, R. W. 

Functional public service, 745. 

Public agencies and institutions (Nat'l 
Conf.), 454. 
Kempton, Helen P. Family Social Work, 

Kennard, Beulah, 909. 

Child welfare, 96. 

Social training, 899. 
Keppel, F. P., 437. 
Kindergartens, 157. 
King, Anna. Home Service and civilian 

charities, 139. 
King, Clarence, 908. 
King, Daisy, 329. 

Kingsbury, Susan M. Training for ser- 
vice, 858. 
Kingsley, S. C. 

Militant Negro conf., 579. 

War chests in peace times, 342. 
Kipling, Rudyard (quoted), 816. 
Kirchwey, G. W., 57. 
Kirkwood, David, 668. 
Kitchen police (cartoon), 376. 
Kitchens, national, 456. 
Koehler, J. P., 904. 
Kohn, R. D. Housing in a reconstruction 

program, 341. 
Korea, 205. 

Atrocities, 752. 

Plea from Hawaii, 582. 
Krystofovitch, Theodore, 52. 


Australian system of dealing with dis- 
putes, 399. 

British, and social welfare, 412. 

British, education, 775. 

Demand for, and wages, 738. 

French conditions 5 mo. after armistice, 

In democratic society, 73. 

In quest of beauty, 199. 

International legislation, 107. 

Jurisdictional disputes, 570. 

Mexico, 46. 

Middle West vote, 84. 

News of the week, 849. 

"Permanent agency" for labor legis., 

Progress in legislation, 882. 

Reconstruction program, 853. 

Seattle, 324. 

Struggle for spiritual freedom, 189. 

Summary of resolutions of A. F. of L., 

Suspicions of medical examinations, 

Unrest in Great Britain, 62. 

See also British Labor Party; Indus- 
trial conference; Industry; Inter- 
national Labor Conf. 
Labor conference of October 6, 849. 
Labor Day, Wilson's message, 827. 
Labor digest, 825. 
Labor party. 

Illinois, 247. 

National, 636. 

Pennsylvania demand, 326. 

Program of nat'l org., 782. 
Labrador, 130. 
Lake, Emma, 909. 

California, report on large holdings, 

California commission, 200. 

Canada, 66. 

England, Settlement bill, 314. 
Land settlement, 380, 549. 

Wisconsin, 432. 
Lane, F. K., 315. 

Tasks of peace, 377. 
Lane, W. D. 

Fort Leavenworth: The interplay of 
military and penal discipline, 531. 

Military prisons and the C. O., 276. 

Reply to letter on his article, 581. 

Solitary confinement at Fort Leaven- 
worth, 350. 

Uncle Sam: jailer, 806. 
Lasker, Bruno. 

"Bolshevik cities," 423. 

Bread and babies, 619. 

Reconstruction or relapse? 646. 
Lathrop, Julia C. 

Children's Year and the children's era, 

Portrait, 364. 
Law and Labor (periodical), 128. 
Lawrence, Mass. 

Letters commenting on the Survey 
article, 235. 

Remaking, 780. 

Strike, 82. 

Strike conditions, 250. 

Strike for wages or bolshevism? 42. 

Strikers win, 368. 

League for Industrial Rights, 128. 
League of Free Nations Assoc, Formula 

as its basis for work, 597. 
League of Nations. 

Agriculture in (Butterfield) , 378. 

Attitude of social workers, 513. 

Books on, 257. 

British Labor Party attitude, 541. 

"Life's Darkest Moment" (cartoon), 

Red Cross and, 333. 

Verses (Siegrist), 23. 
League of Women Voters, creation, 84. 
Lee, F. S., 436. 
Lee, Joseph, 439. 

Reply to "Letter from the provinces," 

Visiting teacher, 325. 
Lee, P. R. Social service of Frederic 

Almy, 309. 
Leeds & Northrup Co., 755. 

Connecticut, 436. 

Illinois, 592. 

Indiana, 150. 

Labor, international, 107. 

Minnesota, 438. 

Missouri, 463. 

New York, 150, 161. 

Pennsylvania, 854. 

Progress in labor laws, 882. 

Women in New York state, 129. 
Leigh, R. D. Preparing for preparedness, 

Leitch, John, 892, 895. 
Lenz, F. B., 204. 
Leprosy, 823. 
Letchworth, Eng., 111. 
Letter from provinces outside N. Y. C, 


Romans reply to, 873. 
Levy, Julius. Midwifery in New Jersey, 

Liberia, 39. 
Lille, 374. 
Lillie, Frances Crane. Crane Company 

strike, 751. 
Lindsay, S. M. Social reconstruction, 

Lindsey, Ben B., his loss of appeal, 539. 
Lindsley, H. D„ 360. 
Lisman, F. J. 

Increased trolley fares, 160. 

Trolley fares, 473. 
Listening, creative, 007. 
Litchfield, E. D., 884. 
"Little white slaver," 313. 
Loans, 627. 

Homes, proposals, 407. 
Local gov't, coming revolution in, 479. 
Lockout and strike combined, 892. 
Locomotive Firemen and Engineers, 636. 

Charity Org. Soc. and change of name, 

Hospital for Americans, 703. 
Loos, I. A., 96-97. 
Loring bill, 317. 
Los Angeles. 

Mountain camp, 648. 

Unionism, 633. 
Louderback, Jessie L., 439. 

Function of the Visiting Teacher, 252. 
Louisiana, feeblemindedness, 780. 
Louisville, begging problem, and ex-beg- 
gars, 87, 88. 
Lovejoy, O. R., 437, 441. 

Portrait, 540. 

Southern self-help, 785. 
Lovett, W. P. Michigan stays dry. 415. 
Lowden, F. O., 826. 

On prohibition enforcement, 634. 
Luening, F. W., 432. 
Liisk Committee, 602. 

Conference call, 129-130. 

Conf. in New York on May 5-6, report, 
Lynde, E. D. B., 432. 
Lynn, Mass., shop committee, 253. 


MacArthur, Caro B. Twenty-four-hour 
day, 259. 

MacArthur, Mary, 189, 216. 

McAuliffe, W. J., 612. 

McAvoy, Justice, 705. 

MacCaughey, Vaughan, 97. 

McCormick, Elsie. 

Finding work for the poilu, 537. 
Madame la Chomeuse, 771. 

McDermott, W. F. East St. Louis, 274. 

McDonald, Duncan, 247. 

McDonald, J. C. Mexico, 885. 

MacDonald, Ramsey, 659. 

McDowell, Mary E. Munition women of 
France, 137. 

Macfie, R. C, 433. 

McGurk, J., 655. 

Machlin, Leila, 302. 

Mackenzie, Frederick. Challenge to au- 
tocracy, 853. 

McLean, F. H. Reply to "Letter from 
the provinces," 873. 

Maclean, Neil, 667. 

McMurtrie, D. C. For adult cripples. 714. 

McPherson, Hume. Aid for home build- 
ers, 723. 

McRae, J. M., 781. 

Maine. Board of Charities legislative 

record of 6 years, 884. 
Malaria, Cannes Red Cross, 500. 

Lectures, 262. 

Public market fountain in N. Y., 367. 
Markets, municipal, 628. 
Marones, L. N., 594. 
Marriage, 303. 
Marriage laws, 412. 

Backward in educ? 425. 

Consolidation of public service dep't, 

Greeks, 780. 

Hours of work for women and minors, 

Legislative labor hearing, 73. 

Loring bill for shop committees, 317. 

New school for feebleminded, 737. 

Probation officers, 861. 

Register of the blind, 708. 

Boston City Hospital work, 755. 

Case-work with mothers, 902. 

Homes, 175. 

Place of the maternity home, 772. 

Standards for public protection adopted 
at child welfare conference, 271. 
Mathes, Mrs. G. M., 776. 
Matsuda, D. T., 278. 
Matthews, W. H. The saloon of the next 

generation, 563. 
Mauclere, M., 671. 
Mauki, 637. 

Maxwell, Mrs. Lulu, 574. 
Medals, peace, 33-35. 
Medical bills, Congressional, 761. 
Medical examinations, workingmen's sus- 
picions, 543. 
Memorials, community houses as, 851. 
Memphis, 147. 
Mental development and visual defects, 

Mental healing, 703. 
Mental hygiene, Nat'l Conf. program, 

Menu cards, 599. 
Methodist Church. 

Goodwill industries, 737. 

Reconstruction money, 51. 

Social reconstruction, 549. 

Churches on intervention, 852. 

Labor attitude, 594. 

Labor problem, 46. 

Petroleum producers, 907. 

Senate investigation, 885. 

Young Mexicans, 767. 
Meyer, Annie N. Prostitutes and politics, 


Johnson's article, 415. 

Prohibition vote, 245. 

Reconstruction committee, 98-99. 
Middle Classes Union, 85. 
Middle West, 359. 

New Jersey, 260. 

Supervision in New Jersey, 148. 
Military prisons. 

Fort Leavenworth, new head, 781. 

Letter on W. D. Lane's article on soli- 
tary confinement, 581. 

Solitary life at Fort Leavenworth, de- 
scription, 350. 
Military training, 859. 
Milk, New York state investigation, 364. 
Miller, J. L., 89. 

Children's weight, 904. 

Housing report, 341. 

Summer social service institute, 738. 
"Milwaukee Idea," 432. 

British Coal Commission, 335. 

British seven-hour day, 738. 

Fatalities and the English language, 

Hours of work, 54. 

Industrial medical work in, 286. 
Minimum wage. 

Germany, 440. 

Protest by Mrs. Kelley, 83. 

State statistics, 635. 

Wisconsin, 638. 

Course for "scouts," 416. 

Medical examination of workers, 440. 

Policeman and boys, 715. 

Speakers available for meetings, 96. 

Child welfare, 732. 

County public health association, 89. 

Protection of cripples, 438. 
Minnesota, University of, 416. 

Hospital dentistry, 708. 
Mission, legislation (children; education, 

etc.), 463. 
Misspelled families, 283. 
Mitchell, Broadus, 785. 

End of child labor, 747. 
Mitchell, John, obituary, 881. 
Mobs. See Violence. 
Modern Health Crusade, 429. 
Mogatovo Hospital, 290. 
Money-raising, truth-telling in, 415. 
Montevideo, 293, 417. 

Child conference, 580. 
"Moral turpitude," 674. 

Morale-making, 240. 

Morgan, Anne, 203. 

Morgan, E. L., 699. 

Morgan Memorial, 737. 

Mormons in Mexico, 442. 

Morones, L. N., 46. 

Morquio, Luis, 417. 

Morrison, Emily S., 738. 

Morse, H. N., 676. 


Hours of work, 259. 
National care, 596. 
New South Wales, 903. 
Unmarried, 171. 
See also Maternity. 

Motion pictures, social work by, 607. 

Mott, J. R., 629. 

Moving day (social workers' appoint- 
ments), 908. 

Mulatto. See Negroes. 

Mulon, Clothilde. Social work as a sci- 
ence, 611. 

Municipal government, 479. 

Munro, Sir Thomas, 216. 

Murphy, J. P., 622, 703. 

Education in the meaning of probation, 

Letter on, 885. 
Mothers and — mothers, 171. 

Murray, John. Labor problem in Mexico, 

Mustering out and in, 380. 

Myers, Hiram, 304. 


Codification, 283. 

Individual change, 442. 
Narcotics, 797. 

Committee on, members, 827. 

See also Drug addicts. 
National agencies, 743. 
Nat'l Assoc, for the Advancement of 
Colored People, 292. 

Conf., 579. 
National Budget Committee, 278. 
National Civic Federation, 612. 
Nat'l Conf. of Jewish Charities, 467. 
Nat'l Conf. of Social Work, Brief report of 

Atlantic City meeting, 437. 

Cablegram to President, 451. 

General acc't of Atlantic City meeting, 

Invitation of New York workers, 262. 

Letter of criticism of Survey article, 

Organization for 1920, 449. 

Reports on the divisions, 452. 
Nat'l Council of Soc. Service (Eng.), 457. 
National Country Life Conf., 292. 
Nat'l Ed. Assoc, annual meeting, 636. 
Nat'l Fed. of Settlements, conf., 465. 
Nat'l Ind. Conf. Board, 313, 849. 
Nat'l Inf. (Investigation) Bur., 569. 
National Kitchens Order, 456. 
Nat'l labor party, 782. 

See also Labor party. 
National Municipal League, 543. 
National Muni' Review, 761. 
National Probation Assoc, 466. 
Nat'l Social Workers Exchange, 458. 
Nat'l Tuberculosis Assoc, 429, 500. 

Resolutions, 715. 
Nat'l War Garden Commission, 506. 
Nat'l Women's Trade Union League, con- 
vention at Philadelphia, 465. 
Natural resources, proposals, 406. 
Negroes, 485. 

California, 761. 

Champion of Negro rights assaulted, 

Chicago riots, 695. 

Detroit social settlement, 637. 

Domestic helpers, 571. 

Health, Cincinnati, 596. 

In industry, 900. 

Letters on "The Mulatto in the U. S.," 
by author and reviewer, 125. 

Nat'l Assoc for the Advancement of 
Colored people, 292, 579. 

Negro visitor, 574. 

North Carolina thrift, 98. 

Pan-African congress, 52. 

Reconstruction program, 679. 

Riots, 675. 

Riots and democracy, 697. 

Self-gov't, 254. 

Soldiers, 505, 858. 

Soldiers, returned, 207. 

Truths about, 754. 

See also Africa; Race relations; Race 
Neighborhood cleanliness, 776. 
Neighborhood house, cartoon, 255. 
Neighborhood Workers, 318. 
Neighborhoods. See Settlements. 
Neighbors, Peking, social needs, 671. 
New Jersey. 

Employment for prisoners, 161. 

Midwifery, 260. 

Midwives, 148. 
New London, Conn., plumbing require- 
ments, 287. 
New Mexico, public health measure, 417. 
New Orleans, 437. 

New School for Social Research, 824. 
New South Wales, 399. 

Mothers and babies, 903. 
New York (city). 

Building enterprises, 735. 




City College courses for workers among 
foreign-born, 852. 

Cloak-makers' strike, 312. 

Industrial Education, 872. 

Letter from the provinces outside of, 
743, 873. 

Ministers' plea against violence, 542. 

Misgovernment, 424. 

Neighborhood Workers, 318. 

Probation, 898. 

Rents, 484. 

Social Welfare Committee, 128. 

Strikes of tenants, 365. 
New York (state). 

County civil service, 279. 

Erie county, probation, 286. 

General welfare bills, 161. 

Housing, 341. 

Immigrant education, 412. 

Infant mortality, 149. 

Legislation, 150. 

Strike conf. and commission, 899. 

Women in industry, report, 112. 

Women's protective bills, 129. 
N. Y. Inst, for the Educ. of the Blind, 

583, 860. 
N. Y. School of Philanthropy, 160. 
N. Y. School of Social Work, 160. 
N. Y. State Fed. of Labor, 853, 854. 
New Zealand, 399. 

Newark, N. J., vacant lot gardening, 753. 
Niagara Falls (city), 423. 
Nicaragua, agricultural judges, 860. 
Nicholson, Timothy, his services, 565. 
Night work. 

Baking industry, 148. 

Women who want, 367. 
Nolen, John, 91. 
Nonpartisan League, program accepted in 

North Dakota, 542. 
North Carolina. 

Almshouse in Gates County, 824. 

Child labor, 747. 

Child labor and Judge Boyd, 312. 

Negroes, thrifty, 98. 

Reconstruction, 59. 

School and home, 118. 
North Dakota, program of the Nonparti- 
san League accepted, 542. 
Northampton, Mass., 483. 
Northcliffe, Lord, 637. 
Norton, W. J. Org. of social forces (Nat'l 

Conf.), 453. 
Nursery schools, 157. 

Cannes Red Cross, 493. 

Illinois situation, 275. 

Italy, 672; letter, 857. 

Teaching home nursing, 733. 

See also Public health nurses. 



Delano, Jane A., 148. 

Dutton, S. T., 56. 

Hodges, George, 603. 

Jacobi, Abraham, 595. 

Mitchell, John, 881. 

Shaw, Anna Howard, 568. 

Wilson, A. M., 883. 
Occupational therapy, 754. 
Official documents, British, 440. 

Aliens, 279. 

American Legion, 440. 

Feeblemindedness, 250. 

Health plan, 483. 

Social effort, 732. 

State coal, 438. 

Children, 85. 

Tuberculosis bill, 201. 
Omori, Hyozo, 278. 
Ontario, housing, 389. 
Ontario Health Officers' Assoc, 412. 
Oppen, Lucy. Child Health Org., 24. 

Conf. of Social Work, 709. 

Social Workers' Club, 707, 709. 

Actors, 568. 

Community, 377, 679. 

Complete organizer reports, 489. 

National, 376. 
Org. of social forces, Nat'l Conf. program, 

Osada, Stasia, 908. 

Osborne, T. M., navy enlistment, 715. 
Ospina, Lilian H. For the able-bodied, 

Otisville Sanatorium, 317. 
Ovington, May W. Anti-lynching conf., 

Oyster Bay, 884. 

Packers' side, 503. 
Packing industry, 647. 

Again, the packer, 712. 
Pageant of league of nations, 86. 
Palestine, Detroit Christmas carol, 367. 
Palisades Interstate Park, 262. 
Pan-Amer. Child Welfare Congress, 293, 

Pan-Amer. Fed. of Labor, 594. 
Pan-American peace, 594. 
Parenthood, standard, 622. 

Free trade and air control, 130. 

Garden suburbs, 804. 

Pan-African congress, 52. 

Sixteenth century plan, 802. 

Vital statistics, 861. 

See also France; Peace Conf. 
Park, Maud W., 320. 
Parker, A. B., 612. 
Parker, Maud N., 205. 
Paterson, N. J. 

Peace in silk ind., 751. 

Textile workers, 602, 638. 
Pawnshops, 627. 
Pay envelopes, 729. 
Payne, A. F. Nat'l Educ. Assoc, social 

service standard, 636. 

Historic medals commemorating trea- 
ties, 33-35. 

Pax vobiscum (verse), 332. 

Tasks, 377. 

Verses (Trask), 18. 

Women's CongTess at Zurich, 42 
Peace Conference. 

Social aspects XI, 31. 

Social aspects XII, 107. 

Social aspects XIII, 140. 

Social aspects XIV, 241. 

Various women's groups, 116. 
Peace of Versailles, medal, 509, 539. 
Peace Treaty, proposed labor clauses, 108. 
Peking, neighbors in, 671. 

Labor party demand, 326. 

Legislation, 854. 

Sickness among workers, 199. 
Pensions, proposals, 403. 
Persia, news from, 632. 
Persons, W. F., 437. 
Petavel, J. W., 117. 
Petrograd, social and economic conditions, 

Petroleum producers in Mexico, 907. 
Pettit, W. W. Petrograd, 651. 
Pfeiffer, C. W., 732. 

Charter Committee's proposals, 19. 

Charter victory, 700. 

Children, work for, 703. 

Conference that failed, 87. 

Fund for improving gov't, 441. 

Reorganizing charities, 91. 
Philippines, women's clubs, 205. 
Phillips, Velma, 573. 

Physicians, women's conference, 710, 898. 
Pitcher, Margaret L., 206. 

Council of Churches, 207. 

Morals, 114. 

Nursing service, 90. 
Pittsfield Machine and Tool Co., 284. 
Playground and Recreation Assoc, of 

Amer., 440. 
Playgrounds, bequests of, 677. 
Plumb, Glenn E., 703. 
Plumb plan, 703, 721. 
Plunkett, Sir Horace, 117. 
Poetry. See Verse. 
Pogroms in Poland, 486. 

Jews, Amer. work for, 569. 

Order and progress, 49. 

Pogroms, 486. 

Strike of sympathy for Jews, 365. 

Typhus expedition, 673. 

Boston strike, 881. 

Boys and, 629, 715. 

Organization, 248. 

Unionization, 486. 
Policewomen, Internat'l Assoc, 636. 
Polish consulate, 908. 
Polish Grey Samaritans, 205. 
Political offenders, from other lands, 674. 
Political prisoners, 882. 
Poole, Ernest. Is Russia rural? 96. 
Porter, H. F. J. Shop committees, 610. 
Portland, Ore., 707. 

Conference of Social Work, 709. 

Housing, 734. 

Municipal housing, 636. 

Police organization, 248. 

Teachers' wage, 632. 

British Labor Party, 189, 190-191. 

French, eight-hour day, 243. 

French, health, 673. 
Powder plant housing, 152. 
Prague, children, 529. 
Pray, K. L. M. Glimpses of social spirit, 

Preparedness, preparing for, 859. 
Presence of mind, 430. 
Preventive medicine, Cannes Red Cross, 

Price, G. M. Health, not mere preven- 
tion, 470. 
Printing trade league, 487. 

Employment for, 161. 

Political, 882. 

Conscientious objectors, 53. 

Feel of a jail, 581. 

Government, 806. 

Kansas reformatory, 715. 

Military, and the C. O., 276. 

Morale-making, 240. 

See also Military prisons. 

Association's annual conf., 466. 

Educ. in meaning of, 286. 

Federal; proposal, 404. 

Massachusetts officers, 861. 

New York city, 898. 

Italian state decree, 162. 

Uruguay, 128. 
Profiteering in San Francisco, 128. 

A. F. L. position at Atlantic City, 458. 

Beer means open saloons, 736. 

Bill for enforcement in Congress, 860. 

How regarded by officials, 506. 

Illinois, Gov. Lowden on, 634. 

Michigan, 415. 

Michigan stays dry, 245. 

War-time, goes into effect, 543. 

World, 469. 
Prostitutes and politics, 611. 
Prostitution in Chicago, 464. 
Provident Loan Society, 627. 
Provinces, letter from the, 743. 

Romans reply to, 873. 
Pryse, Spencer, 191. 

Public agencies and inst., Nat'l Conf. pro- 
gram, 454. 
Public health. 

County associations, 89. 

International control, 203. 

New Mexico, 417. 

Ohio plan, 484. 

Proposals, 405. 

St. Paul, report, 315. 

■See also Preventive medicine. 
Public health center, 904. 
Public health nurses. 

Cleveland program, 285 

English cartoon, 86. 

Pittsburgh, 90. 
Public Health Service, joint industrial 

clinics, 414. 
Public schools. See Schools. 
Public service, functional, 745. 
Public welfare, Illinois, report, 851. 
Public Works. 

New department discussed, 571. 

Proposals, 408. 
Pull of the home tie, 523. 
Purdy, Lawson. Scientific terminology, 


"Quaker Reformer," 565. 


Race relations. 

California, 761. 

Commission for Illinois, 826. 

Program to improve, 826, 907. 
Race riots, 675. 

Chicago, 695. 

Chicago, lull after storm, 782. 

Democracy and, 697. 

Reconstruction and, 736. 

Plumb plan, 703, 721. 

Women employes, 637. 
"Rambling rules," 285. 
Rand School of Social Science Charter, 

Raids and controversy with Lusk Com- 
mittee, 602. 
Ransom, J. E. Nursing in Illinois, 275. 
Rappard, William, 612. 
Raymond, Stockton, 255, 738, 909. 

Non-financial council, 727. 

Books on, reviews, 382,- 551, 828. 

Canada, 64. 

Case work, 84. 

Churches and, 207. 

Churches' part, 374. 

Cities, 58. 

Education, 208. 

Europe, general notes, 374. 

Foreign countries, 211, 679. 

France, 62. 

French official program, 670, 671. 

Germany, 209. 

Great Britain, 59. 

Hospital list of books, 211. 

Index of references, 98. 

Indiana, 580. 

Industry, 57. 

Italy. 369. 

Jottings, 673. 

Michigan committee, 98-99. 

Miscellany, 57, 206, 375, 547, 678. 

President's message, 375, 376. 

Serbia, 372, 373. 

Turkey, 371. 

Various programs, 59. 

See also bocial reconstruction. 

Los Angeles municipal camp, 648. 

Private org. and, 440. 

St. Louis, cost, 98. 

Yearning for, 71. 
Red Cross, 633, 743. 

Appointments, 437. 

Cannes conference, 79, 333, 334. 

Cannes meeting, sectional reports on 
health and child welfare, 491. 

Christmas seals, 884 . 

Drive announced, 860. 

France, 48. 

International health control, 203. 

Italy, 369. 

League of Nations covenant and, 333. 

Next drive announced, 326. 

Pacific Division's Bur. of Salvage and 
Shop, 414. 

Serbia work, 372, 664. 

Tuberculosis in France, 177. 

See also Home Service. 
Reemployment, 378. 
Refrigerating plants, municipal, 628. 
Refugees, European, 523, 661. 

Portrait of woman, 641. 
Rehabilitation, cartoons by Rogers, 176. 
Reichslohnamt, 440. 

Europe's need, 410. 

International system, 48. 

Toronto, 861. 

Drama and, 608. 

Revival, 547. 
"Religious stratification," 546. 
Renaudel, Pierre, 659, 667. 
Rennes, 177, 183. 
Renshaw, Julieta L., 293. 

New York city, 484. 

Sure cure for high, 629. 
Reports, annual, 582, 583. 
Reuter, E. B. Color and culture, 125. 
Reveille (periodical), 97. 
Review, The (new periodical), 326. 
Revival, religious, 547. 
Revolution in local gov't, 479. 
Revolutionaries, two types, 580. 
Rheims, 374. 
Rice, Col. Sedgwick, 276, 351, 533. 

Portrait, 535. 

Retirement, 781. 
Richards, C. R., 872. 
Richardson, Helen, 485. 
Richmond, Mary E., 303. 
Richter, Harriet T., 506. 
Rickard, Edgar, 374. 
Rickman, John. Letters on Russia's 

needs, 290. 
Ridley Park, Pa., 91. 
Ridsdale, P. S., 98. 
Rights, civil, proposals for restoration, 

Robinson, J. H., 824. 
Robinson, L. R., 632. 
Roche, Josephine, 200. 
Rochester, N. Y., clothing ind. conf., 843. 
Rock Island arsenal, 846. 
Rockefeller Commission in France, 177. 
Rockefeller Foundation, public health 

work, 203. 
Rogers, Lindsay, 98. 
Rogers' cartoons, 176. 
Rolfe, H. W., 281. 
Romans reply to the "Letter from the 

provinces," 873. 
Roosbroeck, M. van, 659. 
Roosevelt, Lieut.-Col. Theodore, 57. 
Roosevelt Memorial Assoc, 884. 
Roosevelt park and Forum, 884. 
Root, Elihu, 514. 
Rosenthal, B. J., 674. 
Rosenwald, Julius, 910. 
Rothstein, Isadore, 55. 
Roussos, George, 52. 
Rubber city, the, 752. 
Rubinow, I. M. Nat'l dependency index, 

77, 87. 
Rumelia, 526. 

Rural community building, 670. 
Rural life. See Country. 
Russell, H. L., 432. 
Russell, Mrs. 755. 

Agricultural or industrial? (letter by 
Poole and Hourwich), 96. 

Aid to, 160. 

Lecturers, bureau for, 739. 

Needs (letters from J. Rickman), 290. 

Plans of Hoover, 374. 

Proposals for Allied aid, 52. 

Relief. 51. 

Tschaikovsky's program, 140. 
Rutherford, J. F., 326. 


Sachs, Theodore B., memorial, 540. 

Detroit campaign, 566. 

Union demands, 627. 
Sage immigrant educ. bill, 412. 
St. Cloud, Minn., 738. 
St. Louis. 

Church cooperation, 282. 

Clinics for babies, 705. 

Drug addicts, 738. 

Open air schools, 636-637. 

Forest P:\rk. 77(1. 

Health rules. 320. 

Recreation cost, 98. 

Social work stuff. 736. 

Standards for endorsement, 254. 

War veterans, 280, 

See also East St. Louis. 
St. Paul, Minn. 

Children, 732. 

("it \ -planning exhibition, 417. 

Garden suburb, 677. 

Gipsies, Americanization, 898. 

Health oonditiona, 315. 
Salonika, 813, M3. 816. 

Homer Folks on, 203. 

Refugees in, 002-663, 664. 




Saloon, 97. 

Beer and, 736. 

Of the next generation, 563. 

Substitute, 252. 

Temp. Bar substitute, 415. 
Salt Lake City, 826. 

Salvaging. Red Cross, Pacific Division, 4 14 
Sampson, F. E., 707. 
San Bernardino, 648. 

San Francisco, profiteering and consu- 
mers' cooperation, 128. 
San Jose, Cal., 637. 
Sanderson, Dwight. Rural social work, 

Sandwich, N. H., 752. 

City plumbing requirements, 287. 

Union demands, 627. 
Saunders, W. O., 824. 
Schiff, J. H., resignation from Red Cross 

work, 633. 
School children's standards, 273. 

Baltimore primaries, 118, 119. 

Chicago, 724. 

Chicago, volunteer educators, 120. 

Cooperative school, 483. 

North Carolina, traveling correspond- 
ence, 118. 

"Nursery schools," 157. 

Place for children's courts, 185. 
Schreiber, Cornell, 116. 
Scranton, Pa., drug addicts, 797. 

Boys increasing, 441. 

Cabin quarters, 256. 
Sears, Amelia, 97. 

City employes' union, 582. 

Hindu deportation, 674. 

Labor cooperation, 324. 

Reconstruction program, 58. 
Sedition, bills as to, 590. 
Selekman, B. M., 909. 

Ind. conf. of Canada, 894. 
Self-determination in community enter- 
prise, 870. 

Africa, 39. 

Negro gang, 254. 
Seligmann, H. J. Criticism of Southern 

Sociological Congress, 907. 

Red Cross work, 372. 

Work for children, 373. 
Serbian girls (ills.), 817. 
Serbian refugees, 527, 664, 665. 

National Federation, 465. 

Tasks for a federation, 318. 

Tokyo, 278. 

War romance and "case" problem, 487. 
Sexton, James, 658. 
Sexual Science Inst., Berlin, 852. 
Seybert Institution, 703. 
Seymour, Laura, 909. 
Shaw, Anna Howard, obituary, 568. 
Shaw, G. B., on jails and judges, 540. 
Shellabarger, Eloise. For Pan-Amer. 

peace, 594. 
Shelton, H. W„ 254. 
Shepherd boy (ill.), 789. 
Shillady, J. R„ 781. 
Shipping strike, 635. 
" Shop assistants " (England), 282. 
Shop committees. 

Electing, 755. 

Elections in a factory, 707. 

In action in the U. S., 28. 

Installing, 574. 

Letter for H. F. J. Porter, 610. 

Lynn, Mass., 253. 

Mass., Loring bill, 317. 

Pittsfield, Mass., 284. 

Politics of, 626. 

Types of systems, 413. 

What they mean, 409. 
Shotwell, J. T., on international labor 

legis., 589. 
"Shut-ins," Americanizing, 317. 
Siam, sanitary service, 52. 
Sickness. See Health. 
Sickness prevention, a business proposi- 
tion, 798. 
Siegrist, Mary. The league of nations 

(verse), 23. 
Sims, Representative, 703. 
Sing Sing. 

Observation of B. Glueck, 240. 

Warden, 161. 
Skoplye, 527. 

Refugees, 664. 
Sleeping sickness, 53. 
Sleszynski, Thaddeus and Amine. Leader- 
ship in Americanization, 746. 
Small, A. W. On church surveys, 121. 
Smillie, Robert, 657, 666. 

Biography, 520. 

Portrait, 519. 
Smith, Barry C, 160, 410. 

Reply to "Letter from the provinces," 
Smith, H. S. Walt Whitman (verse), 340. 
Smith, Jessie W., 171. 
Smith College, training school for social 

work, 483. 
Smulski, J. F., 637. 
Snowden, Philip, 666. 
Snowden, Mrs. Philip, 660. 
Social agencies. 

Columbus, 727. 

Cooperative buying, 729. 

Future methods of financial contribu- 
tions to, 342. 

Ohio council, 732. 

Suggestions, 757. 
Social forces. 

Department resumed, 359. 

See also Organization, etc. 
Social program of Arctic commonwealth, 

Social reconstruction. 

Protestant church program, 685—689. 

Report of Committee on Nat'l Pro- 
gram, 402. 
Social reform and Home Service, 847. 
Social research. 

Jewish, 761. 

See also New School for, etc. 
Social science institute in Berlin, 852. 
Social Service. 

Churches and, 776. 

City olub members and, 775. 

England, 457. 

Milwaukee summer inst., 738. 

Resolutions of the Federal Council of 
churches, 548. 
Social Service Exchanges, Amer. Assoc, of, 

Social Service Plattsburg, 416. 
Social training in Kentucky, 899. 
Social treatment. 

Case-worker's pyramid, 626. 

Creative listening, 607. 
Social Unit. See Cincinnati. 
Social welfare and British labor, 412. 
Social Welfare Committee, etc., N. Y., 

Social work. 

As a science, 611. 

Chicago, volunteer, 154. 

France, Amer. efforts, 48. 

How to give, 572. 

International, 437. 

Letter from the provinces, 743, 873. 

Minneapolis, 416. 

Motion pictures a help, 607. 

Order in treatment, 413. 

Presence of mind in, 430. 

Principles of training for, 105. 

Scientific terminology (letter), 713. 

Smith College training school, 483. 

Training schools, 761. 
Social workers, 173. 

Appointments, 908. 

Art of giving evidence, 320. 

Challenge to (surf rage), 896. 

Cooperative, 458. 

Invitation, 262. 

Keeping fit, 320. 

St. Louis, 736. 

Summer courses, 637, 

American, two types, 580. 

French, 241. 
Socially minded, 623, 713. 
Sociological diplomats, 676. 

Able-bodied, training, 611. 

Agriculture for, 290. 

Americans in France, opinions, 673. 

Bureaus for returning, 114. 

Chicago plan for, 56, 57. 

Church welcome committee, 283. 

Civil service, 206. 

Civil service and, 313, 440. 

Disorderly, and jails, 368. 

Information and instruction for return- 
ing, 598. 

Jobs, 439. 

Jobs for— Boston plan, 237. 

Jobs for (poster), 8. 

Jobs for all, 678. 

Org. for mutual aid, 151. 

Org. of discharged, 57. 

Republic in Cook Islands, 637 

Tasks for returning citizens, 756. 

Teachers, 611. 

Venereal disease in the second million, 
Solitary confinement. See Military pris- 
Sommeilles, 530. 
South, The. 

Child labor, 747. 

Self-help, 785. 
South Africa, lesson from, 464. 
South Carolina, Child Welfare Commis- 
sion, 417. 
Southern Sociological Congress, 826, 907. 
Southport Conference, 654. 
Soviet Bureau of N. Y., 485. 
Spencer Trask Memorial (ill.), 4. 
Spending, teaching women principles of, 

Springfield, 111., 247. 
Springfield, Mo., 755. 
Stage. See Drama. 
Statistics, 77. 
Steel industry. 

Saloon in steel towns, 563. 

Strike, 891. 

Strike vote, 677. 

Workers organizing, 411. 
Steele, John, 908. 

Steffan, Roger. Soldiers and civil ser- 
vice, 440. 
Sternberger, Estelle M. Gary and the 

foreigner's opportunity, 480. 
Stevenson, Archibald, 485. 
Stevenson, D. M., 520. 
Stevick, P. R. Prof. Ward, 124. 

Stillman, C. C, 432. 

Stockbridge, Mass., 319. 

Stoddard, Bessie D. Around a city camp 

fire, 648. 
Stoddard, W. L. 

Electing shop committees, 755. 

Elections in a factory, 707. 

Installing a shop committee system, 

L'ttle shop committee system, 284. 

Lynn shop committee, 253. 

Mass. bill for shop committees, 317. 

New trade league, 487. 

Politics of shop committees, 626. 

Shop committees in action, 28. 

Types of shop committee systems, 413. 
Stone, J. H., 638. 
Stone, S. H. 

Nursing in Italy, 857. 

With the Red Cross in Italy, 369. 
Stone, W. S., 703. 
Street, Elwood, 88. 
Street railways. 

Chicago, 114. 

Free trolleys, 472. 

Increased fares, 160, 323. 

Women and night work, 367. 

Actors', 733. 

Against idleness (cloak-makers), 312. 

Boston police, 881. 

Chicago, 645. 

Chicago street cars, 703. 

Cigarmakers, 906. 

Crane Company, 751. 

Damages for, 282. 

Garment workers, 149. 

General epidemic, 674. 

"Ind. democ." on strike, 892. 

Lawrence, 42, 82, 250. 

Lawrence, settlement, 368. 

Marine, 635. 

N. Y. conf. and commission to prevent, 

Paterson, peace in, 751. 

Political sympathy with Jews of Poland, 
etc., 365. 

Steel industry, 891. 

Steel ind., threatened, 849. 

Telegraphers, 582. 

Telephone, New England, 148. 

Tenants in New York, 365. 

Toledo, automobile, 364. 

Winnipeg, 437, 582. 
Strumitza, 525. 
S. A. T. C, 859. 
Subway Tavern, 563. 
Sun worship, 483. 
Survet, The. 

Acknowledgments, 875. 

Commendations, 462. 
Survey Associates, Inc., statement and 

appeal, 459-462. 
Surveys, church, recommendations, 121. 
Sweden, sociological diplomats, 676. 
Sweet, T. C, 83, 853. 
Swift 4 Co., 503, 504. 712, 713. 
Swinnerton, Cornelia L. Visiting teacher, 

Switzerland, decentralization, 635 
Sydney, N. S. W., Society for the Welfare 

of Mothers and Babies, 903. 
Syracuse, N. Y., conf., Aug., 26-28, 853, 

Talbot, Benjamin, 521. 

Taylor, A. E. Condition of Europe, 783. 

Taylor, C. F., 761. 

Taylor, Clara. Case-work with mothers, 

Taylor, Graham. 

Chicago in the nation's race strife, 695. 

Community cafes, 252. 

Illinois' fruitful legis., 592. 

Neighborhood and nation, 465. 

Portrait, 365. 

Strikes in Chicago, 645. 

To Indiana and Timothy Nicholson, 
Taylor (Graham) Hall. 365. 

Fed. of college teachers, 314. 

Living wage for, 632. 

Soldier teachers, 611. 

Visiting, 325, 439, 440. 

Visiting, function, 252. 

Strike, 582. 
Telephone strike, 146. 
Temp. Bars, 415. 
Texas, state health dep't, 728. 
Texas Information Bureau, 612. 
Textile workers. 

Independent union, 113. 

Paterson, N. J., 602, 638. 
Theater. See Drama. 
Thomas, J. H., 216. 
Thompson, Laura A., 98. 
Thompson, W. H., 83, 724. 
Thorne.C. H.,851. 
Thrift, war lessons, 201. 
Thurston, H. W. Children (Nat'l Conf. 

Program), 454. 
Tillett, Ben, 654, 667. 
Tilton, Elizabeth. 

Beer and saloons, 736. 

For world prohibition, 469. 
Tiny Town, 755. 
Tobacco, 313. 

King James on, 416. 

Todd, A. J., 416. 

Social reconstruction (report of com- 
mittee), 402. 
Tokyo, settlement work, 278. 

Automobile strike, 364. 

Housing, 575. 

Mayor Schreiber's maxims, 116. 

Plumbing requirements, 287. 
Tolson, G.T. Down with the H. C. of L., 


Bur. of Municipal research, 777. 

Help your city (cartoon), 88. 

Outdoor relief, 861. 
Town planning. 

France, 670. 

Inter- Allied Conf,, 802. 
Trade league, new, 487. 
Trade Union College of Boston, 113. 
Trade unionists. 

French, 242. 

Joint conf. with cooperators in London, 
Trade unions in Canada, 161-162. 
Training Camp Activities. 546. 
Training School for Old Country Service, 

Trask, Katrina. Peace (verse) , 18. 
Trask (Spencer) Memorial (ill.), 4. 
Travelers' Aid Society, 583. 

Housing in, 433. 

Planting, 98. 
Triple Alliance, 654, 669. 
Trolleys. See Street railways. 
Trudean Prize Poster, 55. 
Truth-telling in raising money, 415. 
Tschaikovsky, Nicholas, his social pro- 
gram, 140. 
Tub and Scrub, 429. 
Tuberculosis, 800. 

Meeting of Nat'l Tuber. Assoc, 500. 

Brooklyn health center, 708. 

Cannes Red Cross medical conf., 496. 

Cattle, 677. 

Cloud in France (Poster), 673. 

Denver's problem, 320. 

France, 177. 

French propaganda by game, 89. 

Germany, 796. 

Italy, 369. 

Oklahoma bill, 201. 

Trudean Prize Poster, 55. 
Turberville, Esther de, County relief, 004. 
Turkey, what is left of, 371. 
Turner, Lilian A., 571. 
Twenty-four-hour day, 259. 
Typhus in Poland, 673. 


Underwood, Abby E., 202. 
Underwood, Mrs. E. F., 489. 
Unemployment in England, 249 
Unionism, actors, 568. 

Los Angeles, 633. 

Seattle city employes, 582. 

Vancouver, 715. 
United Hospital Fund, 861. 
United Labor Educ. committee, 199. 
United Mine Workers, 282, 881. 
United Neighborhood Houses of N. Y., 

U. S. Employment Service, 440, 599. 

Analysis and forecast (Devine), 9. 

Demobilization, 57. 

Poster, 8. 
U. S. Steel Corporation, 849, 891. 

See also Steel industry. 
Unmarried Mothers. See under Mothers. 
Untermyer, Samuel, 704. 

Child conference, 580. 

Profit-sharing, 128. 

Vacant lot gardens, 753. 

Vacation rules, 575. 

Vacation village, 776. 

Vagrancy, defining (Kansas law), 850. 

Vancouver, 715. 

Van Holder, 541. 

Van Kleeck, Mary, 738, 909. 

Van Norstrand, Clara, 705. 

Van Rickley, Patrolman, 629. 

Van Schaick, Mrs. John, Jr., 262. 

Venereal disease. 

Cannes Red Cross med. conf. rep't, 491. 

Second million of drafted men, 634. 
Venice, Cal., 256. 
Versailles. See Peace of Versailles. 

Armenia (Finley) , 823. 

Egotist, The (O. M.), 277. 

In the War Risk Bur., 758. 

League of nations (Siegrist), 23. 

Pax vobiscum (Housman), 332. 

Peace (Trask), 18. 

Refugee, The (Fellow), 202. 

Whitman, Walt (Smith) , 340. 
Vice in Chicago, 464. 
Victory memorials, 851. 
Vienna, children, 528. 

Appeal from citizens, 675. 



e x 

Ministers' pica for faith in reason, 
goodwill and fairness, 542. 

Race riots, 675. 

Race riots and democ, 697. 

Race riots in Chicago, 695. 
Vision and mental devel jpment, 754. 
Visiting teachers, 252. 

Letters, 439, 440. 

Value, 325. 
Vital Statistics of Paris, 861. 

Vocational education, 380. 

Federal board, 599, 612. 

New York city, 872. 
Volunteers, maligned, 818. 
Von Tungeln, G. H. Rural Life Conf. in 

Iowa, 710. 

Africa, 39. 

See also League of Women Voters. 

Wade, F. E., 441. 

Chicago street railways, 114. 

Farms, 128-129. 

New method of payment, 729. 

N. Y. state hospitals, 54. 
Wal, M. de. 

Books acknowledged (letter), 439. 

Books for Ellis Island, 290, 439. 
Wald, Lillian D., 491. 

Abraham Jacobi, 1830-1919, 595. 

On European children, 528. 

Red Cross and the covenant, 333. 
Waldman, M. D., 156. 
Walter, Henriette R. Women as workers 

and citizens, 465. 
Wannamaker, O. D. Child labor and 

cotton, 857. 

English factories sold, 214. 

Material for history, 214. 
War Camp Community Service, 206, 743. 
War Chest Board in Indianapolis, 605, 

War Chests, 569. 

In peace times, 342. 
War Department, 846. 
War Garden Commission, 506. 
War Labor Board, 192. 

Dissolution, 543. 
War memorials, 211. 
War orphans, 527. 
War Risk Insurance Bur., 634. 

Commission on conduct of, 599. 

Difficulty, 360. 

Verses, 758. 

Work of mailing checks, 254. 

War romance, 487. 

War veterans. See Amer. Legion. 

War weariness, 598. 

Warbasse, F. P. Cooperation in Seattle, 

Ward, H. F. The gospel applied, 415. 
Warner, A. G., 824. 
Warren, George, 909. 
Washington (state), labor alliance, 860. 
Washington, D. C, race riots, 675 w 
Watson, Amey E. Standards in paitnV 

hood, 622. 
Watson, Mrs. F. D., 622. 
Way, Mabel. Church mobilized, 776. 
Wealth, conscription of, 98. 
Webb, Sidney. 

Coming revolution in local gov't, 479. 

On British miners and the gov't, 305. 
Weld, L. D. H. 

Again, the packer, 712. 

Packers' side, 503. 
Welfare bills in N. Y., 853, 854. 
Welfare work, British, War lessons, 627. 
Wenzel, Louise H. Keeping the staff fit, 

Whedon, Rhoda, 372. 
"Where Do We Go From Here?" 598. 
White, A. T., 121. 
White, W. A., on Kansas jails, 808. 
Whitehead, Thomas, 738. 
Whitley councils, 109. 

English government's use, 27. 

In Canada, 895. 

Leather, wool, etc., 75. 
Whitman, Walt. Verses, with portrait 

(Smith), 340. 
Whittier House, 411. 
"Wholesale", an American, 676. 
Wicks, F. S. My nearest neighbors in 

Peking, 671. 
Widen, L. E., 368. 
Wiley, R. C. Solitary. 581. 
Williams, F. E. Mental hygiene (Nat'l 

Conf.), 455. 
Williams, Robert, 657. 

On the Triple Alliance, 306. 
Willoughby, W. F., 306. 
Wilson, Alex. M., obituary, 883. 
Wilson, Woodrow. 

British labor's opinion, 656. 

Cablegram from Nat'l Conf. social 
workers, 451. 

Labor Day message, 827. 

Message on the opening of Congress, 
375, 376. 

Price reduction program, 734. 
Wing, F. E. Fighting tuber, in France, 

Winnipeg strike, 437, 582. 

Winslow, C.-E. A. Health at the Nat'l 

Conf., 452. 
Wirt, W. A., 480. 

Circular on feeblemindedness, 158. 

Cooperative wholesale, 676. 

Land settlement, 432. 

Minimum wage, 638. 
Wise, S. S., 612. 

Withington, Anne. Telephone strike, 146. 
Wolfe, F. E. Labor reconstruction pro- 
gram, 853. 
Wolff, Harriette H. Why infants die, 323. 
Wolo, P. G. African self-gov't, 39. 
Woman in industry. 

British, combination, 441. 

Germany, 441. 

N. Y. report on replacement of men by 
women, 112. 
Woman in Ind. Service, lecture released, 

Woman suffrage. 

Challenge to complete the ratification 
of the Susan B. Anthony amendment, 

Convention at St. Louis, 84. 
Woman's Land Army of America, training 

camp, 490. 

As workers and citizens, 465. 

B. R. T. and, 410. 

Cleveland workers on peace time ban- 
dages, 603. 

Club women in Calif., 614. 

Delinquents, farm colony for, 129. 

Dress and healtn, 898. 

Employment management, etc., train- 
ing for, 858. 

France, employment, 771. 

Minimum wages, 635 

Munition makers of France, 137. 

New York legislation, 129. 

Night work law, result, 326. 

Night work wanted, 367. 

Physicians, conf., 710, 898. 

Railroad work. 637. 

Social evil and, 611. 

Teaching adults the English language, 

Teaching how to spend, 573. 

Volunteers, 818. 

Work in British colonies, 861. 

Zurich Congress, 426. 

See also League of Women Voters. 
Women's clubs, Chicago, 506. 
Women's Cooperative Guild of Great 

Britain, 596. 
Women's Inter-Allied Suffrage Congress, 


Women's Joint Legislative Conf., 853, 

Wood, Leonard, 56, 57. 

Wood, Miss 909 

Woodruff, C. R., portrait and note, 543. 

Woods, Amv. Socially vs. charitably 
minded, 623. 

Woods, Arthur, 114, 598, 629. 
Jobs for soldiers, 439. 

Woods. R. A. Chicago Commons, 308. 

Work or Fight in Hungary, 440. 

Workers' Defense Union, 850. 

Workers' Educational Assoc. 775. 

Working girls' hotel, Des Moines, 128. 

Workmen's compensation, direct settle- 
ments, 82. 

Works councils. 
England, 98. 
Harvester Co., 74. 
See also Industrial councils. 

World Prohibition Convention, 469. 

World War Veterans of Amer., 57. 

Wright, Lucy. College girls and com- 
munity service, 469. 

Young, A. S., 152. 
Young, H. H., 316. 
Y. M. C. A., 743. 

Army and Navy work, 673. 

China and. 629 

China work, 204. 

English, under fire, 603. 

European work, 546. 

Philadelphia, attempt at conf., 87. 
Y. W. C. A., 743. 

British, 441. 

Housing, 54. 

Industrial notes, 608. 

Old World service, 825. 

Pamphlets on oversea work, 823. 
Youngstown, O., Community Service 

Society, 316. 
Yurin, En, 278. 

Zabriskie, E. G., 161. 
Zelenko, Alexander, 326. 
Zoning in cities, 115. 
Zorin, 651. 

Zurich International Congress of Women, 

New York 



R I L 5 , 19 19 


The Employment 

Service— Analysis 

and a Forecast 

For Democracy 
in Industry 

The Whitley Councils' 
Spread in England 

Shop Committees in Action 
in America 

Lawrence— Strike 
or Revolution? 


Consumers and the 
Near Future 


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CONTENTS for APRIL 5, 1919 

Volume XLII, No. i 


The Consumer and the Near Future - 
The Federal Employment Service - 

Peace, a Poem - 

To Unshackle Philadelphia 

The League of Nations, a Poem - 

The Health Game ----- 

The Whitley Councils - 
Shop Committees in Action - ' - 

The Cooperative Internationale - - - 
The Abiding Faith [Historic Peace Medals] 
Health Conditions in Southern Europe - 
Is African Self-Government Possible? 
Lawrence ------- 

Labor's Call Across the Border 












Joy In Many Lands - 
Our Efforts in France 
Polonia Rediviva - - - - 
With the Friends' Unit - 
Where the Money Will Go 
An Invitation From Athens - 
The Greatest Task of All - 

Terms of C.O.'s 
" Sleeping Sickness " 
Hospital Drudgery 
Homelike Homes 
Mines and Hours 
Humanizing Housework 
The Chicago Plan for Soldiers - 
International Child Welfare 
Dr. Dutton 







THE Long Table: Survey Associates and readers are cordially invited to draw up a 
chair Friday afternoons at 4 o'clock, in the Survey librarv, 112 East 19 street, New 

Friday, April 4, John A. Fitch, of the Survey staff, will tell of what he saw and heard 
of the textile strike at Lawrence. 

Friday, April 11, there will be no Long Table meeting as the majority of the staff will 
be out of the city. 

Boston: The Editors of the Survey are inviting all cooperative subscribers in Boston 
and vicinity to a luncheon in the interest of Survey Associates, at the Twentieth Century 
Club, 3 Joy street, Boston, at 1 o'clock, April 9. A cordial invitation is extended to all 
readers of the Survey to attend. Tickets $1. Send names not later than Tuesday morning, 
April 8, to Mrs. V. D. Brenner, membership secretary, Room 43, 43 Hawkins street, Boston. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., Publishers 

ROBERT W. de FOREST, President PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor 


112 East 19 street, New York 955 Grand avenue, Chicago 


ROBERT W. de FOREST, Chairman 

JANE ADDAMS, Chicago. 
SAMUEL S. FELS, Philadelphia. 
LEE K. FRANKEL, New York. 
JOHN M. GLENN, New York. 
C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, Calif. 
MORRIS KNOWLES, Pittsburgh. 

JOSEPH LEE, Boston. 
JULIAN W. MACK, Chicago. 
V. EVERIT MACY. New York. 
SIMON N. PATTEN, Philadelphia. 
HELEN S. PRATT, New York. 
AFLRED T. WHITE, Brooklyn. 

Survey Associates, Inc., is an adventure in cooperative journalism, incorporated under the laws of the 
state of New York, November, 19 12, as a membership organization without shares or stockholders. 
Membership is open to readers who become contributors of $10 or more a year. It is this widespread, 
convinced backing and personal interest which has made the Survey a living thing. 


Single copies of this issue, 25 cents. Cooperating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular subscriptions 
weekly edition $4 a year. Foreign postage $1.50 extra. Canadian 75 cents. Regular subscription once- 
a-month edition $2 a year. Foreign postage 60 cents extra. Canadian 35 cents. Changes of address 
should be mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing practice, when payment 
is by check, a receipt will be sent only upon request. Copyright, 1919, by Survey Associates, Inc. 
Entered as second-class matter March 25, 1909, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the act 
of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, act 
of October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1918. 

The GIST of IT 

SHOP committees are of the very essence of 
reconstruction in industry. They seat man- 
agement and men with their feet under the 
same table to talk over grievances and con- 
ditions. It is not generally understood how 
widely thev have been set up in the United 
States. William L. Stoddard here shares 
with us a chapter from his forthcoming vol- 
ume, The Shop Committee, a Handbook for 
Employers and Employes. He speaks from 
his experience in installing shop committees 
as a representative of the War Labor Board. 
Formerly he was with the Federal Board for 
Vocational Education, following his extended 
services as a Washington correspondent. 
Page 28. 

ENGLAND, where labor has got a secure 
seat at the table with the management, has 
taken another step by introducing Whitley 
councils in the manufacturing departments of 
the government. Arthur Gleason, the 
Survey's London correspondent, here begins a 
series of three brief articles on the subject. 
Page 27. 

THE National Consumers' League cele- 
brates its coming of age by inaugurating a 
new program for consumers — a program 
having to do with food, clothing and fuel. A 
statement of it by the general secretary of 
the league, Mrs. Florence Kelley. Page 5. 
CONGRESS left the United States Employ- 
ment Service strapped for funds. But in 
spite of that — perhaps partly because of it — 
the service may make a real contribution to 
the theory, science and practical development 
of a permanent system for handling employ- 
ment. An outline of what that system might 
be by Edward T. Devine, of the Survey 
staff. Page 9. 

PHILADELPHIA, all bound round with a 
woolen string of a partisan and bucolic 
legislature, is snipping at some of the 
strands. A discussion of the Charter Com- 
mittee's proposals by Neva R. Deardorff, 
now with the Red Cross Home Service in 
Washington, formerly assistant director of 
the Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal Re- 
search and vital statistician of the Depart- 
ment of Health and Charities under the 
Blankenburg reform administration. Page 19. 
THE health game for children does not con- 
sist in making believe you are well but in 
turning health-getting into fun. A descrip- 
tion of it by Lucy Oppen, of the staff of the 
Child Health Organization and formerly 
with the New York Charity Organization 
Society. Page 24. 

LEWIS S. GANNETT, the Survey's cor- 
respondent at Paris, reports on the Co- 
operative Congress, one of the important 
sideshows to the Peace Conference. Page 31. 
SOME entries from the notebook of Louis I. 
Dublin, chief statistician of the Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company, who was associ- 
ated with Col. Homer Folks in a Red Cross 
survey of the civilian populations of the 
region of Veneto in Italy, eastern Mace- 
donia in Greece and the country along the 
oriental railroad in Serbia. Dr. Dublin was 
earlier a member of the Tuberculosis Unit of 
the American Red Cross Commission to 
Italy. Page 36. 

PLENYONO GBE WOLO'S belief in the 
capacity of the Negro for self-government on 
the basis of his success in Liberia, a republic 
set up a century ago by America, has roots 
in his experience. He is himself a Liberian, 
of the Kroo tribe which has given to the 
world some of its best sailors. He is a 
graduate of Harvard and is now studying at 
Union Theological Seminary and Teachers' 
College. Page 39. 

WHAT John A. Fitch, editor of the Indus- 
try Department of the Survey, saw and 
heard at Lawrence. Page 42. 

"GIVE back TO THE WOMEN who work the spirit of life" 

From a photograph of the Spencer Trask memorial, by 
Daniel Chester French, at Saratoga Springs, AT. }*., used 
on the bulletins and the Easter cards of the Consumers' 
League to symbolics its spirit 


The Consumer and the Near Future 

2?j/ Florence Kelley 

NOT since the Civil War has the public mind been 
so concentrated upon the cost of living as it is to- 
day, and never has such application to one subject 
produced less visible effect. At this moment of high 
pressure, the National Consumers' League will, on May 1, 
complete twenty years of work. It is the hope of the writer 
that at the next annual meeting the league may expand its 
program to include food, clothing and fuel. 

The league has always been pledged to educate the con- 
suming public to the duty of learning under what conditions 
goods are produced and distributed, and to insist that these 
conditions shall be wholesome and consistent with a respect- 
able existence on the part of the workers. Experience has 
taught, however, that a " living wage " must be a real wage. 
A wage determination may be a mockery, unless food, fuel 
and clothing can be had continuously at prices that fall 
within it. 

For these reasons the National Consumers' League has, 
since the armistice, concerned itself with two congressional 
bills both introduced by Mr. Sims of Tennessee. The first 
deals with the activities of the meat packers, the second with 
the granting of our remaining public water powers. These 
two bills, which will be re-introduced as soon as Congress re- 
convenes, will affect our food and fuel supplies for many 
years to come. A third bill, wholly new and scarcely less im- 
portant, will doubtless be vigorously pushed in the hope of as- 
suring to the public a choice, which it has never hitherto been 
able to make, between honest cloth and shoddy. This can be 
accomplished, for instance, by requiring that " reworked 
wool " be indicated by a thread of a different color. 

Honest Cloth 
The need for the new measure is convincingly shown by 
a recent study of the shoddy, yarn and worsted industry, 
which forms- one chapter of an investigation just completed 
and about to appear under the name Wage-Earning Women 
in Wartime and in the Post-War Period. This study re- 
veals conditions attending the production of shoddy cloth 
quite as bad as those which were characteristic of the sweated 
trades twenty years ago. There is the same need of warning 
the customer, the same need of new legislation and better 
enforcement of existing laws for the wage-earners, the same 

complacent ignorance among the mass of consumers. For 
everyone concerned, there is permanent danger of the spread 
of disease by reason of preventable filth in the air and the 
goods in more than one stage of production. There is the 
needless fatigue through long working days and lack of suit- 
able seats, that the local leagues used to find in the stores in 
the earliest beginnings of their enquiry. There is need of a 
federal law, because the industry spreads over many states and 
piecemeal legislation is intolerably slow and inefficient. 

The Meat Industry 
In 1890, a committee of the United States Senate began 
to investigate the relations of the great meat-packing corpora- 
tions and concluded, after two years, that an agreement ex- 
isted among the leading packers to refrain from competition. 
This investigation was partly responsible for the passage of 
the Sherman anti-trust law. That law, however, did not 
long keep the meat-packing interests apart, and their growing 
power became so evident that on February 7, 191 7, the 
President wrote the chairman of the Federal Trade Com- 
mission directing it " to investigate and report the facts re- 
lating to the production, ownership, manufacture, storage, 
and distribution of foodstuffs." He stated that " while the 
population of the nation has increased 26,000,000 since 1900, 
the production of the two leading cereals, corn and wheat, 
while tending to increase, has shown only a slight advance; 
and that of the meat products in the same period has shown an 
increase of only 3,500,000 pounds — a decrease of 29 pounds 
per capita." 

The Federal Trade Commission undertook an investiga- 
tion, and on July 3, 1918, published a summary of its find- 
ings. 1 Because of its small appropriation and the urgency of 
the President, the Federal Trade Commission was obliged to 
get evidence somewhat after the manner of a grand jury. It 
has since been contended by the packers that they were not 
given a proper hearing, that this was an ex parte investiga- 
tion where only one side could be heard. The following 
explanation by Mr. Francis Heney, counsel to the commisv- 
sion, on this point is clear and has not been refuted : 

1 Copies of the Summary of the Report of the Federal Trade Commission 
on the Meat Packing Industry can be obtained free of charge by writing 
to the Federal Trade Commission, Washington, D. C. This is a compact 
and readable report of 50 pages. 

The Survey, April 5, 1919, Volume 42, No. 1. 112 East 19 Street, New York city 



" At the Boston hearing I made a statement ... as to 
the nature of the hearings, and I want to call attention right 
now ... to say most emphatically that no packer at any 
time ever requested to be heard at any of these hearings. If 
any packer had asked to be heard, he would have been granted 
the privilege very promptly, but he would have been sworn 
and informed as to his rights under the criminal law, and 
would have been required to state whether he waived im- 
munity or not before testifying, so the record would show, 
and if any one of his attorneys had asked permission to ex- 
amine a witness it would have been granted readily by me." 

"The Big Five" 

From the point of view of the consumers the startling fact 
revealed was that the meat business is under the control of 
five packers, known as the Big Five; that they exercise a con- 
trol similar in extent over the principal meat substitutes such 
as eggs, cheese, poultry, milk, butter, fish, and all kinds of 
vegetable products, and have in recent years gone into the 
breakfast food business, the canning of fruits and vegetables, 
and deal in staple groceries and vegetables such as rice, sugar, 
potatoes, beans and coffee. 

Just at the time that housewives were asked to cook rice 
instead of potatoes, so that potatoes might be sent to Europe, 
Mr. Armour went into the rice market and, during 191 7, sold 
16,000,000 pounds of rice. During that period the whole- 
sale price of rice increased 65 per cent. 

The list of commodities held out in price lists as regularly 
dealt in by the packing concerns — some 575 items in all, as 
read by Mr. Colver before the House Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce Committee 2 — includes, besides unbelievably nu- 
merous meat and meat by-products, the following: Curled 
hair, combs, twine, bearings for railroad cars, brass castings 
for recoil mechanism in heavy ordnance, builders' hardware, 
bumping posts for railroads, castings and appliances for use 
in manufacturing refrigerator cars, packing house machinery, 
builders' material, cement, doors and windows, boxes. 
Through the control of the hide and leather and woolen 
markets, they are now branching out into the field of clothing. 

This great control in these ever increasing lines of produce 
has been possible because of the power inherent in the huge 
volume of their business exercised through the stockyards, 
the private refrigerator car lines, the branch-house system of 
wholesale distribution, the banks, real estate and, within re- 
cent times, the press. This control appears to have almost 
" killed the goose which lays the golden egg," — the raiser of 
livestock — and to have been largely responsible for the fact 
that the cost of living is ever running ahead of the increase 
of wages. 

The representative of the National Consumers' League is 
the only person whose voice was heard in behalf of the con- 
sumer during the month and a half of the congressional hear- 
ings. In fact, one congressman frankly stated that he was 
only interested in the producer, and the concensus of opinion 
of many of the members of the House Interstate and For- 
eign Commerce Committee was that no further legislation is 
needed at this time, after the amazing evidence presented 
to the committee! 

It was convincingly shown that the packers control the 
retail prices for meat charged the consumer by the corner 
grocer, who depends on the big packers for his steady supply 
and whose prices must, therefore, conform to their require- 
ments and prices when he sells occasional supplies of meat 
obtained from the surrounding country. 

1 See pages 127 to 135, Vol. 2 of the hearings. 

Interestingly coincident with the congressional revelations 
about the meat packers is their enormous advertising cam- 
paign. This has greatly increased during and since the hear- 
ings. Mr. Swift stated on the stand that his firm spent 
$1,000,000 last year and would spend $2,500,000 this year 
in advertising. " Never has there been such a year for our 
business, " say the advertising agencies. It appears that every 
small farm weekly through the Middle West and Far West, 
and every newspaper in most of the large cities, has carried 
the packers' advertisements. The Christian Science Monitor 
is the only large daily newspaper known to the writer which 
did not carry these advertisements, either of products or of 
financial operations. Congress has adjourned, the big pub- 
licity story is over, and the public mind is daily drugged with 
large advertisements addressed to " Dear Folks." Courage- 
ous will the congressmen and senators need to be who in 
the new Congress attempt legislation in behalf of the con- 
sumers, unless they are backed by a strong and enlightened 
public opinion in their constituencies. 

The Sims bill (H. R. 13324) was introduced into Con- 
gress on December 10, 19 18, and the hearings above quoted 
took place before two committees of Congress between De- 
cember 21, 1918, and February 13, 1919. This bill seems 
to the Consumers' League an entering wedge. Its licensing 
provisions may serve to turn the light on the packers' busi- 
ness, as minimum wage commissions have turned the light 
on wages. It may open the highway of commerce which has 
been artifically clogged to free competition. It may pave the 
way for new and more adequate means of production and 
distribution of food to all the consumer?. 

What can the consumers do? We can keep the light 
turned on by cooperating with the Federal Trade Commis- 
sion. We can assure to our congressmen an organized sus- 
tained interest in their efforts. In the new Congress, Rep- 
resentative Esch of Wisconsin will succeed Mr. Sims as 
chairman of the Committee on Interstate Commerce ; but 
Mr. Sims and the Federal Trade Commission will continue 
their efforts, and reforms in these days of organized public 
intelligence no longer, like the pure food bill, languish seven- 
teen years in Congress. 

Fuel and the War Debt 
MUST we pay our rapidly growing war debt and the vast in- 
terest which mounts day by day, in economies of individual ex- 
penditure that reduce the standard of living of working people? 
Or can we by planning some vast, collective economy maintain 
our former standards while paying the debt? This question is 
of instant urgency. 

England has published an official report which shows that 
the British government in 1917 was already taking practical 
steps towards the second choice. 3 

For us the decision is even more pressing than for England, 
because Congress ma\ put that choice forever beyond our reach, 
by authorizing the grant to private corporations of our remain- 
ing public hydro-electric resources. Only the recent filibuster 
prevented the adoption of a bill to this effect. 

England's proposed great, collective economy consists in 
transforming coal near the mines into electric power, and con- 
veying it by wire to the point of industrial use. This proposed 
change is greatly facilitated by the discovery that pulverized 
coal (the form most difficult for shipment by train) can be 
made to yield the highest per cent of heat for generating power. 

England is geographically a small country rich in coal, but 
without waterfalls, natural gas or fuel oils. The English pro- 
posal to change industry from steam to electric power, and to 

' Interim Report on Electric Tower Supply in Great Britain Ministry 
of Reconstruction. Coal Conservation Sub-Conimittcc. 191S. (cd. 8 
Price 3d. Net. 


do this by transforming coal and transmitting power by wire 
instead of by rail is, therefore, a simpler undertaking than the 
huge and complex saving which our unmeasured resources 
offer us. 

Besides coal we have waterfalls and streams, and many wide 
areas available for impounding water for hydro-electric use. 
Our potential water resources are literally unmeasured, 4 and 
we have more coal than we can now move by rail. 

The very hugeness of our country and our resources com- 
plicates our difficulty. For with fabulous coal treasure in the 
East and South and in the Mississippi valley, Kansas, Okla- 
homa and Colorado, and with millions of hydro-electric horse- 
power awaiting development in the Far West, there are yet 
vast regions which cannot be supplied by wire with electric 
power from mines or waterfalls but will require coal for 
many uses so long as can now be foreseen. These areas are 
remote from large sources of coal and water. To supply 
their needs the transport of coal by rail will doubtless remain 
indefinitely an essential industry. 

Coal, moreover, is often needed to supplement water supplies 
in generating hydro-electric power, where river flow is irregu- 
lar, subject to freezing in winter or drought in summer, or to 
both. This permanent need, in wide areas, for rail carriage of 
coal for heating and for power, is a reason the more for mak- 
ing the change to transmitted electricity promptly, and in the 
manner which assures the largest economy, wherever the 
conditions are favorable. 

Hitherto, in private hands, hydro-electric power has needed 
for its successful commercial development a market near, large 
and diversified. The production under a federal board or ad- 
ministrator of nitrate and other fertilizers, would therefore, 
open the way to an exceedingly valuable new use of any large 
waterpower unavailable otherwise. An encouraging step has 
already been taken in the law which provides that, after the 
war, one great waterpower plant hitherto devoted to muni- 
tions shall produce nitrate for agriculture. 

Vast though our crude wealth is, both in coal and in water- 
power, our homes and our industries have within a twelve- 
month suffered for want of heat and of power. Millions of 
potential hydro-electric horsepower were wasting as water in 
the winter of 191 7-18, while thousands of people lacked food 
and fuel blocked in transit, upon tracks clogged with coal 
trains. That occurred because we shipped power by rail, as 
crude coal rather than by wire as electricity, in regions where 
water and mines are both accessible, and where the recur- 
rence of such hardship is, therefore, within our own control. 

Our undeveloped water resources are still part of the pub- 
lic domain, and the titles of bills dealing with them indicate 
that Congress expects to provide for the improvement of in- 
land navigation, for flood prevention, for the generation and 
distribution of hydro-electric power, for the production of 
munitions and fertilizers, and even for the maintenance of fish- 
ways. Naturally, no one bill covers all these possibilities. 

Waste of Manpower 
To SHIP coal for generating power at the point of use in- 
volves (whenever transmission of electric current could be 
substituted) waste of the following kinds of manpower: loco- 
motive engineers and coal train crews, captains and crews of 
coal schooners; captains, engineers, stokers of tugs and barges 
in coastwise, lake and canal transportation ; chauffeurs of coal 
trucks and drivers of horse-drawn coal carts, the men who load 
coal at the mine and at the ship, and unload it at the coalyard 
or the furnace, besides engineers and stokers at the innumer- 
able places where power is finally generated at the point of use. 

4 In the discussion of the bills before the last Congress, the estimates 
varied between thirty-five and sixty million horsepower. 

Work on the railroads in transporting coal is proverbially 
dangerous to life, limb and health of the employes, and con- 
tinually tends to reduce the supply of labor. Fortunately no 
part of this work is done by women and children, and the 
only other possible substitute for men seems to be the trans- 
mission by wire of electric power. 

If the war had continued for years, and our army had been 
increased by millions of men, we might have been compelled 
as a war measure, to divert copper and labor to the creation 
of electric power and transmission, to free men for the army 
or navy, and tracks for the transportation of food. At pres- 
ent, however, our need is primarily for popular knowledge of 
the facts. Certain picturesque items are available and 

Democracy in Industry 

In the Pennsylvania coal fields pulverized coal piled in huge 
mounds was, for nearly a century, a waste product never used 
and sometimes burned by its owners to save space. Only in 
recent years has its superheating value been discerned with 
the fact that electric power can be transmitted longer dis- 
tances in direct proportion to its volume, and this in turn can 
be reinforced by linking together all sources whether the power 
is derived from coal or is hydro-electric. In Wilkes-Barre, 
during the coal blockade, a manufacturing company which 
owned a mine transformed its culm mounds at the mine mouth 
and transmitted its power so gained at trivial cost, to its 
factory, which thus escaped all coalless Mondays. 

In the Northwest, far from coal fields, even those of Colo- 
rado, the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad moves its 
trains three hundred miles by power derived from the Great 
Falls in Montana. It ekes out the current from the falls by 
generating more while a train is running on the down grades, 
using apparatus carried on each car. Unfortunately compre- 
hensive federal surveys have not yet been made to ascertain 
how far other railroads could advantageously imitate this use 
of hydro-electric power. 

Picturesque and discreditable as illustrating our wasteful- 
ness, is the notorious fact that, while electric power generated 
at Niagara lights Syracuse, moves its surface cars, and serves 
numerous factories, coal is meanwhile carried by rail from 
Pennsylvania to Niagara over tracks that are sorely needed 
for other freight! 

In all history the standard of living of the laboring masses 
has nowhere been so high as in our Republic, in the closing 
quarter of the nineteenth century. This is now changing as 
the cost of living rises and wages in wide areas of industry 
follow slowly upward, or remain stationary. The long-de- 
layed expansion of wealth here proposed would, it is believed, 
enable us when peace is restored, to meet the terrific burden of 
principal and interest of our war loans with comparative ease, 
by reducing the cost of fuel and transportation, and enor- 
mously increasing the productivity of labor. 

The hydro-electric creation at home of fertilizers for which 
we have, in the past, been largely dependent on imports, should 
enable us to restore our former generous food standards. 

In the long struggle over our public water resources, un- 
counted wealth has been allowed to waste because we have 
not trusted ourselves to develop and administer our treasure 
for the common good. Though we have not yet bestowed the 
larger part of it upon private capital, neither have we yet 
adopted a policy of unified, collective administration applied 
to it. What we do in the near future with our marvellous 
endowment of water and coal will register, in full view of the 
whole world, what the people of the United States conceive 
to be democracv in industrv. 



The Federal Employment Service 

Analysis and Forecast 
By Edward T. Devine 

THOUGH "born of the war and tested by it," it 
may well be that in years to come the United States 
Employment Service, which was left without re- 
sources by the failure to pass the general deficiency 
bill, will be remembered for its contributions to the theory, 
science and practical development of a permanent national 
system rather than for its spectacular success in mobilizing 
man-power for war industries during a few months or in 
coordinating the resources of the country in the interest of re- 
turning soldiers and sailors. In the brief period since Jan- 
uary, 1918, when the service was reorganized as a separate 
unit of the Department of Labor, and especially in the frac- 
tion of that period — only four months — between the sign- 
ing of the armistice and the news that its appropriation had 
failed, a phenomenal progress has been made. Under the 
stimulus of the emergency and with the favor of patriotic 
enthusiasm, it has been possible to accomplish in fourteen 
months what might have required twenty years or more in 
ordinary times. 

The appropriations which enabled the Secretary of Labor to 
reorganize and develop the Employment Service were granted 
by Congress in consideration of " the present emergency " and 
" in connection with the prosecution of the war." While 
nothing has been undertaken which was not designed to pro- 
mote the immediate tasks in hand, still it is clear that Secretary 
Wilson has had faith that the service would so justify itself 
that it would become a permanent feature of the department's 
activities. In his annual report, although he calls it a " serv- 
ice," he treats it as coordinate with the Immigration Bureau, 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Children's Bureau, 
as if it were one of the established units of the department, 
and not one of the " war labor administrative services." Au- 
thority for it, moreover, he finds not in the appropriation meas- 
ures, but in the act of 191 3 establishing the Department of 
Labor, " to foster, promote, and develop the welfare of the 
wage-earners of the United States, to improve their working 
conditions, and to advance their opportunities for profitable 

It is clear, furthermore, that those chiefly responsible for 
the development of the Employment Service have had in mind 
its possibilities in normal times, when the present emergency 
due to the war shall have passed. Social workers seem to have 
taken its continuance for granted, and to have been surprised 
by the unfavorable attitude of some members of Congress — 
though if they had been properly alert, and not tod much pre- 
occupied with other things, they might at least have counter- 
acted the protests of unfriendly employers and private em- 
ployment agencies which at one time seemed not unlikely to 
defeat the appropriation even before the final paralysis of the 
filibuster. Finally, the reaction of the public to the announce- 
ment on March 13 that it would be necessary to cut down 
the number of offices in the country to 56 is evidence of the 
place which the Service has won for itself in the general 
estimation. Within ten days enough money had been pledged 
by states and cities, by chambers of commerce, labor organ- 
izations, Red Cross chapters, and various other voluntary 
bodies and individuals, to ensure the continuance not oniy 

of the special bureaus for returning soldiers and sailors but 
also of at least four hundred of the 750 general local offices; 
and telegrams were still coming in. 

This does not mean that there is nothing to criticize in the 
brief past and precarious present of the United States Employ- 
ment Service. On the contrary, there are many shortcomings 
and some mistakes. These mistakes and shortcomings are 
realized within the service as keenly as by anyone outside. 
They can be the more easily corrected in this interval of 
reduced and simplified operations. 

It cannot be denied — and no one seems disposed to deny 
— that there has been inefficiency in many offices, and that there 
have been many employes whose " separation " from the serv- 
ice will be no loss to it. There has been no strong, consist- 
ent directing policy, but too much shifting in organization 
and in division of responsibility between Washington and 
the states. The staff of experts and specialists at national head- 
quarters has undoubtedly been larger than necessary — " too 
many grand opera stars," one observer expresses it. This has 
made the administration top-heavy, and accounts for some of 
the vacillations in policy. Furthermore, even aside from the 
regrettable absence of the director-general for a long period 
at a critical time, there has been much uncertainty as to the 
location of final responsibility. 

In this respect the situation has closely resembled that which 
prevailed too long in the Bureau of War Risk Insurance in 
the Treasury Department. The official head in each case 
was one of whom all have spoken well personally and who 
had the complete confidence of the cabinet member to whom 
he owed his appointment. In each case, however, an assist- 
ant secretary and numerous special experts exercised more or 
less authority or influence ; and in each case the result of 
such division of authority and such uncertainty proved to be 
adverse to good administration. Perhaps it would not seem 
fanciful even to discover an analogy between the nucleus of 
the War Risk Bureau in the little bureau for insuring hulls 
and cargoes and that of the Federal Employment Service in 
the scheme in the Bureau of Immigration for distributing 

Moreover, a special assistant to the secretary of war has 
been charged with a certain amount of responsibility for find- 
ing jobs for discharged soldiers, and it is impossible to recon- 
cile the various explanations of the respective functions 
of these two services. If the assistant to the secretary 
of war is merely a liaison officer, whose duty it is to persuade 
the army officers in the demobilization camps to use the facili- 
ties which the federal Employment Service places at the dis- 
posal of the men and to keep the federal service informed 
as to when and where soldiers will need help in this direc- 
tion, that is understandable and likely to be useful. If, 
however, the War Department proposes, with no available 
appropriation for the purpose and no administrative machinery, 
to find jobs for discharged soldiers, it is only adding confusion 
to an already sufficiently muddled situation. The federal 
service is of course crippled temporarily by the failure of its 
deficiency appropriation, but the remedy for this is to find 




emergency funds from local official or voluntary sources — as 
in fact is being done to a gratifying extent. 

Such shortcomings and defects as have been indicated are 
incidental to creating under pressure a vast organization to 
perform functions not clearly understood in advance except 
by a handful of persons. The official estimate is a moderate 
one that five years would be needed to get an adequate national 
employment system into operation. As much as that would be 
required if all the conditions were favorable. With prejudices 
on the part of influential elements of the public to overcome, 
with uncertainties as to financial and moral support, with 
the necessity for legislation to settle certain questions as to 
scope and relations to the states, five years would not have 
been time enough to build up a thoroughly efficient person- 
nel, from director-general in Washington down to the " ex- 
aminer " in the smallest local office, to perfect the organiza- 
tion from the administrative point of view, and to realize 
effectively the new conception of the part which a federal 
employment service may take in our national program. 

Building Up an Organization 
The most obvious accomplishment of the United States Em- 
ployment Service is its skeleton of a national organization. At 
the time of our entrance into the war the outfit of the coun- 
try in the way of employment agencies was made up of some 
ninety-six public bureaus conducted by states or cities; about 
four thousand private fee-charging agencies; the limited serv- 
ice for immigrants and others maintained by the federal gov- 
ernment; and an unknown number of philanthropic efforts, 
doing a restricted kind of business not very great in aggre- 
gate volume and hardly touching the normal economic life of 
the country. Several states had established state systems but 
that of Ohio was the only one which was found to be ade- 
quately equipped. New York, Massachusetts, Wisconsin and 
and a few other states — ten at the outside — had what might 

be called systems of free public employment bureaus. Twenty- 
six states had passed laws of some kind authorizing their 

The war very literally put the national service " on the 
map," as is demonstrated by the distribution of the local 
offices in operation just before the enforced reduction in March. 
Before the end of 19 17 working relations had been established 
with most of the existing public bureaus. Between the date 
of the reorganization of the United States Employment Serv- 
ice, January 3, 191 8, and the date of the signing of the armis- 
tice on November 11- — ten months and one week — the num- 
ber of offices was almost multiplied by ten, increasing from 
about ninety to 850 or 900. 

Immediately after the secretary's order of Januarv 3, es- 
tablishing the service as an independent unit of the Depart- 
ment of Labor, its expansion was undertaken by the appoint- 
ment of federal directors in the various states and the estab- 
lishment of local offices. The process was speeded up by the 
President's proclamation of June 17 — following a recom- 
mendation of the War Labor Policies Board which originated 
in a suggestion from the Employment Service — solemnly 
urging all employers in war work " to refrain after August 
1, 1918, from recruiting unskilled labor in any manner ex- 
cept through this central agency." 

It was not an easy matter to build up this organization 
under existing conditions. There were not many men and 
women in the country who had had experience in high-grade 
employment work, and not all of them were immediately 
available, though nearly all of them have been drawn into the 
service in some capacity at one time or another. The draft 
had been operating for a year; the older men who were free 
for public service had for the most part long since found some 
place where they could be useful ; and men of ability who 
could be drawn upon for this new undertaking were not plen- 

107'LoDgitudc 102' West '.t' trom 98'Oreenwich S7' 












! / 










MARCH 1319 



Copyright, 1900, The McKJoley PablUhing Co., PhIlad«rDbi». Pi. 



tiful. Fifteen or twenty field organizers " possessing govern- 
ment experience and some acquaintance with employment busi- 
ness " were sent out over the country. There was a federal 
director in every state by April or May, and over two thou- 
sand new appointments to the staff were made in the six 
months from January 1 to June 30. One of the organizers 
describes the methods it was necessary to use by saying that he 
would go into a town where an office was needed, look 
around for a vacant store, rent it and put up a sign; then go 
out on the street and scan the pedestrians until he saw a man 
who looked as if he might be able to run an employment 
bureau, haul him in, give him a bunch of forms and instructions 
and leave him in charge of the new office. This description 
is no more exact than most caricatures, but at least it leaves 
an impression of the difficulties which had to be encountered. 
Under such conditions — to which might be added that of 
being obliged to operate the machine while it was in process 
of building — it was inevitable that much of the growth should 
" go to wood." Some of the federal directors were able and 
admirably qualified for their responsibilities; some were not. 
Some of the " examiners " were energetic and intelligent, and 
quickly became competent to carry on an office ; others were 
better adapted to the position of janitor. There was undoubt- 
edly more or less "politics" here and there: appointments 
made on the one hand to conciliate organized labor, on the 
other to win the approval of employers. In New York the 
state officials were not treated with proper consideration and 
the friction which resulted has been a constant handicap. If 
one party is in power in Albany and another in Washington 
their respective views as to how to get or keep the service 
" out of politics " are very likely to differ. There were shifts 
in the plan of organization ; kaleidoscopic changes in person- 
nel and rearrangement of functions in the national headquar- 
ters. Orders from Washington on some points were hardly in 
the hands of the representatives in the states before they were 
replaced by new instructions. The district system which was 
set up in February, intermediate between the director-general 
in Washington and the federal directors in the states, with 
boundaries based on those of the federal reserve bank system, 
was abandoned as it became evident that labor was not clear- 
ing within those boundaries, as had been anticipated, but over 
a much larger area. 

Success as a Recruiting Agency 
Somehow or other, though, in spite of all obstacles and mis- 
takes, the Employment Service did succeed as a recruiting 
agency. It coordinated the Public Service Reserve and the 
Boys' Working Reserve, already in existence, and created the 
Community Labor Boards to aid in recruiting and to serve as 
a connecting link between the service and the public. By the 
close of the war there were sixteen hundred of these advisory 
boards in existence, representing in their composition the em- 
ployers, the employes, and the national government. Some of 
them were very valuable; others did absolutely nothing. As 
a part of the skeleton, they have great possibilities. 

The aggregate amount of placement work done by the ser- 
vice in the year 191 8 was large: 

Applications for labor 8,799,798 

Applications for employment 3,212,581 

Referred to work 2,985,390 

Reported placed 2,371,667 

The growth of the work through the year and the sharp 
drop after the armistice is shown in the accompanying dia- 
gram. It is noticeable that the applications for labor were 
more than double the applications for employment and triple 
the placements during the later months of the year. Whether 
this discrepancy may be taken as a measure of the extent to 
which the service failed to meet the needs of employers is 

1 500 000 

1 250 000 

1 000 000 

750 000 

500 000 

250 000 

Jin. Feb. Mar. A(>r. May June Ju'ly Mig.Sefet 

1. Statistics of the work of the United States Employment 
Service by months through the year 1918 

doubtful, for no doubt they generally asked for a larger sup- 
ply than they needed. It does, however, illustrate the indus- 
triaPsituation of the period. 

Jobs were hunting men, hunting them feverishly, desper- 
ately, with plenty of money in hand for wages and salaries. 
Jobs were hunting not only men, but women ; not only adults, 
but children ; not only residents, but workers from any distance 
who might be attracted by high wages and steady employ- 
ment; not only citizens, but aliens, if there were any to be 
had ; not only competent workmen but any who looked half- 
way fit. 

Under such circumstances the task of the Employment 
Service was comparatively easy, although when the President's 
proclamation was issued in June, it was in no position to 
assume the responsibility of finding labor for all plants, and 
exemption orders authorizing employers to get labor as they 
could were not infrequent. Through its exceptional powers 
and its prestige as an instrument for winning the war, it could 
extract a labor supply from non-essential industries, or from 
a non-essential process in a war industry, or from an over- 
supplied staff even in an essential process, and it was always 
surprising to find how many hands could be spared almost 
anywhere if they were more needed elsewhere. It checked the 
wasteful and indefensible bidding by the government against 
itself; the shifting of labor from one plant to another and 
back again because of the absence of recognized standards of 
pay. It enabled the government and the industries working 
on its account to search out unutilized labor, or badly utilized 
labor, or misplaced labor, and to bring about a better adjust- 

When the war came to an end, therefore, the Employment 
Service had an organization of national scope in operation : 
a network of local offices and community labor boards with 
the state as the administrative unit. Progress had been made 
towards strengthening the position of the federal director, and 
centering in him responsibility for the work in his state. Spe- 
cial attention had already been given to questions connected 
with the placement of women, of Negroes, of skilled labor, and 
of professional men and women, as well as to recruiting farm 



1 1 1 1 1 ■ ■ ■ 


2. Increase of cities reporting a surplus of labor and decrease 

of cities reporting a shortage in the fourteen weeks 

ending March 8, 1919. 

labor and unskilled labor for factories. A weekly bulletin 
was published as a means of communicating both with the 
staff of the service and with the public. Plans were under 
way for promoting the use of uniform terminology and for 
the training of the personnel. Placements were being made 
at the rate of 100,000 a week. 

The Armistice 
Over Sunday (November 10) the situation changed. Or- 
ders for labor stopped. Cancellation of war contracts began 
within a few days. Demobilization was imminent, though 
the methods to be followed were uncertain. Capital became 
nervous. All at once jobs were no longer hunting meti, but 
men, women and children were hunting jobs. 

For a short time there were some spectacular wholesale 
shiftings. In Ohio, for example, 1,700 men released from an 
airplane plant at Dayton and 11,000 from nitrate plants at 
Cincinnati and Toledo, were sent without loss of time from 
the gates of their old establishments to their new employers. 
In some cases men were actually switched from one job to 
another en route. This state of affairs did not last long, how- 
ever. Employers soon began to be very particular, and whole- 
sale methods by which men were handled like cattle ceased 
to be suitable. Instead of a hundred or five hundred work- 
men at a time, they wanted one or two men with certain 
definite qualifications and a certain degree of skill. The indi- 
vidual rather than the group became the unit, as is the case 
in ordinary employment work. The personal efficiency of 
each employe of the service became much more important. 
Nathan A. Smyth, the assistant director-general, expressed the 
situation in a message to the federal directors: 

We are launched upon a vital program to replace in the industries 
of peace the millions of men and women who have served in the 
military and industrial armies of our country. And we are looking 
forward to the time when, through a well established and efficient, 
coordinated chain of labor exchanges, we can do much to eliminate 
unemployment and the retardation of production. 

From now on, we can serve the worker and the industries only 
if we are efficient. We have no repressive powers of law; we can 
justify our existence and establish the long needed and universally 
desired public employment service only if we make good. Our suc- 
cess depends primarily upon the daily work of the examiners in 
the local offices. By the quality of their work, by their comprehension 
of the difficult and delicate task that is theirs, the service will be 

Reports on Industrial Conditions 
The immediate concern was the replacement of demobilized 
war workers and soldiers and sailors. At the request of the 
secretary of war and the chairman of the War Industries 
Board, the Employment Service undertook to gather, through 
its Community Labor Boards, weekly reports on industrial 

conditions throughout the country. 1 The theory was that this 
information would be a guide to the War Department and 
the War Industries Board in demobilizing the army and the 
war industries, and would enable them to proceed in such a 
way as to avoid creating a serious unemployment situation. 
While it had no perceptible influence on the plans of either 
of the governmental agencies at whose behest it was instituted, 
it has been kept up by the Employment Service, to the evident 
interest of the public, and constitutes a basis from which 
might be developed an exceedingly important information 
service on the state of the labor market all over the coun- 
try. At present reports are received regularly from about seven 
thousand plants in 122 cities, with a combined pay roll of 
nearly 3,500,000 employes. 

The avidity with which the daily press has seized upon 
these weekly reports, some papers even holding back an issue 
in order to get them in, is proof of the demand for such 
information ; and it requires little imagination to realize the 
advantage there would be in having a reliable barometer of 
industrial conditions. Though these reports are as yet only 
fragmentary, and though it is hardly possible that the in- 
structions about collecting the figures have been uniformly in- 
terpreted by all the persons involved, still a very promising 
beginning has been made, and if the work can be developed 
and properly interpreted we may hope to have a statistical 
index to the state of the labor market and of industrial rela- 
tions in all the important centers of the country, ultimately 
even in rural districts and remote localities. Even in these 
first weeks they have indicated the trend of the situation, show- 
ing graphically the change of balance from a shortage of labor 
to a surplus and the increase in the area of unsettled condi- 
tions. (Diagrams 2, 3, 4.) 

The readjustment of the three million war workers might 
have been accomplished without the accompaniment of serious 
and protracted disturbance if it had not been complicated by 
the demobilization of soldiers. It was a keen disappointment 
to those in charge of the employment service that the plan 
urged by Mr. Smyth, of demobilizing men on the basis of their 
prospects in civil life, did not find favor with the War De- 
partment. When plans for demobilization were announced, 
after a trying delay, it appeared that no consideration was to 
be allowed to enter in except military convenience. The sol- 
diers were to be discharged by units, as rapidly as possible, 
with no reference to industrial conditions or to the circum- 
stances of the individual. Individual demobilization, condi- 
tioned upon evidence that the man had a position to go to, 
would have been a great deal of trouble for the military au- 
thorities. It would have involved arranging for furloughs 

■Responsibility for collecting this information was placed on the Com- 
munity Labor Boards under direction of the federal directors in the states, be 
cause of their representative character, because of their experience in 
mobilizing labor for war work, and because they had already had some 
practice in making surveys and investigations. The assistance of the local 
employment offices was put at their disposal. At the start about 125 
industrial centers were selected, with the idea that the number would be 
increased as fast as possible and desirable. 

The Community Labor Board in each of these centers was instructed 
to prepare a list of the employers who were " factors in the labor situation," 
to establish personal relations with the man in charge of the employment 
of labor in each plant, and to arrange to secure from him regularly the 
necessary data, either by telephone or telegraph, or, if feasible, by mail. 

The statistical information asked from the plants is merely the number 
of employes on the payroll on Saturday, and the anticipated number for 
the following Saturday. to this is added by the official in charge of the 
report a " general estimate of the situation," consisting of a quantitative 
estimate of the labor surplus or shortage existing at the time of the report, 
and a characterization of industrial relations as "good." "unsettled," or 
" acute." Recently two additional items have been asked for to give some 
indication of the situation in the building trades: the number of building 
is issued during the week, and the total value of the operations 

These reports are telegraphed to Washington at the close of every week, 
where they are tabulated according to industries, localities, etc.. and 

it with digests from the trade papers of the week, the clearance 
of the Employment Service, and other data, by the Industrial 
ditions Section of the War Trade Board. This is the source of the items 
which appear in the newspapers about the increasing number of localities 
with a labor surplus and other interesting information. 




of two or three weeks, to give men a chance to hunt for work 
and decide what they wanted to do, and it would have made 
demobilization a slower process. If it could have been car- 
ried out intelligently, it might have saved many men from 
a period of demoralization and discouragement and prevented 
the rapid development of a menacing industrial situation. 

The two concessions to individual needs which have been 
made by the War Department are of little practical signifi- 
cance. Commanding officers are authorized, by Circular No. 
77 (November 21), to discharge enlisted men on their own 
application " when there is sickness or other distress in the 
soldier's family or when he is needed to resume employment 
in an industry or occupation in which there is urgent need of 
his services; provided that such discharge will not disrupt or 
cripple an existing organization and that the soldier's service 
can be spared." Probably such applications are decided justly 
and reasonably in most cases, but at best they are likely to 
take a long time, as they must pass through the regular mili- 
tary channels, from the enlisted man up to his commanding 
officer and back down the hierarchy from the commanding 
officer to the man; and instances are not lacking of decisions 
which seem to have been made by rule, unmitigated by any 
touch of human considerations, as when a bank president who 
had requested the release of one of his cashiers was informed 
that he must make an affidavit that the business could not 
go on without this particular man; or when a man who had 
a ten thousand dollar position waiting for him was retained in 
the army because he was usefully employed in driving a truck 
and his discharge presumably would " disrupt or cripple " his 

The second concession was made late in January, when the 
amount of unemployment in the country was beginning to 
excite concern. This merely permits a man " who would 
normally be discharged under orders for demobilization " to 
" remain temporarily in the military service at his own writ- 
ten request until such time as he can secure employment," al- 
lotments and allowances to his family to continue also. There 
are few men who will not trust to chance rather than take 
advantage of this permission. 

The activity of the Employment Service in finding work for 
demobilized men is well known, through the publicity that has 
been given it in the press and its own effective advertising. 
By the end of November a program for organizing " the best 
thought and the best effort of every community in the United 
States" had been planned and set in motion. The Councils 
of National Defense, the six organizations of morale-making 
fame, together with the Red Cross, the American Federation 
of Labor, the American Council of Education, the Federal 
Board for Vocational Education, were enlisted and plans 
worked out for pooling their efforts, with the Employment 
Service as the recognized coordinating agency. A Central 
Committee was created, composed of representatives of all 
these organizations and of the War Department, the Navy 
Department, the Department of Agriculture and the War 
Labor Policies Board, " in order that the functioning of the 
agencies shall be progressive and flexible." 

Bureaus for returning soldiers and sailors were opened be- 
fore long in 1,800 or 2,000 places, and it is the desire that 
there should be one in every town to which a soldier or sailor 
is likely to return. In the small places the " bureau " is likely 
to be " in the hat of the postmaster " or the grocer or some 
other public-spirited citizen, who will put up a sign and be 
ready to answer questions about opportunities in the neighbor- 
hood and give advice to any man in uniform who happens 
by. In the large cities there are many offices with elaborate 
arrangements for sharing knowledge of openings. 

330 000 

800 000 


100 300 ■ 



Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb. Feb. Feb. Feb. liar. liar. 
7 14 21 88 4 11 1? :>6 1 9 15 22 1 ' 8 

I I ■ ■ " 


3. Aggregate surplus labor supply as estimated by the cities 
reporting a surplus, and aggregate shortage in those re- 
porting a shortage, in the four/ March 8, 
1919. (These figures do not include surpluses in Xew 
York. Chicago, and Philadelphia) 

Exceptional genius has been displayed in the preparation of 
the signs and posters inviting employers to give jobs to ex- 
soldiers and sailors. No great body of men was ever so well 
advertised and none ever gave a shrewd advertiser such ex- 
cellent copy. That the soldiers have initiative, good health, 
capacity for team work, and most of the other qualities de- 
sired in office or shop is quite true, and there is universal 
acquiescence in the use of billboards, the newspapers, the movie 
screens and all other organs of publicity in making this widely 
known. Employers have many inducements, patriotic and 
other, for taking back their old employes or giving preference 
among new ones to discharged soldiers, who have a certain 
monopoly of popular favor. Aliens who have been employed 
from necessity are likely to have to give place first, and then 
Negroes who have been taken from plantations of the south 
for work in the munition plants but who are naturally no 
more ready than others to go back to a harder and less paid 
job if they can help it. Women who have gone into men's 
jobs may have claims as good as those of the returning sol- 
diers, but the joyous advertiser who invites employers to trans- 
late their welcome into a good offer of work has no care for 
these things. His philosophy is as simple as it is patriotic: 

Jobs for soldiers: Soldiers for jobs. 

Hire the fighter: That's gratitude and sense. 

He made good for Uncle Sam : 

He will make good for you. 

Don't pay any one to find you a job: 

The government does it free. 

After the welcome home: 

A job. 

They work the way they fight. 
The uncomfortable question arises, however, whether these 
brilliant and seductive posters are read the more attentively by 
employers or by the soldiers. The confident assurance which 
they seem to convey that there is a well paid and attractive 
job for every hero may have the unintended and embarrassing 
result of holding in the seaport cities, where the advertising 
is naturally most profuse and most convincing, a great many 
heroes who came from distant farms or towns and who may 
be in doubt as to whether these opportunities will last if they 
are not seized at once or if they exist in their own home. A 
delay of even a fortnight to try out the sincerity of the implied 
offers may result in using up the slender cash balance with 
which the soldier is discharged, and may make it actually 
necessary for him to remain longer and find work even -tf 



a far less attractive kind than he expected or than would be 
available in his own state. Naturally it would not be the 
most desirable — if any degrees are allowable among men all 
of whom are so highly recommended — who would be most 
easily influenced in such ways. 

To reach the men before discharge, permission was obtained 
from the secretary of war to station a representative in every 
demobilization camp. The order of the adjutant-general 
defines their function as being " to furnish information to the 
commanding officer of the camps or other places concerned 
which may be used by such commanders to faciliate and assist 
men discharged in the camps [in] securing suitable civil em- 
ployment. The commanding officer concerned will give wide 
publicity by means of bulletin boards or otherwise to such 
information and use the information furnished by the Depart- 
ment of Labor for the benefit of those soldiers who are to be 

One or two commanding officers construed this order as 
narrowly as possible, interpreting it to mean that the Em- 


« oettlej" 



4. Number of cities reporting industrial conditions as "good," 

"unsettled," or "acute," in the fourteen weeks 

ending March 8, 1919 

ployment Service's representative was at liberty to tell him 
whatever he knew about " opportunities for employment, num- 
ber and qualifications of men needed in each locality for the 
various employments needing men, wages paid, living con- 
ditions and opportunities for housing, conditions surrounding 
the work, etc." and that the men were then free to come to 
him — the commanding officer — and question him about what 
he had learned. At Camp Devens, on the other hand, Major- 
General McCain set aside a separate building in the central 
part of the camp for an employment office, detailed a captain 
and nine army clerks to help, and supported all the efforts of 
the representatives of the Employment Service. The men are 
ordered to report, a company at a time, at the employment 
office, from one to three days before they are to be discharged. 
A talk is given them on the employment question ; they are 
urged to go straight home and to go back to their former 
position if it is open ; and they are told that the government 
has placed the Employment Service at their disposal in case 
they have no work to return to. Then the men are divided 
into three groups: those who have positions waiting; those 
who are not sure whether they have or not; and those who 
have no work. An individual interview is had with each 
man, and those who wish help are referred either to an em- 
ployer in the place to which they are going, or to the nearest 
employment bureau. For the men sent to an employment 
office, duplicate cards are made out, one of which is mailed to 
the office before the man leaves. If it is learned that the man 
is not engaged by the employer to whom he is referred, an 
effort is made to get in touch with him again and the nearest 

employment office is asked to place him. Of the 12,559 men 
discharged in December, 6,954 (over half) said they needed 
no assistance, 2,777 had assurance of their old position, 902 
were referred to positions, and 1,926 to their local employment 

Through the associated organizations which have represen- 
tatives on the transports, arrangements have been made to 
disseminate similar information and advice on the voyage home 
and to give the men an opportunity to make application in 
advance for assistance in obtaining work. When the system 
works according to hopes, the application of a man who needs 
help in getting work is in the hands of the employment bureau 
nearest his home, or the place he has decided to go, before he 
himself arrives — from twenty-four hours to two weeks before. 
Theoretically the employment bureau will have a position 
waiting for him when he calls. What with delays in getting 
the cooperation of some of the commanding officers, however ; 
inefficiency on the part of some of the Employment Service 
representatives; inexplicable delays in the progress of some of 
the packages of applications from the camps to destination ; 
fast decreasing supply of vacant positions; and exalted notions 
on the part of the men as to what they should have, it is not 
likely that the system has worked just this way in any large 
proportion of the cases of men discharged thus far. 

This phenomenon of " appreciation " in the value which ex- 
soldiers and sailors place upon their services adds to the difficul- 
ties of the employment bureaus, though in general it is a 
healthy and creditable manifestation of a justifiable feeling. 
Former positions look about as much too small to the men 
as do shoes of the size they wore two years ago. The 
impression in the bureaus for returning soldiers and sailors 
is that one-time clerks on a salary of twenty-five or 
thirty dollars a week, having spent six months in Europe, 
think they are ready for responsible positions in " ex- 
port business," to travel to South America or the Orient, 
as well as to France, or to teach French in a college, on the 
basis of the knowledge of the language picked up in the vil- 
lages where they were quartered ; that college boys who 
went through the officers' training course and have been draw- 
ing a second lieutenant's pay (" seconds," they are called in 
some of the offices) expect a salary of at least $1,800. and 
usually choose to be a " bank clerk " ; that the southern Negroes 
want to stay in the northern cities; that in general men from 
the country do not want to go back to it, while on the other 
hand those who do look toward an agricultural life are men 
who have no training or experience for it. 

Disabled soldiers and sailors have hardly begun to come 
into the labor market. Most of them are still under treat- 
ment or in process of " rehabilitation." The Employment 
Service, however, cooperates with the Federal Board for Vo- 
cational Education in their interest, and has assumed the re- 
sponsibility of placing them when they become candidates tor 

Improving the Service 
With the change in the situation brought about by the end 
of the war, the plans already under way for improving the 
service by intensive cultivation were pushed ahead. What 
has been accomplished in this direction is a permanent con- 
tribution to social work, of far greater value than success in 
filling orders for war workers or in framing a comprehensive 
program for the relatively brief period of demobilization. 

To raise the standard of service it was necessary to raise 
the average quality of the " examiner " in the local office, 
either by elimination of the incompetent or by training of the 
teachable. Both methods were put into use. but the prefer- 
ence in Washington seems to have been for giving as main as 



possible a chance to " learn " before " separating" them, 
though with the qualification that they must learn fast. 

A systematic program for the training of the personnel was 
worked out, with the Normal Training Conferences as the 
basis. Federal directors in the various states were asked to 
select delegates — usually a man and a woman from each state 
— to attend a two-weeks' course in Washington. On their 
return they were to organize conferences in their own state, 
to pass on what they had learned and to promote the develop- 
ment of their local work. One of these normal conferences, 
held in January, represented chiefly the northeastern part 
of the country; another, in February, was composed of dele- 
gates chiefly from the southern states. 

There were about thirty in each group. A crowded pro- 
gram was provided for them during the eleven or twelve days 
they were in Washington. There were lectures by the heads 
of the various branches of the service and by outsiders in 
closely allied work, personal conferences with members of the 
staff at headquarters, and — what was probably the most valu- 
able feature — round-table conferences for two hours every day, 
when small groups of ten or twelve, carefully assorted geo- 
graphically, under the leadership of experienced practical em- 
ployment bureau managers, discussed such questions as the 
office " lay-out," considerations determining hours of opening 
and closing, routine in the office, the extent of information 
sought in interviewing applicants, whether applicants are al- 
lowed to fill out their cards themselves, cooperation with other 
agencies, methods employed for finding opportunities, relations 
with employment managers, publicity methods, interpretation 
of headings on reports and forms, what files are kept and how 
they are used, and hundreds of other questions connected with 
the daily work of an office. 

After the first of these conferences, the tentative draft of 
a manual for the employes of the service was prepared. It was 
submitted to those who had attended the first conference, to 
those who came to the second, and to many persons outside 
the service. The intention was to print it, after collecting 
and considering criticisms from outside and arriving at an 
agreement on principles and policies among the officials of the 
service itself. Even in its tentative and unfinished form, 
this manual is probably the most comprehensive treatment of 
the technique of placement work which has yet been attempted. 

Another conference was to have been held, for representa- 
tives from the West, but this is one of the things that has had 
to be given up, along with other excellent plans for improving 
the service. 

The essence of the teaching at these normal conferences, 
in the manual, and through the Bulletin which was published 
weekly until February 7, has been that the whole service must 
stand or fall by the kind of work done by the individual in- 
terviewer in the local office; that the position is no " desk job " 
to be filled by an automaton who merely files applications for 
work and requests for labor and matches them up when it can 
be done conveniently, but that the business of the office is " to 
give service," to find work — literally go out and find it — for 
those who apply, and to find workmen for the employers who 
consult it; that the examiner must be " a real fellow, and not 
a mechanical doll." 

In addition to training the personnel, in spirit and method, 
various enterprises were undertaken by headquarters with a 
view to improving the service by supplying better " tools " in 
the way of terminology and forms. Among these undertakings 
are the " trade specification booklet's " prepared for the Em- 
ployment Service by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, of which 
the first were issued in December, designed to establish a 

degree of uniformity in nomenclature in the field of skilled 
labor, so that it will be easier to know what a man " is " and 
what an employer really wants. Another effort in the sairr 
direction is the development of " technical interviews," 
adapted from the " oral," " picture," and " performance " tests 
devised in the army, for determining not only what a m;in 
means when he says he is a machinist or a plumber, but 
roughly what degree of skill he has in his trade, so as to obviate 
the possibility of sending a blacksmith to fill a vacancy for a 
boilermaker, at any rate, or an apprentice when only a master 
workman will do. In a somewhat analogous way the pro- 
fessional section tried to standardize terms — to the extent at 
least of determining what occupations are " professional," 
and formulating a descriptive statement of requirements for 
each. By the use of uniform blanks for applications and re- 
ports, a terminology of employment work was in process of 
establishment throughout the country. 

A third way in which it was sought to improve the service 
was through the consideration of the special pfoblems of 
selected groups of workers, by a staff engaged primarily in 
research and formulation of principles in the Washington 
office. The work for returning soldiers and sailors has already 
been spoken of. Other groups which had been chosen for 
specialized study and attention, though naturally to a less 
degree, were women workers, farm labor, " juniors," profes- 
sional men and women, and the handicapped, with special 
reference to the " elderly " over forty-five. 

Every great organization is familiar with the mutual jeal- 
ousies and friction between line and staff. The creation in 
the director-general's office of staff positions dealing with these 
special problems and cutting across the geographical distribu- 
tion of administrative authority, however necessary it may be, 
worked in the Employment Service as it often works elsewhere. 
The federal director in a state and his staff naturally resent 
the assumption, for example, that, because work for juniors is 
especially delicate and important, therefore the national 
director-general must have a special voice in the selection of 
the local juvenile counselors and a special organization for 
their control. The difficulty was increased by the variety in 
the relation of these experts at headquarters to the general 
organization. Some of them were in the Division of Opera- 
tion, where all should have been logically. One was in the 
Division of Organization, while one, dealing with farm serv- 
ice, was itself called a " division," coordinate with operation 
and organization. Women's work is provided for in none of 
these divisions, but by an " assistant to the director-general 
for women's work." This position of course has nothing to 
do with the Woman in Industry Service, which is legally co- 
ordinate with the Federal Employment Service and with the 
Working Conditions Service in the Department of Labor — 
none of which are bureaus. The professional and special 
section was put under the personal supervision of the assistant 

All this may have been quite justified. It seems to indicate 
a wholesome disregard for paper uniformity and a determina- 
tion to find a congenial niche for each operation — a head that 
would be interested and sympathetic, whether it happened to 
be the director-general, his assistant, or any one else about 
the department. 

Some of this specialized work may have been premature; 
some of it may not have been properly coordinated with the 
rest of the system ; some of it may have operated to embarrass 
the federal directors in the states; but it is evidence, at any 
rate, that the administration had a broad view of the possi- 
bilities and responsibilities of the service. 



The New Conception 
Of all its accomplishments, the one of most significance for 
the future is the conception which has grown up of what a 
federal employment service might be, the place it might occupy 
in normal times in our national economy. 

We have been in the habit of thinking of a public employ- 
ment bureau as a place to which a workman goes after he has 
tried all other ways of getting a job and has not been success- 
ful ; a last resort for the employer in a busy season. We have 
not expected to find good workmen on its list, any more than 
we have regarded a charitable society as likely to send us a 
first-class dressmaker or housekeeper from among its bene- 
ficiaries. The superintendent of such an office is merely the 
publicity agent for the man out of work. Free public employ- 
ment bureaus, while this rudimentary conception holds, are 
regarded mainly as measures for the relief of unemployment, 
or as competitors against exploitive fee-charging private 

The next stage — soon reached by any intelligent person who 
tries to carry on an employment bureau, and thoroughly assim- 
ilated in the official pronouncements of the Employment 
Service — is that of a labor exchange, where openings and 
candidates are registered, and where the registrations come as 
near as possible to including the total labor supply and the 
total labor demand of the district and the trade served, not 
merely the vacancies as they occur and the chance applications 
of the day. When a man needs a job, as Boyd Fisher 
expresses it, " he needs it yesterday," and when an employer 
needs a man, he needs him yesterday. If the employment 
bureau fails to supply either need until tomorrow there is 
waste and hardship. 

Under this conception the superintendent advances to the 
position of an active placement agent, in close relations with 
the employers of the community, with the trade unions, and 
with the other factors of the situation. His success is judged 
by the volume of his business, by the proportion of applicants 
placed and the proportion of positions filled. 

The United States Employment Service of 19 18- 19, how- 
ever, has brought us. to a third and larger conception. There 
has perhaps been no official formulation of this newer concep- 
tion. The federal director in one state might put it in one 
way ; his colleague in an adjoining state in a quite different 
way. Certainly there have been many conflicting ideas as to 
scope and function among the numerous experts attached to 
the Washington office. Nevertheless, out of the necessity of 
meeting the kaleidoscopic changes in practical demand, out of 
the publicity due to financial vicissitudes and to the popular 
interest in returning soldiers, out of the daily experience and 
thinking of the more than four thousand employes in the 
service, there has been forming a clearer notion — on the part 
of those who are responsible for the administration, of what 
they would like to accomplish ; and on the part of the general 
public, of what we should expect from it. 

In the new conception, the labor exchange becomes a center 
of information about the industrial situation. The original 
idea of helping a man who is out of work to find a job 
remains, but it is no longer in each case an isolated, individual 
and often hopeless task. Efficient placement work has grad- 
ually made of the superintendent and his field assistants th> 
best informed persons in the community in regard to the dif- 
ferent plants in which labor is employed. They know what 
the relations are between superintendents and foremen and the 
workers, how the hiring and firing is done, the operation of 
federal and state laws and city ordinances which affect labor, 
the state of the labor market, and even perhaps something of 
the plans of those who furnish credit and who control the local 

industries. They feel the pulse of the industrial life of the 
community. They see in advance changes in the labor situa- 
tion. They would often be in a position to gauge industrial 
unrest, perhaps to help informally, although of course not as 
official arbitrators, in adjusting or averting disputes. They 
would be constantly in touch with plans for development or 
retrenchment in the various industries. They would be 
familiar with the curves of seasonal occupations and would 
naturally be thinking what might be done to dove-tail workers 
from one into another, or to get employers to consider whether 
the peak of the curve might not be flattened, the work dis- 
tributed more advantageously to the workers throughout the 
year. They would be led to study the " job-shifts " in the 
community, to get an idea of the number occurring in a year, 
the proportion of them which would be accomplished through 
the normal channels of personal acquaintance, union associa- 
tions, and so on, and the proportion, on the other hand, which 
might be regarded as the responsibility of the employment 
bureau. They would be impressed with the large proportion 
of such shifts which seem to be futile and wasteful, the conse- 
quence of bad management somewhere, and they would find 
themselves trying to devise ways of reducing this proportion. 
In short, they would become the community experts on matters 
relating to employment and unemployment, and the bureau 
would become a stabilizing force in industry. 

Under such a conception of the function of an employment 
bureau, a large volume of business would be a disgrace. The 
state director would become suspicious of an office where the 
statistics of placements were going up. The superintendent's 
ideal would be somewhat like that of the .dentist who has 
charge of a patient's teeth from childhood, and who feels 
chagrined if one of them has to be extracted. He would start 
the boys and girls on their wage-earning career, with an eye 
out for their future, and when it becomes desirable to change 
he would be ready to advise them. Adult " repeaters " in his 
list would be to him an indication that something was wrong. 
By dint of simply knowing conditions and telling his clients 
what he knows as a basis for them to make their decisions, he 
would be an influential factor in improving all sorts of 
unfavorable conditions. 

A network of offices operating under the influence of such a 
conception as this would give such a body of information about 
labor conditions as we have at present no means of collecting, 
and as we need more and more every year. Each office, more- 
over, would be the local representative of the national govern- 
ment. There would thus be, in every part of the country, 
someone and some place to which local inquiries might be 
addressed about anything relating to industry, and the secre- 
tary of labor Mould, through this network of offices, keep his 
finger on the pulse of the nation, just as the local superintend- 
ent would have his intimate acquaintance with his own com- 


To realize this conception, it is essential first of all that there 
shall be strong leadership in its development. The director 
of the federal service should be a man of executive ability, 
•with a policy of his own and a strong hand and brain to carry 
it out, without fear of congressmen or of organized labor or 
of manufacturers or even of experts in employment work. It 
is not essential that he should have had experience previously 
in conducting an employment bureau, but he should be master 
of all the details of the business within a reasonable time 
after taking office. 

In the second place, there is needed federal legislation which 
will establish the federal Employment Service on an unequiv- 
ocal basis, as one of the bureaus of the Department of Labor ; 



and state legislation creating a state service in each state, in 
relation with the coordinating and unifying federal service. 

The geographical extent of the United States, its population, 
and the variety both in industrial conditions and in legisla- 
tion, require that national supervision be reduced to a mini- 
mum, and that the state should be the unit of administration, 
in the sense that the state government, rather than the federal, 
is responsible for the administration. 

The state director, deriving authority from state legisla- 
tion, should be charged with full responsibility for the suc- 
cess of the work in his own state, the national bureau con- 
fining itself to coordinating information, stimulating activity, 
and formulating general policies. Later it may be found 
desirable to build up district federations of states, on the basis 
of the prevailing industries or crops, for mutual help in com- 
mon problems and for convenience in clearance of labor. 

To ensure the development and stability of such a state sys- 
tem of free public employment bureaus coordinated in a per- 
manent federal employment service, it is no doubt desirable 
that there should be financial assistance by the federal govern- 
ment througli the Department of Labor to the state service, 
probably on a dollar-for-dollar basis. For a year or more, 
while the demobilization of the army is in progress, two-thirds 
of the whole expense might well be met by the federal gov- 
ernment. Such a subsidy system would enable the federal 
government to establish standards, to test results, to collect 
uniform statistics, to cooperate in training the staff, and to 
distribute through national clearance any surplus labor caused 
by immigration, the closing down of plants, or other disturb- 
ing factors. 

It would be desirable that there should be a system of local 
advisory boards, to serve as a link between the employment 
service and the public. For such a system the Community 
Labor Boards which were established to help in recruiting war 
workers offer a foundation as well as a precedent. 

Finally, superintendents and staff should throughout be 
selected under the merit system and protected in their tenure 
against changes for political reasons. 

In the reconstruction of our industry on a peace basis there 
are certainly tasks of enormous importance for a national 
employment service, whether workers are seeking jobs or 
plants are seeking workers, whether employment is relatively 
stable or the contrary. As an after-war agency the federal 
Employment Service will fill a place which could hardly have 
been conceived — certainly not with any prospect of realization 
— before the national awakening to which the war gave rise. 

Workers are far more impatient than before that their 
work shall be productive, that it shall be not merely re- 
munerated, but of actual social utility. It is no longer a 
heresy that industry may be carried on for use rather than for 
profit. This implies above all that workers shall be directed 
into an occupation suited to their powers and giving scope for 
development. Maximum production, with conditions the most 
favorable for the workers, becomes the conscious ideal. Under 
the inspiration of this ideal minors, even at eighteen years, 
will need guidance in the choice of a career, and sympathetic 
oversight in the early years of work, to guard against physical 
and moral dangers. 

Women who are entering industry are entitled to reliable 
information about working conditions and to responsible guid- 
ance in their choice of an occupation. Now that women vote 
and are working at so many kinds of jobs, we are in danger 
of exaggerating as much as we have heretofore underes- 
timated their preparation for industry. The fact is that 
often they are timid; that they have no sense of business; that 

they take any job they can get, frequently not at all the right 
;ob. Even more than men, they are dependent on just such 
;.dvice and counsel as a public employment service, disinter- 
ested and broadly social, can give them. No statistics can 
show how many women workers have already come to rely 
upon the kindly offices of the Employment Service as others 
have relied in times past on bureaus conducted by churches, 
settlements or charitable societies. 

Immigrants must have just such information as was con- 
templated when the Division of Information was first estab- 
lished in the Bureau of Immigration. The distribution of 
aliens is an integral part of an Americanization program. As- 
similation involves many things, not the least of which is 
absorption in industry under the most favorable conditions 
which industry permits. 

Negroes coming north, farm boys coming into the towns, 
may require to be sent back immediately, with convincing 
reasons for remaining where they were — if there are such rea- 
sons — or to be directed into the appropriate places if they 
are justified in moving. From the standpoint of a national 
organization of industry, agriculture and commerce in such 
a way as to serve the national welfare, there is an argument 
for an effective federal employment service far more conclu- 
sive than any considerations based on the convenience or ad- 
vantage of individual employers or employes. 

The analysis of the conception to which we have come, and' 
the forecast with which we close, may seem visionary. Ex- 
perienced employment experts may object that after all the 
function of an employment bureau is to fill orders of employ- 
ers and to find jobs for applicants. In the statics of indus- 
try that is true. A bureau which has no patronage and which 
does not enjoy the confidence of both labor and capital is no 
bureau at all. In the dynamics of industrial change, how- 
ever, a federal employment service which fills orders and finds 
jobs without becoming also a center of reliable information 
to those who seek it on the spot and a source of statistical 
and descriptive material which can be collated and inter- 
preted for each regional unit and for the nation, which does 
not contribute to the democratizing and socializing of in- 
dustry, which does not help to increase the social value of 
the human integer in industry, is likewise no service at all. 

Our forecast does not imply that the federal Employ- 
ment Service shall have a legal monopoly. Private fee-charg- 
ing labor bureaus have been charged with many abuses, and 
there is sufficient reason for a strict public supervision over 
them such as is now provided by law in several states. Em- 
ployers during the war were required to recruit labor for war 
industries through the Employment Service, but we Americans 
are not over fond of coercion in such matters, and it would 
be possible to prevent abuses by supervision and competition. 

For clerical and professional work, there is likely to remain 
an important place for the private agency, and its competition 
may be expected to have a very wholesome influence on the 
public bureaus. There is no reason why private agencies 
should not be required to make financial and statistical reports 
to the federal service, just as banks, railways, and private 
schools report to the appropriate governmental bureaus. If 
the federal-state system can drive them out of business by a 
superior service for which no fees are charged, no tears 
need be shed ; and if not, their continuance may likewise 
be regarded with equanimity. 

The secretary of labor asked for an appropriation of about 
eleven million dollars for the ensuing year, in addition to the 
deficiency appropriation of nearly three millions. This 
amount can be reduced if by the adoption of a uniform federal- 
state system a part of the burden is assumed by the states. 

18 . THE SURREY FOR APRIL 5, igig 


By Katrina Trask 

SHE comes, majestic, through the fields of death 
Where men lie mangled with quick rattling breath, 
A radiant vision shining in their eyes — 
For they have, now, fulfilled their high emprise. 
Through fire She comes, through agony and woe, 
More beautiful than dawn's illumined glow. 
She comes — and harmony and love increase: 

Crowned with the morning stars She stands — Her name is Peace. 
Her flower-fragrant garment sweeps the grasses, 
Nc blood-stench lingers on the way She passes; 
She bends to little children with new lore, 
She mends all broken places from Her store, 
She opens gates of science with Her key, 
She hastes to set all folk, in bondage, free ; 
Although She rules a queen, with right divine, 
She stoops to break the bread and pour the wine. 

She dwells upon the height: the firm foundation 

Of Her secure and lofty habitation 

Is sapphire stone, so beautiful and blue ; 

Its walls are crystal, and the light shines through ; 

Its towers are of chalcedony, they rise, 

Impregnable, through ether, to the skies. 

The limpid waters, flowing by that way, 

Are pure and sparkling as the sun-kissed day. 

Such is Her home, and there She rules alone, 

Holding unconquered Her immortal throne. 

She comes to justify the ways of God; 

And yet men sneer at Her, with scoffing nod, 

They call Her coward, for they do not know 

The finest balances; they thereby show 

Their own poor cowardice, their petty fear 

To take the part of One at whom men sneer; 

They paint Her as a dull and dove-like thing, 

Flying near earth, with low and craven wing, 

A vapid creature, in a stupid trance, 

Holding on high a foolish olive branch; 

The artists but repeat the ancient cries, 

And dip their color-brushes in old lies. 

The quickened pulses of all men would stir, 

If they could see an accurate sketch of Her. 

Valiant, She goes, where valiant men have died ; 
She is denounced and mocked on every side, 
But though so fair, yet She is dauntless, strong 
To wage perpetual war on every wrong; 
With blood-stained weapons She will never fight, 
Hers is the spirit sword — the sword of light. 
No pallid negative is She: Her life 
Is endless warfare but devoid of strife. 

Let old traditions and the old lies cease! 

Shine forth, eidolon, of the truest Peace. 

Clothed with white fire, wielding Her flaming sword, 

Peace is the deathless Warrior of the Lord. 

To Unshackle Philadelphia 

By Neva R. Deardorff 

THE sound of the last shot of the war had hardly 
died away before certain energetic Philadelphians 
began making vigorous preparations for overhauling 
the local government of that none-too-modern 
metropolis. Their hope was to get just a little more real 
democracy and better government in their city which, as a 
city, had not particularly distinguished itself in holding up 
the hands of the federal government during the war. The 
overhauling in this instance had to be done in Harrisburg and 
by means of the legislature, which is in session this spring. 
Their efforts had been directed toward changing the city's 
charter or, perhaps it would be more accurate to say, toward 
getting a charter for their city. The legal powers of the gov- 
ernment of Pennsylvania, like those of the British government, 
rest on a great conglomeration of laws and court decisions. In 
this scheme, to carry the parallel further, Philadelphia is placed 
somewhat in the same position as Ireland. Philadelphia is 
an entity; it has a character quite distinct from the rest of the 
state; it has its own problems; it is as capable of local self gov- 
ernment as it is ever likely to be — and quite as capable as are 
the other communities which send representatives to the legis- 
lature to which it must confide all its affairs for settlement 
in the last analysis. All matters of structure of government, 
of function and in many instances of method are dictated to 
Philadelphia by the Pennsylvania legislature, over three-quar- 
ters of the members of which come from other parts of the 
state and have no more interest in the internal affairs of Phil- 
adelphia than they have in those of Oshkosh or Calcutta. Their 
divorce from any responsibility for the legislation they pass 
for Philadelphia is completed by the subterfuge which evades 
the provision of the state constitution prohibiting special and 
local legislation. By classifying the cities of the state and by 
legislating for "cities of the first class " of which Philadelphia 
is the only one, the legislators have been able with compara- 
tive safety to do almost anything to the old town. And they 
have done it, too. What could not be done in Philadelphia 
could usually be put over in Harrisburg by those who knew 
how. Political factions club one another with threats of a 
" ripper " of the offices controlled by the unaccommodating op- 
ponent. Local factions seek for purely local reasons to dig 
themselves in with representation in the state legislative body. 
Measures not in favor with the politicians have almost always 
been pickled in a committee in Harrisburg. Once in a while 
the country members could be induced by an energetic lobby to 
pass some quite progressive measure which would be promptly 
nullified by a backward city administration or, as in the case 
of the 19 1 3 housing bill, by the city councils which refused to 
appropriate money for the salaries of inspectors — in which de- 
fiant attitude they were sustained by the courts, important fac- 
tors in contributing to Philadelphia's confusion. The Phil- 
adelphia politicians are past masters in the art of going to 
court; mandamus and quo warranto are their middle names. 
The amiable judges feeling competent to pass on anything, 
no matter how technical, hand down decisions which contain 
contradictions in terms and which when invoked under other 
circumstances often bring about legal chaos. 

The state constitution is a hold-over from that period when 
men thought they were wiser and fairer and more far-sighted 
and clever than could possibly be the men — or women — who 
were to come. They made a long and rather specific constitu- 

tion and then made it hard to amend. As a result Philadel- 
phia has a group of county offices which, with the constitution 
and the court decisions, are almost laws unto themselves. In 
practice it has worked out that the supposed legislative safe- 
guards have been millstones around the necks of officials with 
vision and initiative but quite convenient barricades for the 
officials who were content to let things run on undisturbed. 
The Philadelphia politician is a genius when it comes to using 
for himself and for the machine everything that is handy, be 
it millstones or a complacent electorate. 

The big stake used to be the fee-paying offices. A four 
years' term as recorder of deeds, for instance, would provide 
an income for lifetime and found a family fortune. Grad- 
ually the fee offices were reduced to a salary basis and now pay 
from ten to fifteen thousand dollars a year, with the exception 
of the register of wills, an office yielding the holder about a 
quarter of a million dollars in a four-year term. But the 
really great prizes, outside the public utilities, in the game 
now are and for some years have been the city contracts. Phil- 
adelphia has always made contracts, of course, but it is only 
since the municipality has been undertaking great enterprises 
that these opportunities have come into full bloom. Both fac- 
tions of the so-called Republican machine have had their con- 
tractor favorites, who have amassed fortunes that make the 
old fee-grabbing look like the newsboys' game of craps. The 
principal contractor of the Penrose camp, James P. McNichol, 
died recently in middle age leaving a fortune of several mil- 
lion dollars. He started with nothing but a knack for politics. 

Contracts, Bonding, Deposits 
It is estimated that the Vare brothers who lead the other fac- 
tion of the Republican machine derive not less than seven hun- 
dred thousand dollars a year for their various services to the 
municipality, principally street cleaning, garbage and refuse 
collection and contracts for grading, filling and similar opera- 
tions. There have been, from time to time, uproars of news- 
paper criticism of certain kinds of abuses, but even the news- 
papers lay off from the real causes of Philadelphia's bad gov- 
ernment. The contractors are by no means the only men who 
mix business and politics there. While the mayor runs a bond- 
ing business which sells security to a large number of city em- 
ployes and contractors and to the denunciation of which the 
newspapers have devoted quantities of space, one of the most 
powerful bankers of the city is one of three sinking fund com- 
missioners, whose affairs are kept so secret that about all that 
can be found out, in addition to the fact that the banker trades 
with his own house, is that, though interest rates generally 
are advancing, the commissioners report the sinking yield to 
be decreasing. On all of its bank deposits the city gets 2^/2 
per cent — in some instances from institutions which offer any 
private depositor 3 per cent and upwards on similar idle de- 
posits. The petty politicians, even the contractor politicians, 
are not alone in Philadelphia when it comes to regarding 
the city as fair game. As no one knows how to launch 
the boomerang with absolute safety to himself, the throwing 
consists mainly in hurling newspaper bricks at the contractors 
who do not especially mind being advertised as the most power- 
ful janitors that ever held sway over a cluttered-up city. The 
great body of everyday folks in Philadelphia know that things 
are not as they should be, but they do not know who is re- 
sponsible or how to make things any better. 




It is into the midst of this web that the charter revisionists, 
a volunteer committee, have come with legal shears to try to 
snip some of the tangled threads. A complete and basic un- 
raveling would require a constitutional convention and a fresh 
start on a home rule basis; but a great many things can be 
done by the present legislature. It is to these things that the 
charter committee has addressed itself. The committee is 
made up of one hundred and thirty-seven of the more pro- 
gressive men and women of the city. It is nonpartisan in 
composition and, while the measures which it is advocatir 

will if adopted clip the wings of the anti-Penrose crowd, that 
is only because they are in power at the moment. The Phil- 
adelphia Bureau of Municipal Research has furnished staff 
service in the framing of the measures. In the legislature, 
Dr. George Woodward, senator and well known philan- 
thropist, is actively pushing the measures, and several other 
members are helping faithfully. The newly elected governor, 
Mr. Sproul, is understood to be in favor of them. 

The first and possibly the most important measure is to es- 
tablish a fair basis of representation for, and to reduce the 
size of the city councils. There are now two chambers, a se- 
lect council composed of one representative from each of the 
forty-eight wards of the city and a common council made up 
of ninety-seven members, assumed to represent the wards in 
proportion to their number of assessed voters. But that ar- 
rangement falls so far short of the mark that in some wards 

one vote for common 
councilman is worth 
four times what it is 
in some other wards. 
The wards range in 
size from 1,301 to 
20,670 assessed 
voters. Each ward is 
allowed a common 
councilman for each 
4,000 assessed voters, 
but those wards 
which have less than 
the 4,000 — and there 
are a good many of 
the m — are guaran- 
teed one member in 
the common council. 
By means of these 
" rotten boroughs, " a 
third of the popula- 
tion of the city elects 
a majority of both 
chambers, and that 
third is the happy 
hunting-ground of the 
politicians. These 
wards cover very 
largely the business 
section with the back 
street eddies of popu- 
lation, the foreign and 
Negro sections and 
the river front and 
tenderloin d i s t r ict. 
The big residential 
w a r d s of German- 
town and West Phil- 
adelphia have in com- 
parison but little 
representation. The 
charter revision- 
ists are asking the leg- 
islature to reapportion 
the constituencies, so 
that there will be one 
councilman for even 
20,000 assessed voters, 
using the state sena- 
torial districts as the 
geographical units of representation. Although they deplore 
the absence of municipal home rule, these people point out that 
the initial steps for emancipation of the c'ty must come from 
the legislature since the municipality itself is now bound hand 
and foot by legislative restrictions. 

The council measure also calls for a big reduction in the 
size of the municipal legislature from the 145 members grouped 
in two bodies to a single chamber of 21 men. The politicians 
have reacted variously to this proposition. Some put on a 
straight face and protest that this would be a step away from 
democracy, that the more men elected by popular vote the 
greater is the measure of popular control. They might be 
more convincing in their plea for the rights of the people if 
they would refrain from discussing at the same time the pro- 
posed measure to prohibit political activity on the part of 
officeholders and the political assessments now levied on the 

Map used by the Philadelphia 
Charter Committee to drive 
home the need of its first pro- 
posal — a fair basis of represen- 
tation in city government. The 
wards range in size from 1,301 
to 20,670 voters. Each ward has 
at least one common councilman, 
and oj a good many have less 
than the minimum of 4,000 vot- 
ers, the result is a series of 
" rotten " boroughs which con- 
trol the elections 


i 9 i 9 


rank and file of city employes. At a recent dinner, David 
Lane, one of Philadelphia's oldest politicians and a member 
of the school board, in one breath pled for the election of large 
numbers of public servants as a safeguard to democracy and 
in the next breath assured his audience that political assess- 
ments were right and proper because without them the political 
machine could not operate to get out the vote! He estimated 
that only a quarter of the electorate would exercise its privilege 
without prodding in the municipal elections and a half in the 
national. State Senator Vare, when discussing this measure, 
always points out that in other cities, particularly Pittsburgh, 
the reduction in the number of councilmen has been preceded 
by evidence of widespread corruption in the larger body, and 
as he has not heard of any serious graft charges against Phil- 
adelphia councilmen during the last fifteen years, he sees no 
need for making changes. His faction now controls a major- 
ity of the rotten boroughs. But a Penrose councilman of 
twenty years' experience and a representative of one of this 
same kind of ward, described the councilmanic body as " large, 
wieldy — and easily handled." He confirmed the public sus- 
picion that the votes of some councilmen are pretty cheap — 
that they could be gotten sometimes for the transfer of a po- 
lice lieutenant or the appointment of a janitor. There are 
unquestionably some councilmen who are able and honest, but 
the complexion of the body as a whole is not reassuring. 

Dual Office-holding by Evasion 
One of the circumstances which now complicates matters is 
the dual office-holding practised by many councilmen. They 
are prohibited from holding office in the city departments, but 
in the county service they are more than welcome. Some hold 
relatively high paid jobs, mainly as assessors and appraisers; 
others are on the payroll at salaries little higher than those paid 
clerks and messengers. It is now proposed that the twenty- 













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From a cartoon in the Philadelphia Bulletin 

A telling chart used in the publicity campaign of the 

Philadelphia Charter Committee. " The really great 

prices, outside the public utilities, in the game now are 

and for some years have been the city contracts" 

one councilmen shall be paid a salary of $5,000 and prohibited 
from holding any other public office. In discussing this, some 
of the politicians profess to see no difference between paying a 
man to act as councilman or, after he is elected to councils, 
engaging him to copy deeds or serve writs and then to let him 
" throw in " his services as councilman. Although this is put 
forward in apparent seriousness, it is just a bit thick. It is 
not likely that the people generally will be unable to detect the 
difference between their sending a man to council to represent 
their interests or a county mogul sending his man to determine 
the policies of the city. 

It is thought by some who have studied closely the workings 
of municipal legislative bodies that the charter committee could 
have done better than they did in proposing a council to be 
elected by some eight districts. It is pointed out that this- 
method gives all the representation to the majority party and 
nothing to the minority, however strong it might be in every 
district. It was hoped by them that the committee would 
suggest a small council elected at large and by means of a 
scheme of proportional representation which would give every 
party and every group a chance to have representation in direct 
proportion to its voting strength. But the charter revisionists 
felt that the time had not yet arrived in Philadelphia for such 
a complete departure from old ways. Whether their judg- 
ment is good is, of course, now a matter of opinion. There 
is no question but that their proposal is a vast improvement 
over the present mode of election. 

A second feature of the revisionists' bill which will, if passed, 
supersede the Bullitt bill, the largest single piece of legislation 
governing Philadelphia. This has to do with finance. Prob- 
ably no phase of Philadelphia's public affairs needs attention 
more. In the first place, the existing legislation is a hopeless 


— — 


muddle. Accounting terms are jumbled together in a way to 
render meaningless, to a real accountant, provisions which 
should be important guides and safeguards. Methods which 
are crude and wasteful are prescribed and must be followed 
willy nilly. The methods of estimating the revenue from 
sources other than real estate taxes for the coming year is 
rather typical of the whole batch of laws and court decisions 
governing this side of the municipal affairs. It is prescribed 
that all the revenues from these sources for the past five years 
are to be added together and divided by five. The quotient 
is the estimate for the coming year. This amount is deducted 
from the amount necessary, or decided by councils to be neces- 
sary, for running the city and county for the coming year, and 
then the tax rate is fixed at a point which will bring in suffi- 
cient revenue to make current income cover current outlay. 
But the slips are many betwixt the cup of revenue and the 
lip of expense. In the first place, the estimate of revenues 
other than those from real estate taxes may be wholly inac- 
curate. For instance, in the estimate for this year went one- 
fifth of all the returns from liquor licenses for the last five 
years, yet every one knows that after July 1 it is most im- 
probable that licenses will be granted, even in Philadelphia, 
and if they are, that the revenue will flow into the public treas- 
ury. In the second place, there is a great tendency to shave the 
appropriations at budget time. Then, later in the year when 
the appropriations run out, it has been customary to float a 
temporary loan, which a little later would be refunded by a 
long term loan. In that way, councils for many years evaded 
the responsibility of raising the tax rate, though many millions 
of dollars were borrowed to pay current expenses. The trouble 
with the financial situation has been that it is highly com- 
plicated and that there has been a tendency to regard the act 
of appropriating money as the fundamental process in regulat- 
ing the city's financial affairs. As a matter of fact the appro- 
priation of money is not only an antiquated method of con- 
trolling expenditures, since it sets moneys aside for specific 
purposes far in advance of the time when they may be needed, 
but also the act of appropriation itself is wholly without virtue 
in sound financing because it has no meaningful relation to the 
bettering or impairment of the city's financial condition. 

Extravagance Comes Home to Roost 

In meeting this situation the charter revisionists have fol- 
lowed the suggestions of the Philadelphia Bureau of Municipal 
Research and have drafted an act which clears the ground of 
a lot of legislative and judicial junk and establishes genuine 
safeguards of the city's credit and forces out into the open, 
in simple understandable statements, the condition of the city's 
finances. It is based on the proposition that the real test of 
financing is whether or not it improves or impairs the net worth 
of the concern. Under this law discrepancies between revenue 
and expense could not be concealed and piled up in the dark, 
for it is provided that the deficit of a given year becomes the 
first charge or lien on the revenue of the succeeding year. Thar 
means that extravagance comes home to roost, not several years 
hence but almost immediately, and in a way that everyone 
can comprehend. The tax rate is brought into direct and in- 
timate relation with the expenses incurred by an administration. 
This proposed piece of legislation is probably the most val- 
uable contribution to the broad field of municipal advancement 
that the labor of the charter committee has brought forth, for 
in every large city there is room for improvement in its finan- 
cial methods. In the committee's other measures the effort is 
largely directed toward bringing Philadelphia abreast of at 
least some ether cities. But this proposal, if adopted, would 
put her far in advance of any other in the United States. 

To put an end to the political activity of office holders — now 
supposedly prohibited by law — and to prevent the levying of 
political assessments upon public employes, the committee rec- 
ommends that instead of lodging the enforcement with the of- 
fending employe's superior officer, as the present law provides, 
any interested citizen may bring action in the courts. These 
are empowered to restrain paj'ment of compensation to 
an official soliciting or paying an assessment and to issue a writ 
of mandamus compelling his dismissal. Violation of the act 
is also made a misdemeanor punishable by fine or imprison- 
ment or both. The old corrupt practices act has been inef- 
fective because most violations occur at the behest of the 
superior officer to whom it committed the initiative for 

Teeth for the Civil Service Law 

The carrying out of the civil service laws has from time 
to time suffered on account of the fact that at present the civil 
service commissioners are appointees of the mayor and as such 
are loath to stand in his way when he decides that political 
expediency demands the appointment or dismissal of certain 
employes. The charter revisionists would have the council by 
a two-thirds majority appoint the one civil service commis- 
sioner to supersede the present commission of three members. 
Going along with this provision is another which places count) 
employes under civil service and makes the commissioner pro- 
vided by the city responsible for its enforcement. As the city 
and county are coextensive, there is no sensible reason why 
county employes should not long ago have been thus chosen and 
protected from political manipulation. The reason — not sensi- 
ble — is that the politicians would not have it so. 

To shorten the overloaded ballot, it is proposed to make 
appointive by the mayor the office of city solicitor now elected 
with the mayor every four years. This has the added advan- 
tage of letting the mayor select and be responsible for a man 
to fill this office upon which a large measure of the success of 
his administration depends. The receiver of taxes is also re- 
moved from the elective class. As the city has a treasurer who 
is now the receiver for a considerable portion of the tax 
moneys, it is thought that he could expand his office a little 
more and receive the rest as well as take care of all the funds. 
Few politicians take to the idea of reducing the number of 
elective offices, but perhaps the citizens will see the point. 

The Mayor's departments also come in for some proposed 
changes. It will be recalled that Philadelphia is one of those 
cities which combine health and charities into one department. 
So far as anyone ever could detect, there never was between 
these two municipal activities any natural affinity which would 
make their union happy. With the growing health depart- 
ment there is work aplenty in it for one member of the mayor's 
cabinet. In place of the old bureau of charities and a bureau 
of correction now in the Department of Safety, the new law 
would provide for a department of public welfare to which 
also would be assigned the administration of the playgrounds 
and recreation centers now under a board of recreation and ol 
public baths. The law would also permit this new depart- 
ment to have jurisdiction over "such other matters affecting the 
public welfare as may be provided for b\ ordinance." 

There has been much confusion for a number of years as 
to the sen ices of a city architect. It may be recalled that the 
Philadelphia Department of Health and Charities once had 
wished on it by ordinance as its architect " in perpetuity " one 
Phillip Johnson, a relative of the powerful politician of a 
bygone day. Long after the sponsor had departed from the 
political arena, the protege remained and has at times proven 
a veritable little old man of the sea. The Department of Pub- 


i g i g 


lie Works has employed an architect, but there has been more 
or less uncertainty as to his functions. The revisionists would 
clarify the powers and duties of this office, would attach it to 
the mayor's department and would fill it by means of civil 
service tests. 

The purchasing for the city departments has for some years 
been centralized in a department of supplies, the director of 
which now enjoys the distinction of being a member of the 
mayor's cabinet. It is proposed to demote the department to 
the status of a bureau in the mayor's department and, instead 
of a director, to have a " purchasing agent " not in the cabinet, 
who would officiate not only for the city but for the county de- 
partments as well. At present the latter offices buy when 
and where they please and pay what their vendor friends ask. 

Which brings us back to the question of contracts. On this 
the charter revisionists are primed. Under existing laws the 
city is compelled to have certain services, notably street clean- 
ing, paving and repairing, garbage and waste collection and 
disposal, done by contract. It cannot undertake any of these 
activities directly. Furthermore, the contracts can be made 
only for one year at a time. The result of this combination 
of restrictions is that a few contractors are given the whip hand 
over the city. Because the term of the contract- is so short, 
outside competition is put at a decided disadvantage, especially 
in those services which require a considerable initial outlay for 
plant. Then, too, once a contractor is entrenched in politics 
and has a give-and-take relation with the administration, he 
can underbid other contractors, not so situated, because he 
can count on a lenient inspection of his work. For services 
like street cleaning and garbage removal, which leave no perma- 
ment monument, it is almost impossible for citizens to check 
performance against specification, and the contractor gets away 
with it even- time. The service has been very poor in certain 
sections of the city. In general, this is characteristic of the 
game the Philadelphia politicians have been playing for many 
years. The service is cheap — Philadelphia's tax rate is low 
compared with other cities — but the value received is far from 
what it should be for the price. Having maneuvered them- 
selves into this position, the contractors are as hard to show 
up as are merchants who sell inferior goods at fair prices. 
The great body of tax payers regard taxes as an unmitigated 
burden anyhow, so they listen sympathetically to those who 
promise the lowest rate. 

In order to extricate the city from this heads-I-win, tails- 
you-lose position, there is now urged a law which will leave 
the city free to do its paving, repairing and cleaning of streets, 
to collect the ashes, w r aste, rubbish and garbage, and to dis- 
pose of these and of the street sweepings. For all of these 

activities except paving, the city is required to do the work it- 
self unless three-fourths of the council and the mayor author- 
ize the operating department to enter into a contract to have 
the work done. The proviso is intended to cover cases of great 
emergency when the city might be unable to carry through the 
operation. When contracts are made, the term may extend 
longer than a year, but in every such long term contract there 
is to be a clause which will permit the city at any time after 
three years to terminate the relation if it sees fit without any 
form of reimbursement to the contractor except for the " loss 
on equipment or construction especially purchased or erected 
by the contractor to carry out the terms of the contract with 
the city." Many people are watching eagerly to see how the 
contractors will parry this frontal attack. For many men 
it would be very embarrassing to be called upon to show cause 
why they should continue to force the city to buy their services. 
But the contractors of Philadelphia, no matter whether of the 
Vare or the Penrose stamp, have never been famous for deli- 
cacy in vending their wares. 

The provisions of the bills proposed by the charter revision- 
ists outlined above would by no means clean up every nook 
and corner of the city government, but they would let in the 
light and would knock off some of the more disabling of the 
fetters which now bind it so hopelessly. The success of the 
campaign depends, as usual, upon the pressure of public opin- 
ion on the legislative body. This the revisionists are actively 
trying to focus through publicity, meetings, distribution of edu- 
cational material and similar devices. Some of the newspapers 
are helping, others deftly obstructing without openly opposing. 

So far, it has been a good, clean fight and one which should 
add considerable zest to Philadelphia's public life. The re- 
visionists are bound to win, sooner or later. They have made 
a long stride forward in deciding what they want and in 
getting their proposed measures in shape for action. But for 
the politicians it is as Senator Penrose said to the suffragists 
when they told him that the extension of the franchise wa^ 
inevitable, " So is death, but one doesn't hurry its arrival.' 
Probably they will try to postpone action on these charter 
measures which mean death or at least a degree of invalidism 
to many phases of the city's enslavement. They should mean, 
on the other hand, a new freedom in those matters of social 
concern and improvement — housing, health, charities, put - 
lie welfare, city planning — which had been sacrificed not 
because Philadelphia has been unaroused to these needs, or 
because she has lacked broad-guage civic leaders and good, 
clean political reformers, but because her old municipal 
mechanisms short-circuited both her discontent and her 


Mary Siegrist in the New 

LO, Joseph dreams his dream again, 
And Joan leads her armies in the night, 
And somewhere near, the Master from His cross 
Lifts His hurt hands and heals the world again! 
For from the great red welter of the world, 
Out from the tides of its red suffering 
Comes the slow sunrise of the ancient dream — 
Is flung the glory of its bright imagining. 
See how it breaks in beauty on the world, 
Shivers and shudders on its trembling way — 
Shivers and waits and trembles to be born ! 


York Times 

America, young daughter of the gods, swing out, 
Strong in the beauty of virginity, 
Fearless in thine unquestioned leadership, 
And hold the taper to the nations' torch, 
And light the hearthfires of the halls of home. 
Thine must it be to break an unpathed way, 
To lift the torch for world's in-brothering — 
To bring to birth this child of all the earth, 
Formed of the marriage of all nations ; 
Else shall we go, the head upon the breast, 
A Cain without a country, a Judas at the board ! 

The Health Game 

A Contest in Which the Government Plays 

By Lucy Op pen 

IN the maze of reconstruction work and plans for work 
which confront us, one need stands out with clearness, 
unquestioned and unmistakable — the need for improving 
the physical stamina of the rising generation. The facts 
of the draft revelations are too well known, are seared too 
deeply into our minds and consciences, to need repetition. It is 
not so generally known, however, that the physical condition 
of the school children of the country exactly parallels the con- 
dition of our young men. So indifferent have we been to 
the health of our children that no exact figures are available. 
The most competent authorities, however, estimate that of 
the 21,000,000 school children in this country, 15,000,000, 
or 75 per cent, are handicapped by some physical defect that 
interferes with their normal development. Of these handi- 
capped children there is a large group, estimated at possibly 
6,000,000, in such bad physical condition and so decidedly be- 
low the normal standard of weight for their age and height, 
that their condition demands immediate recognition and atten- 
tion. Every member of this great group, which constitutes the 
class of " malnourished " children, is suffering not merely from 
one, but from many physical defects. 

Malnutrition is a definite departure from health and should 
be recognized as much as tuberculosis. It has certain definite 
causes and definite after-effects. Moreover, some of these after- 
effects can never be entirely overcome. An adult may be un- 
derfed for a long period without any serious result; but the 
child who suffers from serious malnutrition may never become 
so strong and capable as he might have. Malnutrition, com- 



mon to rich and poor alike, caused by pampering and over- 
stimulation as well as poverty, is in the great majority of cases 
preventable and curable. Its detection requires no expert med- 
ical knowledge nor careful microscopic examination — the 
weight of the child and his rate of gain usually tell the story. 
While in a well-regulated family the baby is regularly weighed, 
and great is the concern if he does not gain his standard four 
ounces each week, we have allowed the school child to go with 
little or no attention in this regard. Yet every child who is 
as much as 10 per cent underweight for his height may be 
classed as a malnourished or undernourished child. Such a 
child is usually pale and anemic, inattentive, listless in his 
studies and disinclined to run and play. He is easily fatigued, 
both mentally and physically, and often retarded in his school 
work. He is peculiarly susceptible to disease, always catching 
whatever disease happens to be making rounds. His muscles 
are soft and flabby. 

There is no question about what must be done. The only 
questions are: What must be done first? and How shall we 
do it? 

The time has passed when social workers, parents, and 
people in general, can lean comfortably back and throw the 
responsibility for the health of the nation's children on doc- 
tors and nurses. The present-day note in medicine is preven- 
tion, rather than correction or cure. Child health is a matter 
not of medication, but of hygiene; its fundamental principles 
and facts should be part and parcel of the training of teachers, 
settlement workers, probation officers, attendance officers, 
school nurses, recreation leaders, and those who work with 
children. Workers without this health training almost in- 
variably make the mistake of ascribing moral values where 
they should be searching for physical causes. Search for the 
physical cause in the case should be the first thought of every 
social worker dealing with children. There has been too little 
emphasis on the health side of most social work in the past. 

Take, for instance, the case of a child who has been brought 
before the Juvenile Court for some sex offense or aberration. 
The probation officer, however conscientious, cannot accom- 
plish much by means of exhortation directed at the child and 
threats directed at the parents. It may be that what is needed 
is not a magnifying of the enormity of the offence, but a simple 
understanding on the part of the probation officer of the fact 
that failure to keep the body clean may result in an abnormal 
sex stimulation. What the child most likely needs is not ser- 
monizing, but rather some guidance in hygienic living, particu- 
larly in regard to cleanliness. In order to be able to give in- 
telligent care to that particular case of delinquency the proba- 
tion officer must understand both the principles and facts of 
child hygiene. Furthermore he must be able to correlate other 
influences in the child's life which bear on the case: He should 
be able to get the cooperation of, let us say, a trained play 
leader, who understands the influence of adequate outdoor 
exercise and free play on the developing sex impulses; of a 
school dietitian — not merely a " test tube dietitian." but one 
who actually understands the physical needs of children, who 
will be able to guide the child in his choice of school luncheons, 
and who will be able to instruct and guide the child's mother 
in what the child should eat in order to avoid constipation and 




the attendant sex stimulation which is working havoc in the 
child's life. And not one of these workers — the probation of- 
ficer, the play leader or the school dietitian — is fitted to deal 
with the case unless he has had a thorough grounding, both 
theoretical and practical, in child hygiene. 

Or take the case of an attendance officer. In many towns 
the attendance officer is still simply a school policeman assigned 
to a special kind of police duty — forcing recalcitrant children 
into school. In view of the fact that 75 per cent of the ab- 
sences from school in a congested immigrant section of a great 
city were found to be caused by illness, either that of the pupil 
himself or of members of his family, no further argument 
should be required to show the necessity of a thorough ground- 
ing in health work for attendance officers. In fact, the good 
results which have been obtained when a graduate nurse has 
been appointed attendance officer, would indicate that train- 
ing in health work is not simply desirable, but absolutely essen- 
tial in this field. 

As for charity organization workers, practically all case 
workers now carefully note down and strive to have corrected 
any obvious physical defects of children in their charge. Case 
workers also expend much conscientious care in making up 
food budgets and in figuring out the proper amount of nutritive 
material required by the children of given ages. Yet how many 
case workers realize the importance of weighing their small 
charges once a month to find out whether this food is being 
assimilated, or whether perhaps hidden physical defects, or 
wrong habits of life may be interfering with such assimilation? 
Moreover, how many realize that the undernourished child 
like the typhoid convalescent, requires a far higher daily allow- 
ance of food than the ration normally assigned for his age, 
in order to put on the extra pounds he needs to gain ? 

The whole situation points to the need of a campaign of edu- 
cation. The Child Health Organization with its amazing rec- 
ord of achievement, though in existence less than a year, is a 
good, concrete example of one way of attacking the problem. 
Had the need not been so obvious and so widely acknowledged, 
the response could not have been so immediate and far-reach- 
ing. The organization stands as an example of what may be 
accomplished in a short time when a few earnest people are 
gathered together in the name of a cause that expresses a 
great popular need. Less than a year ago a group of physic- 
ians — all of them specialists in the diseases of children — being 
moved by a desire for home service during the war, organized 
a committee in the New York Academy of Medicine to im- 
prove the health of children then being jeopardized by war 
conditions. A few weeks' study made it clear that the war- 
time problem as related to children was so broad and urgent 
that it was desirable to form a larger organization in which 
educators and laymen, as well as physicians, might have a part. 
Accordingly, the Child Health Organization was formed, 
with the following proposed lines of activity: 

To teach health habits to children, and to secure adequate health 
examinations and health records for all children in the public schools 
of the country. 

To consider the urgent problem of malnutrition among school 

To safeguard the health of children in industry. 

To cooperate with other bodies in securing an enlightened public 
opinion and legislation in these matters. 

With the multitude of new organizations constantly coming 
into existence, it seemed undesirable to add an entirely inde- 
pendent one. Since the health of the child in industry has for 
some time been an intimate concern of the National Child 
Labor Committee, it seemed wise to affiliate with that body; 
and because in the minds of the organizers of this movement 
health is largely a matter of education, the aid was sought of 

Class-Room Weight Record 

Health in Education 1 *^f*) Education in Heakh 


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Heicht and »«ehl (0 b* takrn m houftc ilolhea without shoe* Weigh on Ihe tame day each month For .<!,). i-jr-l copiei 
01 ih.» Knorii Shed and other material, apply lo Ihe CHILD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. IB9 Fourth AvtMC, New York 


such well known educators as John Dewey, William Wirt, 
John H. Finley, Charles W. Eliot and a number of others. 
One of the first principles on which the organization based 
its work was that every child has a right to be as healthy as 
present knowledge can make him. In matters of child health, 
it seemed time to stop academic discussion, and get to work. 
There are certain health essentials for children which all med- 
ical men are agreed on, and which are largely disregarded by 
the public. These the Child Health Organization decided to 
teach. Accordingly they proceeded to get the best medical 
opinions available, to pool these opinions, and then get to work 
on the irreducible minimum. Active in this work were such 
well known men as Dr. L. Emmett Holt, Dr. Henry Dwight 
Chapin, Dr. Thomas Wood, and Dr. William P. Emerson 
of Boston. The latter's careful, painstaking work with mal- 
nourished children covers a period of about fifteen years, and 
has demonstrated unmistakably that almost all malnourished 
children can be brought up to normal within a surprisingly 
short time by the correction of physical defects and observance 
of certain simple rules of hygiene and right living. The health 
essentials for children are, after all, very simple. As the 
science of dietetics to a large extent merely confirms and ex- 
plains the why of the best methods in popular use, so medical 
science to a large extent merely confirms the best usage in child- 
breeding — the sort of daily routine which the English child of 
the " good social standing " indicated in the Dumfermline 
nutrition scale gets as a matter of course, but which the Amer- 
ican child, pampered and willful as he is likely to be, often 
fails to have. 



i 9 i 9 

After the undebatable health essentials had been decided 
upon, the next thing to do was to interpret these to the people, 
and to do so in such plain and unmistakable language that 
not only legislators and educators, but the children themselves 
could read and understand them and be moved to action. 

Since health itself is positive rather than negative, so health 
teaching must be positive and appealing. The children must 
be made to take in their physical development the same pride 
ami joy as does the athlete in training. In order to arouse 
the right sort of interest in children, the Child Health Or- 
ganization emphasized the game spirit in gaining weight. The 
child whose monthly rate of gain is below normal is losing 
points in the Game of Health. He easily understands that 
in order to win a game he must observe its rules. The rules 
of the Game of Health are: 

Drinking as much milk as possible, but no coffee or tea; 
Drinking at least four glasses of water a day; 
Eating some vegetables or fruit every day; 
A full bath more than once a week; 
Brushing the teeth at least once every day; 
A bowel movement every morning; 
Playing part of every day out of doors; 
Sleeping long hours with windows open. 

Since the group spirit and the spirit of competition are such 
potent factors in lending zest to the game, the organization 
has developed the Class Room Weight Record, designed to 
be hung on the wall of the schoolroom, a device which proves 
an incentive to the children who are below par. It is through 
the public schools of the country that children can be best in- 
fluenced. Affiliation was effected with the federal Bureau of 
Education. The product of the organization's experience is 
handed over to the government, and several of their publica- 
tions are now being issued by the bureau free of charge. Sally 
Lucas Jean, field director of the Health Organization, has been 
appointed specialist in health education in the Bureau of 

Five important points in the program now being pushed 
largely through the Bureau of Education are as follows: 

1. That weighing scales be placed in every school in the country, 
either through public or private agencies; 

2. That the pupil's regular report card, which is taken home 


is for Height, 
be as tall as you can, 
Weight up to Height 
makes a healthy strong Man. 

monthly, include a record of the child's progress in weight as well 
as in arithmetic, spelling, deportment, etc.; 

3. That time be given in the school program for a daily lesson in 
health, of such character that children will be inspired to practise 
the laws of health, not merely to memorize them; 

4. That the hot school lunch be included as a regular part of the 
school program in rural communities as well as in cities. It has 
been demonstrated that children in groups can be taught good food 
habits, especially when competing in the class room for excellence 
in weight. The hot school lunch will make not only for health, 
but, if sensibly carried out, especially in the rural schools, will 
encourage a family feeling; 

5. That all normal schools in the country provide practical in- 
struction and training in child health. 

The response to this simple concrete program shows clearly 
the growing impatience with long-winded discussions on the 
best way to split a hair, and that people in general, professional 
as well as lay, long to be told with authority a few simple, 
definite things actually to do. The results have been start- 
ling even to the most optimistic members of the organization. 
It did not press its services or ideas, but gave rather to him 
who asked. The first modest edition of the Class Room 
Weight Record and the Teachers' Service Booklet were dis- 
tributed personally, largely in connection with lectures by the 
director of field work and to visitors who called at the office. 
Then, following an address and distribution of literature at 
the annual meeting of the National Education Association, 
there came from all over the country requests for material 
and suggestions — from an isolated school teacher in the moun- 
tains of Idaho ; from a nurse in a mining camp in New Mex- 
ico; from the superintendent of public instruction of a west- 
ern city, who wished to put the Class Room Weight Record 
into every schoolroom of his city. Several states asked per- 
mission to have copies printed by the state printing presses for 
use in their schools. Even beyond the bounds of the 
United States proper — from Alaska, the Philippines, from 
France, Italy, Brazil, Switzerland and from far-away Japan, 
came requests for help and expressions of interest and 

During its first six months, the organization reached by 
word of mouth approximately 5,000 people, through lectures 
delivered by members of both the committee and the staff. 
In addition there were about 300 office conferences, approxi- 

From the Child Health Alphabet 

is for Gaining, 
as every Child could; 
A half pound a Month 
is the least that he should. 

is for Iron 

in Spinach and Eggs. 
Builds Red Blood and Sinews 
for strong Arms and Legs. 



mately 2,000 letters written, and over 51,000 copies of vari- 
ous publications distributed. The value of this intensive in- 
dividual work with which the campaign was begun, cannot be 
overestimated. It forms the foundation for the large scale 
operation of the past three months through the Bureau of 
Education. When the medical and educational experts of the 
Child Health Organization have perfected a plan or method 
and tested its practicability, the final product is handed over 
to the Bureau of Education, and the federal government prints 
and distributes at its own expense such of this material as may 
seem advisable. P. P. Claxton, commissioner of education, 
recently wrote a letter to the superintendents of education of 
the various states asking them to cooperate in the program of 
health instruction in the schools, and offering to supply the 
Class Room Weight Record and the Teachers' Service Book- 
let to every teacher in the state. Within six weeks the super- 
intendents of twenty-five states have replied asking for this 
service, and already 600,000 of each of the publications men- 
tioned have been printed and are being sent out. 

The response of the mothers of the country has been phe- 
nomenal. The General Federation of Women's Clubs has 

been interested from the first and has given the program gen- 
erous support through Mrs. Elmer Blair, chairman of the 
Health Section. The Council of National Defense, through 
the Child Welfare Committee of the Women's Committee, 
circulated the material of the Child Health Organization and 
inaugurated the program in many states. The American 
Red Cross in its Teachers' Manual has given the movement 
valuable support, and the National Association for the Study 
and Prevention of Tuberculosis has also given valued coopera- 
tion. At the National Conference of Social Work, to be held 
in Atlantic City next June, the Child Health Organization 
will have charge of one section of the Children's Division on 
the subject of health. 

It was about nine months ago that the Child Health Or- 
ganization came into being for the threefold purpose of clarify- 
ing scientific opinion regarding the facts of child health, in- 
terpreting them to the public and making them a dynamic 
force in social life. An efficient beginning, at least, has been 
made. The methods which have been used may well be com- 
mended to the consideration of other social service organiza- 
tions, whose object is action rather than academic discussion. 

The Whitley Councils 

[The First of Three Articles] 

By Arthur Gleason 

ONLY two years ago, one of the executive council 
of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers wrote 
to me that it was either a share in management of 
industry for the workers or Armageddon. Al- 
ready the Whitley councils are spreading at an amazing rate 
through British industry. Recently, on February 20, Whitley 
councils were accepted by the government department and a 
provisional committee was set up to provide machinery to put 
the scheme into operation. This committee consists of twenty 
members, representing engineering, shipbuilding, building, mis- 
cellaneous and general labor trades, to cooperate with the 
Treasury, Admiralty, War Office, Ministry of Munitions, Air 
Ministry, Office of Works, and the Ministry of Labor, in 
drafting departmental and trade joint councils. This meets 
the criticism that the government in accepting and advocating 
Whitley councils was unable to swallow its own medicine. 
Sir Robert Home, minister of labor, said: 

The keynote to the Whitley scheme is the idea of obtaining the 
best possible harmony between the managing side of the business 
and those who are at work in the business. The way by which 
that is to be obtained is by giving the work people a far greater share 
than they have ever had in the past in determining the conditions 
under which the work is to be carried out. The government is 
whole-heartedly supporting this principle and that we agree that it 
shall be carried out in the most complete fashion in all the shops 
and yards for which the government is responsible. Wherever the 
government is in the position of employers they are agreed that this 
principle which gives the workman a share in the management shall 
be carried out. 

The government has now aided in the establishment of 
twenty-four joint industrial councils, in twenty-four trades. 
Eighteen more trades are now drafting constitutions for joint 
industrial councils. The following is a full list of the first 
nineteen councils: bread-baking and flour confectionery; me- 
tallic bedstead; bobbin and shuttle; building; chemical; china 
clay; furniture; gold, silver, horological and allied; hosiery; 
Scottish hosiery; made-up leather goods; match; paint, color 
and varnish; pottery; rubber; sawmilling; silk; vehicle; 
woolen and worsted. 

The J. I. C. (as they are called) are doing admirable work 
in relation to demobilization. The made-up leather goods 
council is represented on the leather council established 
under the War Office for the control of raw material. This 
represents one more trade, added to woolen and to cotton, 
which has thus had the opportunity of dealing with the allo- 
cation of raw material and so of entering on a second step in 
self-government — the first step being the control of the in- 
dustrial process inside the factory. A deputation from the 
council of the furniture trade has obtained an agreement from 
the government controller of timber supplies that the coun- 
cil's rationing committee shall be the sole consultative com- 
mittee to the government department on matters relating to 
timber supplies for the trade. The General Purposes Com- 
mittee of the bread-baking and flour confectionery industry 
is dealing with the grading and classification of men em- 
ployed in the industry. 

The sawmilling council has established a working week of 
forty-seven hours, with no reduction of wages, for skilled and 
unskilled workers. This agreement stands for four months. 
The bobbin and shuttle-making council has fixed a minimum 
rate of wages for men and women and for boys and girls, and 
has also fixed overtime rates. Inside the silk industry, two 
disputes have recently come up in which the council has been 
able to work out a solution without a stopping of work. 

The government has worked out certain important sugges- 
tions as to the constitution and functions of a J. I. C. One 
of them relates to voting and states: " No resolution shall be 
regarded as carried unless it has been approved by a major- 
ity of the members present on each side of the council." 
Another suggestion relates to finance and says: "The ad- 
ministrative expenses of the council shall be met in equal 
proportions by the associations and trade unions represented." 

The relation of the J. I. C. to the government is immensely 
important, and the suggestions of the Ministry of Labor are 
as follows: 



It is desirable that there should be intimate and continuous touch 
between the industrial councils and the various government depart- 
ments interested, not only to secure prompt attention from the right 
officials, but also to obtain information as to what other councils are 
doing. To meet this need, the Ministry of Labor has, at the re- 
quest of the government, set up a special section dealing with in- 
dustrial councils. Where any industrial council so desires, a civil 
servant with the necessary experience will be assigned the duties 
of liaison officer by the Ministry of Labor. He will act only as and 
when required and in a purely advisory and consultative capacity, 
and will be available when desired for any meetings of the council. 
By this means similarity of method and continuity of policy in the 
various industrial councils will be assured, and the experience and 
proposals of one council will be available for all the others. 

It will be remembered that the Whitley reports call for a 
triple organization of J. I. C, district councils, and works 
committees. Progress has been made in setting up both dis- 
trict councils and works committees. The baking council has 
set up several district councils. The silk council has adopted 
a draft constitution for district councils. The Scottish ho- 
siery council has recommended that five district councils be 
formed. A special committee of the Scottish woolen and 
worsted council has agreed upon the functions and suggested 
the areas of district councils. Other councils which are now 
at work forming district councils are bobbin and shuttle 
making, made-up leather goods, paint, color and varnish, and 

The main functions of district councils, as the government 
sees them, are: to consider matters referred to them by the 
J. I. C, to make representations to the J. I. C, to take execu- 
tive action with regard to matters that affect only their particu- 
lar district, to consider hours, wages and working conditions, 
the coordination of local workshop practice, and other co- 
ordinated functions. The functions and constitution of dis- 
trict councils shall be submitted to the J. I. C. for approval. 
Any communications addressed to government departments 
must not be sent direct but through the J. I. C. This is all 
in line with the underlying principle of the Whitley report, 
that the constitution and functions, not only of the J. I. C. 
but also of the district council, shall be left to be determined 
by the industries themselves. This means that the district 
councils shall be representative of the trade unions and of 
employers' associations, and shall be created out of existing 
machinery in the various trades. 

The third body in the triple organization of the Whitley 

scheme is the works committee. The formation of works 
committees is now being considered by the councils of the 
furniture, rubber manufacturing, saw-milling, Scottish ho- 
siery, and other industries. The works committee shall be 
composed of representatives of the workpeople and represen- 
tatives of the management in the given factory. The number 
of workers' representatives will vary from five to twelve, and 
should be trade union members. The government states : 

In particular factories, where the workmen are not strongly or- 
ganized, or where the functions of the works committee are such 
as to require the presence of workers who are not organized, it 
may be found necessary to depart from the principle laid down 
above. In these circumstances however, the shop stewards, or other 
trade union representatives in the works, should be consulted on all 
questions affecting district or national agreements. 

The representation should normally be on the basis of de- 
partments in the factory. The works committee shall not have 
any power to come to an agreement inconsistent with the 
powers or decisions of the district or national council, or with 
any agreement between a trade union and the employers' 
association. Further, any agreement come to by a works 
committee may at any time be superseded by the district coun- 
cil or the J. I. C, or by agreement between a trade union 
and the employers' association. 

Such is the present situation in Great Britain, in the mat- 
ter of the Whitley scheme as applied in well-organized trades 
to joint standing industrial councils, their district councils and 
their works committees. But the Whitley scheme called not 
only for joint standing industrial councils to be established 
in those industries in which both the employers and the work- 
people are well organized. It called also for interim indus- 
trial reconstruction committees to be set up in less well- 
organized industries. And it called for trade boards for the 
determination of minimum rates of wages in industries that 
are badly organized and where the rates of pay are such as 
to require betterment through government action. The gov- 
ernment has set up interim industrial reconstruction com- 
mittees in thirty-five trades. These instruments of self-gov- 
ernment in industry, men intimately acquainted with the situ- 
ation tell me, are the most important items in the present 
reconstruction program. Much of the reconstruction here is 
still paper program, but in self-government we have actual ex- 
periments already under way. 

Shop Committees in Action 

By William Leavitt Stoddard 

SHOP COMMITTEES are in action in the United 
States, though the current popular impression is that 
England is not only the source of the works or shop 
committee movement, but its principal field of devel- 
opment. Impelled by a sound constructive economic impulse, 
American manufacturers in daily increasing numbers are turn- 
ing to the shop committee as a sane and reasonable means of 
achieving the benefits of collective bargaining. During the 
last twelve months the National War Labor Board, in award 
after award, decreed the establishment of shop committee sys- 
tems in industrial plants, and since the National War Labor 
Board has become less active in this direction, employers of 
labor have on their own initiative undertaken to set up what 
we may call " industrial governments " for the handling of 
problems of relations with their employes. 

For most of the twelve months of the existence of the War 

Labor Board the writer served as an administrator of awards 
and as such assisted in installing shop committee systems. 
On the basis of that experience, by the narration of actual in- 
cidents and by quoting from employers and employes, I pro- 
pose to show in this article what the shop committee is com- 
ing to mean in American industry. It is a relatively new 
thing. In principle it is collective bargaining organized and 
adapted to local environments. The shop committee demands 
joint counsel of men and management, and insofar as it secures 
what it demands, it eliminates endless sources of friction and 
misunderstanding, and at the same time establishes points of 
contact for practical cooperation. Its scope is limited only by 
the limitations of those who use this instrument for democratiz- 
ing industry; it may remain merely a benevolent employes' as- 
sociation, largely dominated by the management; it may grow 
into a real man-to-man series of round-table conferences at 



which every single item in the long list of topics of mutual 
importance to employer and employe will be threshed out — 
and solutions found. 

What does the American shop committee really do? I 
think that this incident is significant. 

After two weeks of almost continuous sessions, a joint com- 
mittee representing the employes and the management of a 
big industrial plant in the East completed its task. It had 
perfected a system of shop-committee government. It had 
districted the plant, agreed on the method of election, and 
drafted the election rules and the by-laws of the system. In 
the course of these meetings the employer and the employes, 
recently split wide apart by a bitter strike, had come to know 
each other well, and the old distrust and suspicion which had 
marked the first of the conferences had entirely given way to a 
feeling of mutual respect and confidence. 

The manager rose, and with more formality than had been 
customary in the committee, expressed his cordial appreciation 
of the spirit of cooperation which had been shown by the em- 
ploye members, declared it his conviction that the manage- 
ment was animated by the same spirit, and concluded by re- 
marking that from this day forward the relations between 
men and management were to be on a new basis, a basis which 
meant square dealing and increased good-will on each side. 

" I guess," replied the chairman of the employes' side of 
the committee, referring to the strike which had preceded the 
establishment of the shop committee system, " I guess there 
won't be any more serious disagreements between us." 

" I'll make one right here," replied the manager. " I ex- 
pect that we shall disagree. In fact, I hope that we shall, 
because all progress is made by some kind of disagreement. 
But now we have laid down the rules of the game and we'll 
fight our disagreements out face to face according to the rules. 
We'll play the game." 

A Typical Shop Committee Case 

Another incident which illustrates concretely what a shop 
committee system may accomplish through its appeal to natu- 
ral human love of order took place in a factory during the 
elections. A woman stenographer, a member of the union, 
employed in the office of, let us say, Building A, was told by 
her chief that work was slack and was offered a transfer to 
another department. She objected, and the man next higher 
up informed her that her work was poor. This charge she 
resented, and in consequence refused to take the transfer. The 
management thereupon laid her off till such time as the work 
should once more pick up. When this occurred there was no 
shop-committee system in the plant, though a system had been 
agreed on and was about to be established. 

One of the men in Building A, who happened to be a mem- 
ber of the elections committee, volunteered to do what he 
could to adjust the case. His first recourse outside of Build- 
ing A was to the head of the employment office, who, while 
not directly charged with the adjustment of grievances of this 
kind, was in the habit of lending a helping hand. This offi- 
cer took up the case with the head of Building A, but got 
nowhere. Both sides stood firmly on the record. The manage- 
ment insisted that there was no work for the girl, and that she 
was a poor worker; they further insisted that she must expect 
a lay-off after having refused a transfer to another building 
where her services could be used. The girl and her advocates, 
on the other hand, insisted that this was the first time that 
her work had been unfavorably criticized, claimed that another 
girl, who did not belong to the union, had been engaged to 
supplant her, and charged that the company was discriminating 
against her because of her affiliation with organized labor. In 
other words, the case began to assume serious proportions. 

In the morning of the day on which Building A was to hold 
its shop committee election, the two hundred odd employes 
in this particular building had become so exercised over the 
case that they stopped work. They refused to leave the fac- 
tory, or to resume work till the girl should be reinstated and 
compensated for time lost. News of this action spread rap- 
idly, and in exaggerated form, throughout the plant. Occur- 
ring as it did in the midst of the elections, the incident se- 
riously threatened the success of the new system. 

How the Committee Worked It Out 
Yet the solution was clear and simple. A member of the 
election committee secured permission to address the employes 
of Building A. After they had been assembled, he spoke to 
them in substance as follows: 

" You claim that Miss has been discharged be- 
cause of union activities. The company claims that she has 
not been discharged at all, but laid off on account of lack of 
work. Who knows all the facts in the case? What means 
have been taken to learn the facts? If you will go back to 
work now, you will have the chance to elect your shop com- 
mittee this afternoon, and your shop committee can find out 
the facts and make a fair decision. If the shop committee 
cannot agree, there is the appeals committee to go to next. 
Why lose time and money till you know what it is all about — 
till you know that you're right? You owe it to the company, 
but first of all you owe it to yourselves to abide by the rules of 
the game." 

A viva voce vote was taken on the proposition to resume 
work till the committee election and the investigation by the 
committee. Within ten minutes the machinery in Building A 
was running again. 

Within three days the shop committee took up the case and 
rendered a unanimous decision which criticized the manage- 
ment for failure to teach Miss properly, while criti- 
cizing Miss for having refused the transfer. The 

decision recommended that she be transferred. The employes 
accepted the verdict as fair, and the case was thus definitely 
settled. Had there been no shop committee there would un- 
questionably have been a strike, small or large, with all that a 
strike involves of loss of time to both strikers and company. 

It would be possible to fill this magazine with the relation 
of similar incidents showing the value to employer as well as to 
employe of a shop-committee system. The claim is not here 
made that a shop-committee system will prevent all strikes, for 
no such claim could be sustained by experience. One of the 
most unnecessary strikes in years occurred in January, in a 
plant in which a shop-committee system had been installed 
only a few months before. In this particular case the condi- 
tion which caused the strike was not only a local condition — 
it was a condition affecting other plants in the same industry. 
But it may be stated with a reasonable degree of accuracy that 
in the majority of situations where a strike is among the possi- 
bilities, it will be averted by a shop-committee system, pro- 
vided the causes are local to the plant, and provided further 
that there is the feeling on both sides that each side has acted 
and will act in good faith. 

In the ordinary routine of business, a shop-committee sys- 
tem eliminates much of the friction which is only too likely 
to arise from the misunderstandings with or the petty tyranny 
of " bosses." This is an important consideration. Even in 
the best managed industrial plants it is impossible to avoid the 
evils which arise from clothing man w r ith a little brief author- 
ity. The petty boss, whether leading hand, price setter or 
foreman, is concerned first of all with securing production. 
Often he is in direct competition with the foremen of other 
jobs, and naturally desires to make a record for his shop. 



This motive frequently leads him to all sorts of small and 
unnecessary injustices toward his employes, and if one foreman 
succeeds as a result of tyranny, his competitor is likely to go 
and do likewise. The effect on the men is bad. They fight 
fire with fire, and may turn out to be more intolerant and less 
humanly reasonable than the foreman who started the trouble. 

The New Factor — Public Opinion 

But a shop-committee system acts as a corrective and check 
to this kind of thing. Both foreman and employe know that 
their actions may be investigated by men higher up. What 
they do is a matter of written record in the minutes of the 
shop committee. They become responsible, in short, to the 
rank and file of the representatives of employers and employes 
who make up the government. They feel keenly that the 
great moral power of public opinion is organized, and that it 
stands ready to judge them. There is the same difference be- 
tween the old and the new way of conducting business between 
men and managements that there is between life in an un- 
organized community and one in which law and order have 
been established. 

The point of view of many managers of industrial plants 
which have adopted shop-committee systems is well put in the 
following quotation from an interview with R. H. Rice, act- 
ing manager of the Lynn works of the General Electric Com- 
pany, where a shop-committee system was established in De- 
cember, 19 1 8, in accordance with an award of the National 
War Labor Board : 

. . . Through these joint committees which I am now speaking of, 
one of the chief advantages of the plan may be realized, namely, edu- 
cation of the employe members of these committees in the needs, 
requirements, and technicalities of the business may be brought about, 
and through these members an education of the employes themselves 
may be secured which can in no other way be brought about. 

There are now many industries throughout the country in which 
similar plans are in operation and many cases of satisfactory work- 
ing of such plans are reported. In these cases it is found that a 
great education of employes and of management has taken place. 
The employes find that many of the things with which they are 
dissatisfied are promptly remedied, while others are more fanciful 
than real. They come to a better realization of the difficulties of 
management; they learn the need of output; of a fair day's work 
for a fair day's pay; they get the spirit of the management and get 
into step with it. 

On the other hand the foremen learn to sympathize with the point 
of view of those employes who are fair and loyal; they learn bet- 
ter methods of dealing to secure results; they learn not to be arbi- 
trary but to be right. 

The management is better in touch with the spirit and atmos- 
phere of the shop; the shop is better in touch with the spirit and 
aims of the management. 

The average laboring man is as enthusiastic about shop 
committees — when he understands them — as is the average 
intelligent employer. To members of organized labor, both 
committees and committee work and procedure are an old 
story; and union as well as non-union employes are generally 
quick to realize what an advantage it brings to their side to 
have a fair and orderly method of transacting business with 

This point may be illustrated by the comment of a labor 
leader on another shop-committee system installed in accord- 
ance with an award of the War Labor Board. For many 

months prior to the award, which incidentally raised the wages 
some 20 per cent, the feeling of men toward management and 
of management toward men in this plant was of an almost un- 
believable bitterness. It was the kind of bitterness which 
seems to revolve in a vicious circle, requiring some radical 
outside force to destroy it. Every step taken under the award 
was hotly contested, including, of course, the shop-commit- 
tee system. But when the fighting was over, and the shop 
committees were recognized and running, a new atmosphere 
seemed to pervade the plant. Said the labor leader: 

" We were very thankful to the board for bringing our 
wages up, but that isn't the important thing the board did 

" What is it?" he was asked. 

" The committee system. Giving us poor devils a chance 
to go to the old man and tell him about conditions without the 
risk of being jumped for it by some straw boss down the line. 
You've never worked here — and you're lucky. But, if you 
had, you would appreciate what this new deal means to the 
rank and file." 

In the best and largest sense of the term the shop commit- 
tee brings efficiency into a factory. It is not a one-aided effi- 
ciency. It is an efficiency which applies with equal force to 
employer and employe. 

" This committee system," the head of a division of a great 
plant once told the writer, " is a benefit to me because it en- 
ables me to get better reports from my assistants, but the 
man at the machine has been silent. Now, I begin to know 
what he is thinking about his work, and I find that he has 
some very valuable ideas about the way the work should be 
done. There used to be quite a little cheating — running up 
the indicators of punch presses without material, and so on. 
That doesn't go any more. The committees frown on it. 
Also there used to be loss of production and friction be- 
cause of personal rows between the foremen and the men 
under them. That doesn't go any more, either, and we've 
got the committees to thank for that. The manager esti- 
mates that the system costs us about $8,000 a year. I figure 
that it doesn't cost us a cent, and that we make money on it 
in increased contentment, efficiency and production." 

Common Sense the Essential 

The shop-committee movement is young, and its disad- 
vantages are more apparent to some minds than its advan- 
tages. But its disadvantages may — or should — be easily over- 
come by the use of ordinary human common sense. No hu- 
man association, no matter how ideally organized, can be 
perfect. On the other hand, it is equally true that the possi- 
bilities of the shop-committee movement are wider than the 
possibilities of the trades-union and employers-associations 
movements, for the reason that the shop committee represents 
the coming together of two elements which hitherto have 
been conspicuous because they have been apart. The shop 
committee, in short, is a simple and familiar device applied 
in a new way to meet and solve very old problems. It suc- 
ceeds where it is estimated at its real worth — no more, and 
no less. 

The Cooperative Internationale 


By Lewis S. Gannett 

OHEMIA is setting out 
to be the first Socialist 
republic, and Socialist in 
a new sense, neither 
Marxian nor Bolshevik, but coopera- 
tive," said the official Bohemian dele- 
gate at the inter-allied cooperative con- 
gress at Paris a few weeks ago. " The 
Bohemian cooperative wholesale did a 
business of three million kronen in the 
year before the war ; it did three times 
as much business in the single month of 
January, 1919. They are teaching co- 
operation in the public schools of the 
new Czechoslovak republic." 

" The cooperatives are all that has 
saved Russia," said a pro-Bolshevik. 

" Control of half the foodstuffs is in their hands, and they 
have seventy million members." Tschaikowsky, president of 
the Archangel government and a veteran cooperator, told of 
a cooperative in that bleak region which did eleven million 
dollars' worth of business in 191 8, its first year. 

A Greek delegate spoke of cooperative success which led 
to the suppression of private commerce at Piraeus. The for- 
mer national food controller was the delegate of the Italian 
cooperatives. French delegates told of doubling their num- 
bers and quadrupling their business despite a war that had 
laid waste the section where they were strongest. The Brit- 
ish told of business that ran into the hundreds of millions. 
Representatives of cooperatives of half a dozen nations told 
how their governments had called on them to help control the 
soaring cost of living and of effective help given. 

The cooperators proceeded to draw up a comprehensive 
schedule of demands for economic internationalism, for an 
economic league of nations to be presented to the high am- 
bassadors of the great powers at the Peace Conference; and 
then, as if suspecting that little was to be expected from these 
veteran diplomats, they laid the basis for their own interna- 
tional league of cooperatives which, some of them dream, may 
in time become the economic league of peoples. There are 
already 125,000,000 cooperators. 

Before the war there was an International Cooperative 
Alliance, in which the German and Austrian cooperators 
were represented. It still exists, and its president and secre- 
tary were at the Paris meetings in February, but for con- 
stitutional reasons it was impossible to convoke it without the 
aid of the Germans, and all the cooperators were not ready 
to meet them. The Italians, however, registered a protest 
against their exclusion. French, English, Scotch, Irish, Ital- 
ian, Belgian, Russian (Archangel government), Greek, 
Czechoslovak and American cooperatives were represented, 
and Serbs, Rumanians and Poles sent greetings. America 
was represented only by Herbert Bruce Brougham, specialist 
in cooperation for the Department of Labor, because the dele- 
gates of the Cooperative League of America were held up by 
passport difficulties. They may, however, be represented at 
the next conference in which the neutrals will join, to be held 
perhaps at Amsterdam, before summer. 

Three questions were on the agenda: (1) the influence 
of the treaty of peace upon the economic relations of peoples 
and on cooperation; (2) a cooperative effort of solidarity for 


of the 


supplying the districts suffering from 
the war; (3) commercial relations to 
be established between the central co- 
operative organizations. Virtually the 
same questions had been upon the order 
of the day at the first Inter-Allied Co- 
operative Conference held in Paris io 
September, 1916, but the resolutions 
adopted at that dark period of the war 
were much less incisive than those 
adopted in 191 9; they did not echo the 
same consciousness of power. Nor had 
the war yet achieved that international 
economic welding which has been one of 
the historic consequences of America's 
belligerency. The 19 1 6 resolutions ap- 
proved the principle of an international 
bureau of commercial statistics, the sketch of an international 
cooperative wholesale, suggested a fund to aid the recon- 
stitution of the cooperatives destroyed by invasion, and recom- 
mended commercial treaties " as broad as possible," the open 
door for colonies, most favored nation clauses " as far as pos- 
sible " for neutrals, no boycotting of the central powers un- 
less they refused to accept broad commercial treaties, the de- 
velopment of means of exchange, unification of labor laws 
and international arbitration, development of new industries 
only on a basis of specialized international division of labor^ 
and concluded by " drawing the attention " of the Allies to- 
the " high economic value of the collective organization of 
industries as cooperatives with participation and control of 
the workers represented by their organizations." 

But beside the resolution adopted by the cooperative con- 
gress of 1919, drawn up in the main by Charles Gide, the 
economist dean of the faculty of law of the University of Paris 
and godfather of French cooperation, the covenant of the 
league of nations prepared at the Peace Conference seems an 
anachronistic paper, without consciousness of the living eco- 
nomic structure of the world, or of the economic basis with- 
out which the league of nations will be but another Hague 
tribunal. The Peace Conference document appears dead and 
legalistic beside the cooperative charter which aims at noth- 
ing less than an international division of labor, cooperation 
and economic association which would make wars between 
the nations as impossible as war between the provinces of 
France or the states of New England. 

The war is over, and Europe lives in daily peril of collapsing 
into the national fragments of the days before the war, into' 
an international anarchy which cannot possibly cope with the 
world shortage of food, transport, raw materials. In the last 
year of the war the Allies built up unity of control, not 
merely in the military but also, faced by a similarly impera- 
tive necessity, in the economic field. The old, casual and 
competitive methods of distribution became evidently impos- 
sible. A system of distribution of foods and raw materials 
throughout the Allied world, on a basis of prior need and fair 
price, was built up. It saved the world from the ruin to 
which continued competition would have brought it. It in- 
terfered with profiteering; it limited the gains of powerful 
interests. But it was adopted because the old system was 




wasteful in wartime. It is just as wasteful in peace-time; 
but powerful interests are forcing its abandonment and urging 
the governments back to the reckless international competi- 
tion that preceded the war and shared in causing it. Only 
the misery and hunger of central Europe has forced the tem- 
porary continuation of some of the economic controls. The 
cooperatives of the Allied world demand that the world gov- 
ernment, so painfully achieved when half the world faced 
starvation, be continued. 

" To distribute food equitably among the nations accord- 
ing to the world's resources and the necessities of each," they 
ask for the continuation and extension of the Inter-Allied 
Supply Commission. Similarly they ask for inter-allied con- 
trol of transport, fixed maximum rates of freights and insur- 
ance and of foodstuffs. As a basis for continued and intelli- 
gent economic cooperation and division of labor among the 
nations, they demand an international office of economic sta- 
tistics which would study conditions of production and dis- 
tribution throughout the world and be able to guide the sup- 
ply commission. They point out the value of cooperatives as 
instruments in equitable distribution at fair prices. 

In agreement with President Wilson's third point, they urge 
general commercial treaties putting all nations on an equal 
footing. They go further: They condemn protection and 
urge tariff for revenue only. They seek a general development 
of international relations, through joint standards of coinage, 
weights and measures, and social laws, and improvement of 
means of communication. Projects of world importance like 
the Channel tunnel, they believe, should be studied jointly by 
all the nations, not left as national or purely private under- 
takings. They believe that the enormous war debts which 
lhave been accumulated cannot be liquidated without disas- 
trous reactions on the cost of living except by an international 
financial system. Finally, they insist that all these measures 
are but the economic consequence of the political realization 
of the league of nations. It is quite possible that they may 
he the economic conditions of its political realization. 

Arthur James Balfour told them that he would study their 
propositions. Clemenceau seemed keenly interested when a 
committee from the cooperators' conference called on him, 
but made no promises; Hoover asked what they could do to 
help him in his food problem. When the covenant of the 
League of Nations was published a few days later, it con- 
tained a provision which may mean nothing and might mean 
much: "The high contracting parties agree to place under 
the control of the league all international bureaus already 
established by general treaties [such as the International Pos- 
tal Union, according to the general interpretation] if the par- 
ties to such treaties consent. Furthermore, they agree that all 
■such international bureaus to be constituted in future shall 
be placed under the control of the league." 

The cooperative movement, as we know it today, began 
with more or less spontaneity among small groups of weavers, 
mechanicians, peasants, here and there — in Ireland, Russia, 
Denmark, France, England and Germany — almost every- 
where except in America. In each of these countries little 
local cooperatives originated by groups of simple workingmen 
have banded together into national cooperative associations. 
Almost everywhere they have developed national wholesale 
societies, buying and often producing for the hundreds of con- 
sumers' cooperatives scattered through the cities and villages. 
The various national organizations met in international con- 
ferences — in London first in 1895 ; in Paris in 1896 and 1900; 
in Delft, Holland, in 1897; in Manchester in 1902; in Bud- 
apest in 1904; in Cremona, Italy, in 1907; in Hamburg in 
1910; and at Glasgow in 191 3. These conferences were 

merely consultative. The inter-allied conference of I9i6went 
so far as to approve " the principle of a bureau of commer- 
cial statistics, sketch of an international cooperative whole- 
sale; " but its realization awaited the end of the war. 

Four Scandinavian countries pointed the way. The Danish, 
Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish cooperative wholesales 
joined forces early this year in the Nordisk Andelsforbund, 
and will do their purchasing jointly. The English and Scot- 
tish wholesales had already joined forces in many of their 
overseas enterprises. " This cooperation between the whole- 
sale organizations ought to be generalized," declares a mem- 
orandum presented to the 19 19 conference by the French co- 
operatives. " Just as the local cooperative societies unite their 
purchasing power by their national wholesales, so the central 
wholesales can and should increase their power by combining 
their efforts and associating their faculties of production." 
The crying need of the devastated regions of France and Bel- 
gium where the cooperative movement was once so strong, 
offered the immediate opportunity for a new venture in co- 
operative internationalism. 

" The conference decides," announced the resolution 
adopted, " that an inter-allied cooperative office be formed 
immediately to give aid to the cooperatives of the invaded 
regions." This office shall include three representatives from 
Great Britain and Ireland, one each from the wholesale or- 
ganizations of France, Belgium, Italy and Czechoslovakia, 
and eventually one from each of the wholesale organizations 
of the countries of the Entente. This office shall centralize 
the orders and distribute them through the national whole- 
sales. It should take up the question of obtaining the neces- 
sary export licenses with the governmental inter-allied com- 
mittees. It will determine the conditions of credit to be ac- 
corded to each nation, always with the guarantee of the cen- 
tral national organizations. The first meeting of this com- 
mittee was to be held at London, March 4, 1919. 

" The inter-allied conference, confirming its resolution 
of 1 91 6, decides to form an international bureau of commer- 
cial statistics and information. The organization of this 
bureau, as well as the commercial relations to be established 
between the various countries, will be effected by the inter- 
allied cooperative office." 

While the Socialists have been talking state ownership — 
and then, once having control of the states, have become afraid 
of the thing they have been preaching — the cooperatives have, 
relatively unnoticed, been building up a form of industry 
which, more peacefully but no less certainly, challenges the 
pre-war irresponsible capitalist system of production. Revo- 
lutionaries tell us that Russia has endured revolution because 
she had so strong a cooperative movement ready to assume 
a larger and larger share of the burden. They tell us that 
Italy is the most fertile field for the next revolution because 
she has so many industries cooperatively managed. If the 
smash comes which all Europe is fearing, it may be that this 
international cooperative movement would be the cord to 
hold things together. In these days of skyrocketing food 
prices cooperatives are forming in France at the rate of hun- 
dreds per day. Throughout Europe the movement is leaping 
forward. Its potential power is not to be judged in terms of 
the slow growth of the past decade, or even of the rapid prog- 
ress of war-time. We live in an era of unprecedented realiza- 

" A political society of nations can have real force and life 
only if it be completed by an economic cooperation of peoples," 
says Poisson, the secretary of the French National Federa- 
tion of Cooperatives. " And the cooperatoTS have begun this 
task for themselves," he adds. 




HE end of war," " the end of 
tyranny," " a new brotherhood of 
man " — predictions such as these 
have followed many great wars. 
So cruel have been the sufferings of the people, 
so appalling was to many the prospect of a pos- 
sible renewal of bloodshed and starvation that 
they held to some such prophecy of finality with 
simple, religious faith. Not quite so simply and 
not so honestly, perhaps, the rulers and govern- 
ments of the world have ever tried to maintain 
among themselves the fiction when they met in 
solemn conclave at the end of devastating wars 
that " never again " should or could dissent arise 
among them sufficiently strong to make possible 
appeal to arms. 

An illustration of this constantly recurring as- 
sertion of unbounded will to peace is afforded by 
a collection of some five hundred medals struck 
to commemorate treaties of peace that has been 
placed on exhibition by the American Numis- 
matic Association in its New York museum. 
These medals cover a period of four hundred 
years, ranging from a copper jet on issued in 1529 
at the signing of the Peace of Cambrai (of more 
sinister recent fame) — negotiated by the mother 
of Francis I of France and the aunt of Emperor 
Charles V in the names of these monarchs and 
popularly known as the " Ladies' Peace " — to the 
medallion struck from the design of Le Roy (re- 

produced above) to commemorate the Hague 
Peace Conference of 1907. 

These five hundred pieces repeat again and 
again the same symbolisms — with only such 
variations, it might seem, as were dictated by the 
changing taste of each period. Thus Pax, the 
draped female figure of Peace, is sometimes 
more in evidence and at others Mars in armor of 
barbaric splendor. At one time it is the conquest 
of a mighty fortress or the triumphal entry of a 
victor that gives the keynote of the design. At 
others, earth's fruitfulness, represented by wav- 
ing fields of corn, the prosperity of cities, prayer- 
fully extending their lovely spires to heaven, 
commerce and human fellowship, depicted em- 
blematically, show minds that dwell upon the 
hopes of humble peasants and citizens as zvell as 
of princes. 

7/f~f ELL might one despair, were one to take 
such evidence as this of the trend of 
human thought as conclusive proof that, after all, 
history repeats herself. Yet, the number of these 
medals, the growing insistence with zvhich the 
prediction of lasting peace is made after each 
war, above all the increasing number of such 
medals that have been struck in celebration of 
treaties arrived at between nations without pre- 
ceding war — confirm and justify the tempered 
optimism with which the world is following just 
now the pregnant discussions at Paris. 


Peace of Strumsdorf between Poland and Sweden, 1636, 

which marked the ending of the third period of the Thirty 

Years' War 

Peace of Munster and Treaty of Westphalia, 
1648, which made an end to the Thirty 
Years' War and also to the eighty years of 
hostility between Spain and the United Neth- 
erland Provinces. Incidentally it disrupted 
almost completely the old Holy Roman Em- 
pire and increased the power of Prussia 

Treaty of Paris between the four great pow- 
ers — Great Britain, Russia, Austria and 
Prussia — and France, 1815, which ended the 
greatest and last of Napoleon's adventures 
and reestablished for fifteen years the reac- 
tionary regime of the Bourbon dynasty 

Another medal commemorating the Peace of 

Peace of Versailles between Prance, Great 
Britain, Spain, the United Provinces and 
the United States, 1783, which gave to the 
former thirteen colonies their recognition 
as the sovereign and independent United 
States of America, gave into Spanish pos- 
session territories in America later incor- 
porated in the United States and returned to 
France African colonies which she had lost 
to England two decades earlier 

Ice medals 

Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle between England, 
France, Austria, the United Provinces (Neth- 
erlands) and several Italian states, 1748, 
which ended the War of the Austrian Suc- 
cession, guaranteed the acquisition of Silesia 
by Frederick II of Prussia, further strength- 
ening his power against Austria, and marked 
one stage in the long battle between France 
and England for mastery of the seas 

Peace of Oliva between Poland and Sweden, 1660, by 
which Poland formally relinquished to Sweden Livonia 
which had been occupied by Gustavus Adolphus during 
the Polish war of 1621-1629. Note the interesting sym- 
bolism of this piece: the corn growing over and hiding 
the arms, the winding river with its fertile banks prosper- 
ing in an era of peace 

The " Perpetual Peace " of Androusovo, 
1687, by which Russia joined the League of 
Germany, Spain, Sweden and other powers, 
directed in the West against France and in 
the East, where Russia participated as one of 
the lesser Christian powers, against the Turk 

eace of Amiens between the Batavian Re- 
ublic, France, Spain and England, 1802. In 
J ite of magnificent naval victories, England 
)und republican France unconquerable on 
■ '« continent of Europe; this peace, by which 
ie undertook to restore most of the colonies 
'Tested from France, only represented a 
nef armistice in the long struggle for 
world supremacy 

Treaty of Brussels, known as the " Eternal 
Pact " between Spain and the Netherlands, 
1577. But the endeavor of Philip II to con- 
ciliate the provinces after an age of unpre- 
cedented oppression was too late, and the 
seven northern provinces established an in- 
dependent union two years later 

Health Conditions in Southern Europe 

By Louis I. Dublin 

THE influenza epidemic was the outstanding fact in 
the health situation of Italy in 1918. At the time 
of the arrival of the Tuberculosis Unit in October, 
1918, the epidemic was raging in every corner of 
the kingdom. Hundreds of deaths from influenza were re- 
ported daily in Rome, and this condition lasted over a month. 
In the southern cities, such as Naples and Palermo, the situa- 
tion was much worse. The dead were so numerous that 
they could not be removed often for days at a time; and 
it was not uncommon to see influenza victims collected 
wholesale and buried in long trenches. Conditions were 
especially bad in many of the smaller towns where physi- 
cians were often entirely lacking. Public health nurses 
in our sense do not exist in Italy and the burden of the care 
of the sick fell upon volunteers. Unfortunately, the epidemic 
carried with it a superstitious dread, and in many places which 
came under our observation, the sick received little if any 
care. The physicians and nurses attached to the Tubercu- 
losis Unit rendered valuable assistance during these trying 
days by operating clinics, caring for children in asylums and 
in other ways rendering assistance to the local authorities. 
Because of the small personnel, however, their efforts were 
necessarily limited. 

Influenza and Tuberculosis 

To speak with accuracy of the total number of cases or 
of deaths resulting from influenza in Italy is impossible at 
this time. The conditions prevailing among the civilian pop- 
ulation were altogether too disturbed to permit the proper 
functioning of the existing public health machinery. The 
published figures even for the larger cities were clearly un- 
derstatements. The severity of the outbreak and its conse- 
quences on the morale of the population soon became mat- 
ters of military concern to the government; for it was felt 
that if the facts became generally known they might affect the 
army at the front and would certainly give comfort to the 
enemy. No official figures were, therefore, available for the 
country as a whole. Private estimates, however, were made 
by officials and these figures may now be quoted. According 
to one source, the number of deaths in Italy from influenza 
alone in the year of 1918 reached 800,000. Only very 
careful investigation will determine how nearly correct this 
figure is. 

The tuberculosis situation was also serious, although not 
to such a degree as was the influenza. Food had been 
scarce and very expensive during the period of the war. A 
large part of the Italian people lived on what amounted to 
a very scanty diet. This, together with the worry and over- 
work incident to the war, undoubtedly helped to break down 
the resistance of the civilian population. The result was a 
large increase in the tuberculosis death rate. Such figures 
as are available seemed to indicate that in places the number 
of deaths from tuberculosis had doubled during the period 
of the war. The situation became all the more serious be- 
cause a large number of cases of tuberculosis developed in 
the army establishments^ and also because many of the prison- 
ers returned from Austrian prison camps had developed this 
disease — a number estimated at between forty and sixty thou- 
sand. Unless the government could provide care and treat- 
ment for these tuberculous soldiers, they would return to 


their homes in every part of the country and set up new cen- 
ters of infection. The conditions had in them the possibili- 
ties of a national calamity. 

The Italian government did, in fact, provide for provincial 
hospitals for the care of all soldiers suffering from pulmonary 
tuberculosis. Under a recent law communities can borrow 
from the central government sums up to certain amounts to 
establish tuberculosis hospitals for their civilian population. 
The American Red Cross unit was in this connection very 
useful in that it helped to clarify the plans of the authorities 
in the local areas by demonstrating how this problem is 
handled in those American states and cities where facilities 
for combating tuberculosis are best developed. On the basis 
of the available data, comprehensive plans for checking the 
disease were outlined. These included the establishment of 
hospitals for the treatment of advanced and of early and 
incipient cases, and the establishment of clinics as clearing 
houses for the entire movement in each community. An ex- 
tensive program of public health education was also outlined 
to instruct the people, arouse their interest and obtain their 
active cooperation. 

A number of communities have virtually adopted the pro- 
gram of the Tuberculosis Unit and a great deal of good 
will undoubtedly come out of the interchange of opinion be- 
tween the Italian authorities and American tuberculosis ex- 
perts. Much is expected from this arrangement in the city 
of Genoa, where Professor Poli has for many years conducted 
a successful tuberculosis clinic, the influence of his work for 
the control of the disease radiating to all parts of the king- 
dom. It is in a city like Genoa that the seriousness of the 
present tuberculosis situation can be clearly observed. In 
19 1 8, 1,019 deaths from tuberculosis (all forms) occurred, 
which corresponds to a tuberculosis death rate of 321.0 per 
100,000; in 1913, the rate was 269.3. In other cities like 
Florence, Grosetto and Perugia the situation was equally dis- 
turbing if not worse. In the last named city with a popu- 
lation of 73,000 the tuberculosis death rate increased from 
95 in 1914 to 190 in 1917. 

Malaria a National Menace 

War conditions have increased the prevalence of malaria 
in Italy to a point where it is once more a national menace. 
Just prior to that time, the death rate and case rate from 
this disease had been much reduced, from 49.0 per 100,000 in 
1900, to 5.7 in 1914. This was the result of extensive gov- 
ernmental work; drainage operations had been carried on 
widely and the state quinine monopoly had popularized the 
use of the drug by providing it to the population at low cost. 
But with the opening of the war and the breakdown of the 
local administration, the supply and the sale of quinine were 
much reduced ; other sanitary operations were stopped ; and 
the case rate and death rate both rose rapidly. It is esti- 
mated that the number of cases increased from 129,000 in 
1914 to 302,000 in 1917. 

It is especially in the southern provinces that the increase 
in the prevalence of malaria is to be noted. In the province 
of Bari there were 1,189 cases in 19 14 and 8,374 cases re- 
ported in 1917. In the province of Lecce, 7,077 cases were 
reported in 1914 and 41,583 cases in 191 7. Sardinia suf- 
fered severely. In the Sardinian province of Cagliari with 
a population of 538,000, the number of c;isos reported in 



1917 was 66,181 as against 26,840 cases in 1914; while in 
the other province of Sassari there was 33,383 cases in a pop- 
ulation of 343,000, the number of cases in 1914 being 10,996. 
In the entire island the number of cases reported in 1917 was 
99,564, which is equivalent to 12 per cent of the entire popu- 
lation of Sardinia. The true incidence of malaria in this 
island is probably much higher. 

As might be expected under war conditions the infant and 
child mortality rates have gone up. Before the war the in- 
fant mortality rate in Italy was comparatively low — 130 in- 
fant deaths per 1,000 births as compared with a rate of 100, 
which is close to the average rate in American cities. The 
mortality conditions were more unhealthy in the second, third 
and fourth years, in all probability due to the ignorance of 
Italian mothers in child feeding. Italian children are badly 
weaned and are later fed on unwholesome food. Wine is 
given to babies and little discrimination is commonly shown 
as to solid foods. The war situation has made matters 
worse. Unfortunately, figures for the country as a whole 
are not available for the later war years. In a number of 
Italian communities the infant mortality rate rose to well 
over 500 per 1,000 births. In Bari, the number of deaths 
from gastroenteritis, for example, appears to have been more 
than trebled between 1914 and 191 7. 

Coupled with these increases in the death rate there was 
a marked decline in the birth rate. Before the war Italy 
had a comparatively high birth rate. In 1914 the figure was 
31 for the kingdom as a whole. In 19 18 it was estimated 
that the birth rate had been reduced to well below 20 per 
1,000, or about 40 per cent. For the first time in recent 
years the Italian birth rate was below the death rate and 
there was no longer any natural increase in the population. 
If the population of Italy is today no less than it was at the 
beginning of the war (which appears to be the case), she 
will nevertheless have lost close to two million inhabitants, 
which would have been the excess of births over deaths during 
the four year period. 

Health Administration Weak 
Under conditions such as these much obviously remains to 
be done for the public health of Italy. Unfortunately, the 
character of the health administration of the kingdom ap- 
pears unsuited to carry on constructive work. The centrali- 
zation of authority on matters of the public health in the 
Ministry of the Interior is complete, but the system breaks 
down as it ramifies into the provinces and especially into the 
local centers of population. In fact, a dual system of pub- 
lic health exists the parts of which are only very loosely linked 
together. On the one hand, there is the administrative ma- 
chinery of the central government coming down from the di- 
rector-general of the public health through the medico-provin- 
ciale, whose duty it is to see that the sanitary regulations of 
the provinces and the communes are enforced. On the other 
hand, each of the communes has its own health officer, who 
is responsible primarily to the sindaco of the commune. While 
there is a certain bond between the local health officer and 
the provincial supervisor, there is no direct responsibility. The 
relation is very weak, and it is a fact that the local adminis- 
tration of public health in Italy is inadequate. Altogether too 
little is expended for such purposes and even though the legal 
machinery exists, it is hardly ever sufficient to protect the 
community against the spread of preventable diseases. It was 
distinctly the purpose of the Tuberculosis Unit of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross Commission for Italy to urge more compre- 
hensive and efficient health work in the larger cities of Italy 
and to create a demand for well rounded departments of 

health which would contain all the elements of the best pub- 
lic health offices in our own cities. 

Unsanitary Conditions in Greece 

The study of the public health situation in Greece was very 
much complicated by the lack of statistics for the recent 
years. Our personal observations in Athens clearly demon- 
strated, however, the lack of the essentials of preventive work. 
The city itself is still almost entirely unsewered. The water 
supply is very inadequate and is brought in through an 
aqueduct which functioned in the Roman period. The mains 
are partially destroyed and the water is constantly subject to 
pollution. As a result, typhoid fever and dysentery are 
prevalent. Malaria is a serious condition, causing a heavy 
death toll each year. The tuberculosis death rate is also 
high. There are hardly any official facilities to meet this 
situation. A few hospitals are in operation and some of them 
are well equipped, but the total number of beds is woefully 
inadequate. Diseases are nominally reported but it is only 
in the event of serious epidemics that any action is taken to 
control the situation. The comparatively low death rate of 
Athens can be accounted for only by the very salubrious 
climate of the city, by its excellent location, and by the native 
vigor of the population. 

In the country districts the situation is worse. There is not 
a solitary sanitary regulation in operation in Greece according 
to western standards, and there are virtually no sanitary engi- 
neers. The public health organization is of the most formal 
character. As in Italy there is a director of sanitation with a 
small staff of supervising physicians who operate in the various 
sections of the country. They have next to no funds and 
they have hardly any equipment. According to one compe- 
tent observer, the entire water supply of Thessaly is polluted. 
Typhoid fever and tuberculosis are extraordinarily prevalent. 
The housing situation in the country districts is distressingly 
primitive. The number of physicians is small, the larger num- 
ber of them being concentrated in the cities. Outside of 
Athens there are only a few hospitals in the entire country. 
It is important to emphasize the fact that this distressing 
situation is now understood by the Greek authorities, who 
have a number of projects in mind that will help to remedy 
matters. Large amounts of money have been voted for drain- 
ing malarial areas. It is planned to put into operation a state 
monopoly of quinine after the Italian system. A national 
housing plan for the farmers has been adopted and will be 
tried out in Thessaly. In Athens plans have been drawn for 
a rebuilding of the city and for new water and sewerage sys- 
tems. But the most important need in Greece is a complete 
revision of the fundamental health law, making adequate 
provision for expert service and equipment to prevent disease 
and to provide care for the sick. The Red Cross Commis- 
sion to Greece is engaged in arousing public opinion for such 

In eastern Macedonia, the cities of Seres, Drama, and 
Kavalla lacked almost every facility for the public health. 
These cities and the surrounding territory were in the hands 
of the Bulgars until October, 191 8 when, as the result of 
the victory of the Allies, the country was again opened to the 
Greek officials. Everything in the nature of institutions and 
organizations, public and private, will have to be rebuilt from 
the bottom up. The population was in desperate straits, 
having suffered from long continued starvation, lack of cloth- 
ing, absence of physicians and of medical supplies. There 
is nothing normal in the situation in eastern Macedonia. 
The American Red Cross units were laboring with an emer- 
gency situation of a very difficult sort. 



In Salonika, conditions were much better because the city 
had been used for a number of years as a military base by 
the French and British authorities. Sanitary regulations 
were to a certain degree enforced. But in this city the con- 
flagration of August 191 7, had destroyed about one-third of 
the city and made between sixty and seventy thousand peo- 
ple homeless. The absence of material and of labor made 
it impossible to rebuild, and as a result, thousands of families 
had to be housed temporarily and in the crudest way. Tents 
discarded by the French, British and Italian armies have 
been utilized, each containing sometimes as many as fifteen 
families. Wooden shacks cut up with burlap partitions have 
been apportioned to families. In some areas, groups of con- 
crete houses have been put up by the Greek government 
and by the Jewish Community, each of these containing from 
four to eight rooms for as many families. Most distressing, 
however, is the condition of those families who have been 
compelled to live in the wreckage of their burned homes. 
In thousands of cases people are living underneath the ground 
where sunshine never penetrates. Here in the midst of the 
debris they are crowded together without any sanitary provi- 
sions whatever. It is inconceivable that such a situation can 
continue longer without a serious epidemic resulting. The 
Greek officials have decided upon a comprehensive plan of 
rebuilding the city, which provides for modern water and 
sewerage works, ample park space and other health-giving 
public utilities. Now that the embargo against materials has 
been removed and a supply of labor is again available, there 
should be no great delay in beginning building operations. 

Few Young Children in Serbia 

Serbia, even before the war suffered from a lack of provision 
for public health work. The acute infectious diseases were 
uniformly high in their incidence. Tuberculosis and syphilis 
showed here some of the highest rates in Europe. There were 
only three hundred doctors for the entire Serbian population 
before the war, of whom a considerable number were in the 
service of the army. Seven years of war have made the situa- 
tion infinitely worse. In 191 5, the epidemic of typhus raged 
throughout the country, and at least 150,000 of the popu- 
lation succumbed. More than one hundred physicians died, 
leaving the civilian population almost without medical serv- 
ice. During the period of the occupation by the Central 
Powers, the population suffered continuously from lack of 
food. Typhoid fever and dysentery were prevalent and the 
tuberculosis death rate mounted to unheard-of proportions. 
In Belgrade the tuberculosis death rate in 191 7 was 1,540 
per 100,000; in other words, i 1 ^ per cent of the population 
died during the year from this single condition. From such 
evidence as we could obtain it seems plausible that a death 
rate close to 100 per 1,000 or 10 per cent prevailed in the 
kingdom during the period of the war. At the same time, the 

birth rate was reduced to almost nothing. The men of Serbia 
had been mobilized in the army and had been away from their 
homes during the period of the war. In our movement through 
the country, which gave us ample opportunity to observe, we 
saw next to no young children. Even in Belgrade, where 
conditions had been on the whole better, this situation was 
strikingly in evidence. In a group of 1,200 children, who 
were collected one day for an outing, only 20 were under 
three years of age, although an effort had been made to round 
up the babies and the very young children. The Serbian 
population of five million in 1914 has been reduced, according 
to the best accounts, to three and one-half million. The 
census made by the Austrians in 1916 in the territory under 
their control gave ample proof of the plausibility of these 

Ten Doctors for a Whole Country 

Present conditions are indescribably bad throughout Serbia. 
There are virtually no doctors for civilian service. The mem- 
bers of the Folks' commission were told that there were only 
ten physicians serving the civilian population, the rest having 
been attached to the army. The hospitals were without sup- 
plies or equipment ; the commonest disinfectants were almost 
always absent. In one hospital under our observation the 
patients lay in their soiled clothing because proper bed linens 
could not be had. In some hospitals there were no blankets 
or other covering. The supply of quinine was almost entirely 
gone, and in many places even bandages were unavailable. 
Fortunately, the officials of the American Red Cross have 
realized the opportunity in Serbia and a large staff of work- 
ers has arrived, under the direction of Colonels Anderson 
and Farnam, with medical supplies of every description, with 
food and other equipment. Only the refusal of Italy to per- 
mit the passage of these provisions through Fiume on their 
way by rail to Belgrade can now prevent the relief of a large 
part of the population. During the bad weather it will be diffi- 
cult to reach the interior villages because of the condition of 
the roads, but these communities are probably better off as 
to food than those which were in the direct line of the in- 
vasion and occupation by the Central Powers. Emphasis will 
be placed by the Serbian Commission of the Red Cross on 
the establishment of hospitals and clinics, especially for the 
relief of the tuberculous sick. Serbian authorities fully real- 
ize the gravity of the situation and their new cabinet pro- 
vides for a minister of public health. The situation will un- 
doubtedly be improved henceforth — the heroic Serb under 
the new auspices will enjoy a new lease of life in which to 
repair the damage done by the war. Essentially they are a 
vigorous people, who, with the safeguards of modern sanita- 
tion, should show favorable conditions of life and health; 
but it will take many years before the present misery and dis- 
tress have been removed. 


There is nothing secret about the ballot being taken above for king. The voters line up behind their candidates 
and are counted. The man zvith the longest line wins. The members of his party are known to all men 

Is African Self-Government Possible? 

By Plenyono Gbe JVolo 

THE first significant attempt from the United States 
to found an African colony for freedmen was that 
of Paul Cuffee (colored), a native of New Bed- 
ford, Mass., who, in 1815, fitted out almost en- 
tirely at his own expense a vessel containing forty persons. 
The party landed at the British colony of Sierra Leone and 
was really part of the British abolitionist movement which 
selected that colony as its asylum for freedmen. 

The specifically American movement which led directly to 
the founding of Liberia was initiated and organized at the 
home of a Mr. Caldwell at Washington, D. C, on Decem- 
ber 25, 1 816. Among the protagonists was Henry Clay, who 
presided over the meeting and helped to form an organization 
known as the American Colonization Society, with Bushrod 
Washington as president and Mr. Caldwell as secretary. The 
activities of these earnest men aroused the United States gov- 
ernment's practical interest, which was later evidenced by its 
sending to West Africa, in 1821, the vessel Nautilus with 
four agents, two from the society and two from the govern- 
ment. These, as usual, landed at Sierra Leone (probably at 
Sherbro Island) and were later joined by a Dr. Ay res, a 
physician, who with Captain Robert F. Stockton of the U.S. 
schooner Alligator first visited the present Liberia as agents. 
Through the instrumentality of these men and their colleagues 
a deed of transfer was signed with six kings and chiefs for 
the now all but submerged historical Providence Island, a 
deal noteworthy in that for several years England, France and 
Portugal had tried in vain to obtain a foothold on this par- 
ticular littoral. 

We need not refer to the numerous difficulties incident to 
pioneering; it is sufficient to know that after twenty-five years 
of tutelage, under supervision of the American Colonization 
Society, the freedmen were forced to assume the full duties of 
a recognized government. This fortunate but hasty step was 
precipitated by recurring friction between the European gov- 
ernments and the United States, since the latter often dis- 
played an undefinable, persistent and often minatory " moral 

support " whenever the colony's affairs clashed with those of 
the European governments. The colony declared its inde- 
pendence on July 26, 1847. The United States government, 
though it was the last to recognize the republic, always kept 
unpolluted and unrelaxed its moral support of Liberia at 
critical moments. 

The central government of that country is almost a dupli- 
cate in miniature of the United States government, with a 
legislature based on the bicameral system, a judicial depart- 






H Fiat Tow* 




&"ffi»X_l U.CMALM CWE~ 



Back of the coastline and a short distance up the river, the 
country is a blank. At the left, a map of the continent show- 
ing the location of Liberia and its comparative siz-e 





A group of boys at Rocktown. This and the other illustrations 
are from photographs by the Spirit of Missions, published by 

Episcopal Church 

ment culminating in the supreme court and an executive — a 
president, since 1908 elected every four years, who some- 
times comes close to the verge of autocracy with a cabinet 
entirely subservient to him. The continuous sessions of 
"politics" are "of the earth, earthy;" so much so, that if 
a deodorizing reagent were applied, as big a dose would be 
needed to purge our political atmosphere as for countries in- 
comparably larger. I believe this is commendable, for, does 
it not indicate that we have sufficiently evolved to play that 
game well? 

Besides the direct descendants of the early settlers and of 
later immigrants, by far the greater portion of the population 
is aboriginal. Conjectured to be between two and three 
million, no official census having been taken, it consists of 
several Negro tribes that have always been autonomous and 
different in language and customs. Their traditional group- 
ing is as follows: Mondingoes, including Veys, Golas, 
Pessehs, Kroos, including Bassas, Deys, Greboes and Kroos 
proper. Not even in their form of government have these 
people been homogenous. Among some, the highest power is 
hereditary, whereas among others it is held for life, passing 
at death to the " wisest " or next " best " man. They, how- 
ever, have this element in common ; each has had from ancient 

for this article 
the Protestant 


times its customs and laws which may not 
be violated with impunity. Such were the 
groups of independent and separate peo- 
ples whom the little band of immigrants 
undertook with a measure of success to 
conciliate for the purpose of forming a 
united community. 

The bodies contributing most largely to 
educational advancement are the Episco- 
pal and Methodist churches. The Epis- 
copal schools have without doubt given us 
the better educated Christian ministry, 
whereas the Methodist schools have been 
the greatest " mixers." The latter church 
schools, especially the Mansovic school, 
often have under one roof Bassas, Golas, 
Greboes, Kroos, Mondingoes, Pressehs 
and Veys. The Episcopal church has 
done its most effective work among the 
Greboes. There are also Lutheran and 
Roman Catholic missions which are be- 
coming aggressive and extended. Besides 
these are the government schools, which 
have neither reached as far into the interior nor come into 
touch with as many of the aborigines. The church, so far, 
may be given the palm for educating the Liberian youth. 

Political Reform 

The most comprehensive political move of recent years was 
the extension of governmental functions by means of taxation. 
The universal hut tax legislation, passed since the presidency 
of Mr. Howard, has already raised the motto well known in 
American history: "No taxation without representation." 
Its natural immediate outcome is inquisitiveness on the part 
of the aborigines why they should be taxed and the keener 
interest in the movements of the central government. The 
only effective reply the government can make is intelligent 
readjustment to the situation, the pragmatic test of which must 
be mutual understanding between the local chiefs and the 
central government. So the hut tax is really a unifying 

For years back there have been representatives in both 
branches of the legislature from the aborigines, in which par- 
ticularly the Greboes have enjoyed precedence due to literacy 
qualifications. The Bassa tribe was represented in the cabinet 
by President Howard. The Kroos, Mendingoes, Veys and 
Golas have been native commissioners with others. Thus, 
practically all tribes have been contributing more or less to 
the working of the central government. And it must be added 
that the constitutional literacy qualification will soon be no 
barrier to the direct representation of the aborigines who are 
being given knowledge of letters in considerable numbers and 
are keenly interested in the modus ope randi of the government. 

In respect to foreign relations, Liberia has scored victori- 
ously in spite of many a dark day which sometimes resulted 
in the loss of territory. But it is the measure of uncertainty .is 
well as the distrust of well-meaning international neighbors 
that has resulted in raising up for Liberia a number of shrewd, 
canny, suspicious statesmen, wise enough to refuse almost every 
clever machination on the part of would-be exploiters. It is 
to the credit of Liberia that she has played fair with all na- 
tions. When our statesmen have racked their brains to main- 
tain righteousness and a sense of justice, the ever-timely aid 
of the United States reappears in the offing and scatters the 
threatening clouds. What is illuminating is that our govern- 
ment calls for help of that kind always at the proper moment. 



Our law courts have afforded equal protection to alien and 
citizen. Both have lost in the prodigality of litigations, and 
their cases have been adjudicated in accordance with the 
oratorical ability of the lawyers. In general no well behaved 
individual need have any misgivings about incurring insults 
in Liberia — not even among the so-called unlettered aborigi- 

I am not of the school of those friends of my country whose 
tender feelings for the ideal little republic are so highly sensi- 
tive lest her good name should be soiled, that they would 
rather play a bit of the Ananias than state a fact for its own 
sake. On the other hand, I sympathize less with those whose 
fertile imagination indulges in repeated wholesale denunciation 
of Liberia as a complete failure, and who persistently refer to 
her in derogatory terms, " an experiment instituted by the 
United States," a " total disappointment." My supreme wish 
is that thoughtful people may not be sidetracked. 

What we want to declare is that Liberia has been successful 
and from all appearances will continue to be so. We intend 
not to blindfold ourselves to our weaknesses in those essentials 
considered the criteria of a so-called modern nation. Thus, 
our financial strength, not being commensurate with national 
necessities, has forced us to borrow money from friendly coun- 
tries and entailed a servitude in the form of receiverships as 
a guarantee for the satisfactory management of the loans. Our 
judicial department would profit by the introduction of better 
trained legalists. It is not unwise, perhaps, to let others see 
us better than we see ourselves since what we have done has 
been accomplished by the effective use of the material at our 
disposal. Our education — professional, vocational and religious, 
is sadly lacking. We realize that education is the backbone 
and stabilizer of any nation. The most hopeful evidence 
apropos the case is the number of Liberians in schools at home 
and the considerable number scattered over parts of the United 
States, studying how best to be of service at home. The latter, 
well trained and organized, should hardly be expected to be 
extremely passive in matters that relate to the development of 
their country! Indeed, as Bishop Lloyd would say, Liberia is 
one great potentiality, and it is this potentiality we Liberians 
hope will find its resolution in activity that is highly, prag- 
matically social. 

The Larger Application 

Can Liberia serve as a guide to the United States in dealing 
with the questions concerning the future of the African colo- 
nies? This is the issue I have been trying to drive at. To do 
so, I have flayed our government, laying bare her weaknesses, 
which to some persons are highly condemnatory, but placing 
parallel with them also those aspects of her strength which 
are commendable. It does not appear that much more could 
have been expected of a handful of liberated men who after 
twenty-five years of tuition were thrown upon their own re- 
sources to direct the destinies of a nation, surrounded by pow- 
erful tribes not concerned in an orderly management of affairs 
and often threatening in their friendship. That these tribes 
now live in various degrees of conciliation, are interested in 
the workings of the central government and are being edu- 
cated to develop their country is the plea proposed as a fortiori 
argument that Liberia will increasingly be successful. I have 
desired to emphasize equally the disinterested " moral support " 
of the United States which has on several occasions put us on 
our feet again. 

Now, several friends have asked my opinion on the pro- 
posal recently issued from London, to wit, that the British 
people are willing for the United States to manage as many 
of the former German colonies as she wishes to. From the 


Note the fine physique and the clothes, adapted from the 
European to suit her active outdoor life 

nature of the case my answer must be brief. It is in the form 
of what I believe is characteristically an American idiom: 
The United States can be of more service to the Africans if 
she has no axe of her own to grind. In this case the analogy 
of Liberia can be strictly applied. It appears also that any 
other attitude would be contradictory to the unsurpassed hu- 
manitarian and cosmopolitan ideals of President Wilson, that 
wise statesman whose well known principles (together with 
the most recent pronouncements of Premier Lloyd George) 
will, I believe in common with several thoughtful foreign 
students I have met, ultimately and inevitably triumph, if 
peoples are to be arbiters of their own affairs. I do not wish 
to be interpreted as meaning that the powers should withdraw 
from Africa or have no interest in African affairs. What I 
imply is this: If these colonies are to be supervised by any 
country or countries, there ought to be a provision for the 
reconsideration of the question of self-determination, say every 
ten years, to see whether such peoples had sufficiently evolved 
to assume self-government. Such a provision seems fair and 
would give the world-powers a means of checking whatever 
power was entrusted to the immediate control of the colonies. 
Should not the Peace Conference consider this issue with 
reference not only to the German colonies but to all African 
territories now under the exclusive government of a white, 
foreign nation ? 


A Strike for Wages or for Bolshevism ? 

By John A. Fitch 

LAST week I talked with a group of strikers 
in Lawrence, Mass. Their heads bore evi- 
dence of contact with policemen's clubs. They 
had been attacked wantonly, they said, while 
peacefully attending to their own affairs. One of them 
said that when attacked he was on his way to a store 
to buy groceries for his family. Later I talked with a 
mill agent who told me that on the morning in ques- 
tion the strikers had collected in dangerous mobs and had 
offered violence to peaceable citizens. He said that two 
women school teachers on their way to their schools had been 
obliged to take refuge in a store to escape injury and that 
the mob had entered, threatened the clerks and broken up 
the furniture when they could not find the women, whom 
they supposed to be workers in the mills. These two stories 
serve to illustrate not only the difficulty of ascertaining the 
truth about Lawrence at this time, but the prevailing psy- 
chology as well — a psychology favorable to rumor, suspicion 
and fear. 

Nevertheless this much may be stated with some assurance — 
the streets of Lawrence are not running with blood. The 
city is not in the hands of a mob. There is nothing even 
remotely suggesting a state of siege. Instead of that, as 
you come into Lawrence for the first time you are impressed 
with its good order, its broad streets, its pleasant common 
in the heart of the town, its fine school houses and business 
buildings. There are a good many people on the streets, and 
there are some policemen on horseback. But everything looks 
peaceful and the place seems not at all a bad one to call home. 

What then is the meaning of all the rumors that there is 
a thing called bolshevism at large in Lawrence? Why do 
people say that revolution is being plotted there? These were 
the questions that were uppermost in my mind last week 
as I attended strike meetings, talked with city officials, mill 
agents and citizens' committees and walked the streets looking 
for mobs and terrorism. Altogether, I think I got some light 
both on why the cry has been raised and on the extent of the 
justification for it. 

About 35,000 people are employed in normal times in the 
cotton and woolen mills of Lawrence. On February 3 a 
strike began which brought out somewhere between 17,000 
and 30,000 of them. Since then some have gone back to 
work. Mill agents say half the workers went out at the begin- 
ning of the strike. Strike leaders say that over 20,000 are 
out now. The truth probably lies closer to the mill men's esti- 
mate than to that of the strike leaders. The demand on 
February 3 was for a 48-hour week without reduction in pay. 
As the working schedule has been 54 hours, this would mean 
a wage increase of 12^ per cent if production did not increase 
at all. 

Before the wage demand arose the United Textile Work- 
ers, affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, had 
decided to ask for an 8-hour day, beginning February 1. 
There are two small locals of the United Textile Workers 


in Lawrence with a few hundred members. A committee 
was formed of delegates from these organizations and from 
the Central Labor Union of Lawrence to push the 8-hour 
demand. In January Ime Kaplan, then a member of the 
Mule Spinners' Union, as secretary of the committee, wrote 
a letter to the agents of each of the mills in Lawrence inform- 
ing them of the position taken by the union and asking for 
a conference. Some of the agents, if not all of them, ignored 
the letter; and apparently no conference took place. 

Meanwhile the unorganized workers were being canvassed ; 
for the unions realized that they were not strong enough by 
themselves to win their demands if a strike became necessary. 
From this it developed that the unskilled- — the " foreign 
element," they are usually called — were not willing to go into 
a movement for a shorter workday that would involve a reduc- 
tion in pay. They were not anxious, they said, to strike for a 
cut in wages. By February 1 all of the mills had announced 
in one way or another that they would concede the 48-hour 
week at the old rate of wages, that is, a reduction both in hours 
and in pay. By that time, however, the unorganized workers 
had decided they wanted to maintain their old rate of earnings 
under the shorter working week, in other words 54 hours' pay 
for 48 hours' work. The strike began, therefore, on February 
3, with the slogan of " 54-48." The United Textile Workers 
refused to sanction the strike on the wage issue and ordered 
their members back to work, their 48-hour demand having been 
granted. The strike, therefore, is of the unskilled, the un- 
organized and the foreign workers. 

Just why the strike occurred at this time is not altogether 
apparent. The market for textiles has been uncertain since 
the signing of the armistice. Most of the mills had been 
running on short-time for several weeks before the strike 
began. Those who are unfriendly to the strike do not fail 
to point out the seeming inconsistency in the argument that 
the workers cannot live on 48 hours' pay when as a matter of 
fact many of them were living on 35 or 39 hours' pay when 
the strike was called. This argument overlooks the fact that 
the short-time work was presumably temporary, while the 
strike is for a permanent basis of payment. The fact that 
when market conditions are bad it is a bad time to strike seems 
fairly obvious, however. 

In opposing the strikers' demands the mill men lay emphasis 
not only on present business conditions but on the increase 
in the wage scale in the last few years. The American 
Woolen Company states that wages have gone up 87 per cent 
since January 1, 19 16. On the basis of this statement the 
strikers figure that "63 per cent of the adult male wage 
earners are now working at a rate of less than $23 per week 
(42 cents per hour), or $1,200 per year; 47 per cent at a 
rate of less than $20 per week (37 cents per hour), or $i,000 
per year; and 27 per cent at a rate of less than $17 per week 
(31 cents per hour), or $900 per year." 

From two Lawrence cotton mills I secured statements re- 
garding wages. One of them the week before the strike 



began employed 457 weavers and paid them an average of $20 
a week. Three hundred spinners and 200 doffers earned 
an average of from $14 to $16 in the same time. The figures 
for the other mill represent a period last fall prior to the sign- 
ing of the armistice. In this mill weavers earned an average 
of $21.37. Weave room second hands received $34.56; loom- 
fixers $29.38; warper tenders $18.83; ring spinners $16.38; 
doffers $13.85. The lowest wage paid was that of cloth room 
trimmers, who received $12.20. The highest was $42.24, paid 
to engineers working 64 hours. Cotton mill wage rates are 
in general lower than those prevailing in woolen mills, but the 
cotton mill men say that work is more steady in their industry 
and that annual earnings are in consequence about the same. 
One mill agent said that the average for all male help in his or- 
ganization was just under $22 a week, and for female help 
$17.50. Included in these averages were 72 women and 14 
men who were receiving less than $12 a week. 

Insofar as these wage figures represent the entire earnings 
of a family it is clear enough that any reduction would be 
a hardship ; it is common, however, in textile centers for the 
entire family to work in the mills. A low individual wage- 
does not necessarily imply a low family wage. The social 
consequences of this arrangement, its destruction of family life 
and the hardship it entails on the mother and the young chil- 
dren have been discussed too frequently to require further 
comment at this time. 

The strikers, furthermore, have been deeply impressed by 
the recent action of the American Woolen Company in de- 
claring an extra dividend. At almost the very moment that 
it announced its inability to raise wages the papers were carry- 
ing the news of an extra dividend of $10 a share, payable in 
Liberty bonds. Following this announcement American 
Woolen stock rose several points. 

The economic background of the strike is important. In 
view, however, of the widespread belief that, as a Boston 
man said to me, the affair is " not a strike but an insurrection," 
it is perhaps more important to consider the strike as a phe- 
nomenon by itself. 

There is a general strike committee that meets every morn- 
ing to receive reports and make policies. The chairman is 
Samuel Bramhall, a carpenter, a delegate from his union to 
the Central Labor Union, an extreme Socialist and noted as 
heckler at public forum meetings. There are other members 
of the committee who are not textile workers, but the great 
majority of them — the committee has a membership of about 
IOO — are striking mill workers. They are delegates from the 
different nationalities and as they report each morning you 
seem to be listening to a roll call of the nations. Russians 
are there and Italians, Poles, Lithuanians, Greeks, Ukrain- 
ians, Syrians, Franco-Belgians, Finns and even Germans. 
Each nationality meets by itself in its own hall and every 
morning its delegates report to the strike committee. 

There is joking good nature in these meetings for the most 
part, but in the first meeting I attended there was wrath. 
The day before there had been a clash with the police — not 
the first — and there were bandaged heads and indignant stories 
of mistreatment. " I have been a citizen of this country for 
many years," said one. " I have been in many countries and 
I never have seen such things as are happening here." " No, 
comrade," interposed the chairman, " nowhere else in the 
world will you see such things." 

A fiery young Italian jumped to his feet. " We can't 
stand it any longer," he shouted. " On the picket line we 
are ridden at by men on horseback, we are beaten with clubs. 
We can't stand it. We must do something." 

The discussion then became a hubbub. " We must do 
something" — "What are you going to do?" — "Hold a 
meeting in the common " — " Yes, try it " — " They say we 
are carrying a red flag. The only red was on our faces, and 
the police put it there " — " There's no use appealing or making 
a protest ; they'll call you a Bolshevik " — " Yes, and you'll be 
one all right after your head is beaten " — " Fellow workers, 
don't you know the police is owned by the capitalist class? 
They will do what they please with you. When they want 
you in France they will send you there. When they want to 
knock out your brains they will do that. There is only one 
defense and that is one big union." 

After that someone suggested that force should be used on 
the picket line. Then Cedric Long, one of the three ministers 
who, in taking an active part in the leadership of this strike 
gives it one of its unusual features, stepped to the front. 

" There is just one thing we need to do," he said very 
calmly, " and that is to keep on doing just as we have been 
doing. This is a big cause and it is only an incident if some- 
one is beaten. It isn't important enough to make us change 
our plans. We will stick to this strike, we'll raise money to 
carry it on and we'll go on the picket line." 

Peaceful methods, quiet determination that this was the way 
to win was implied in every word of the young minister. 
The tension broke, the crowd applauded, and not another 
word of bitterness was spoken. 

I stepped into a meeting where another committee was 
considering the question of milk distribution. Arrangements 
had been made with a dairyman to supply milk in quantities 
at central points for the children of strikers' families. Depots 
were being established where the people of each nationality 
or group of nationalities could go for their supply. It was 
a business arrangement requiring cooperative effort and I 
thought as I saw the committee at work, some of the delegates 
struggling with their English, that here was an experiment 
in Americanization of too great value to be lost when the 
strike is over. When people of many races learn to work 
together for the common good, speaking a common tongue 
and thus breaking down the barriers that have separated them, 
they have experienced something that you may well call' 

I watched the people on the picket line and I saw no violence, 
no interference, no use of force. I understand there has been 
some resort to tactics of force; earlier in the strike there was 
said to be considerable interference with people going to 
work. During the time that I was in Lawrence, on two 
different nights stones were thrown through windows where 
people lived who had refused to go on strike. There is no 
doubt that there have been other attempts at intimidation. 
It should be said, however, that the leaders have used their 
influence consistently against violence. 

I heard no revolutionary talk in Lawrence nor was there 
in evidence the literature of which I had heard so much, 
beyond the paper, Revolutionary Age, which was present for 
distribution at strike headquarters. Yet the three ministers 
who are active leaders in the strike, A. J. Muste, Harold 
Rotzel and Cedric Long, will tell you that they are revolu- 
tionists. These three men, who have almost entirely given up 
any active relationship with the organized church, have come 
into the situation because it seemed to them an opportunity for a 
practical expression of the social philosophy which they have 
come to embrace. Their insistence that they are revolutionists 
has perhaps had much to do with the report that the strike is 
a revolution. Conversation with them convinces me that they 
are not revolutionists in the sense in which that term may 
commonly be understood. They appear to be Tolstovan non- 



resistants, who believe that the workers should own the means 
of production. They tell the strikers that they ought to learn 
everything they can about the business of making cloth so that 
they may have the knowledge and skill necessary when the 
time comes for them to operate the mills for themselves. I 
know employers who would give their eye-teeth to have the 
men in their shops imbued with exactly that ambition. 

That the spirit of these ministers is not altogether the spirit 
of the workers is likely to be true. In talking with the rank 
and file of strikers, casually as I happened to meet them on 
street corners or elsewhere, I could find no one whose aim 
seemed to be other than the winning of the strike. Yet it is 
apparent that there is an undercurrent of bitterness. There 
are questionings of American institutions. In a letter to Gov- 
ernor Coolidge protesting against the attitude of Lawrence 
officials and asking for an investigation Secretary Kaplan of 
the strike committee said : 

We have these many years worked at starvation wages. In- 
deed we were brought, many of us, in order to keep the wages of 
American workers down. This commonwealth has profited by our 
labor. Our children have grown up and given themselves to the 
monotonous life of the mills rather than to the educational institu- 
tions of which the commonwealth boasts. We have passed through 
the crisis of the great war with many heartburnings of our home- 
folks in Europe and with many questionings as to what would be 
the gain to democracy for us. 

We have seen the workers of Europe overthrow governments and 
receive rights and privileges never before attained. Workmen 
throughout the world are conscious that a new day has dawned 
for them. President Wilson has pledged himself to represent us in 
his work for a just peace settlement. We now look for evidence 
of this new spirit in the United States. 

We want to see evidence of this new attitude among the workers 
recognized where we live. If we do see it, and find that it is 
real, great numbers of us are more than ready to become citizens 
and to give our lives and efforts to the building of an industrial 
as well as a political democracy in this country. If this is not true 
here, then the sooner we find out and the sooner we are given the 
opportunity to return to the country from which we came, thej better 
it will be for all concerned. 

In attempting to account for this feeling it should be noted 
that opposition to the strike is general. The Central Labor 
Union of Lawrence is using its influence against it in every 
way. James Menzie, president of the Central Labor Union, 
was a member of the strike committee at the outset and served 
as temporary chairman for a short time after the strike was 
called. He is now bitterly opposed. When the Boston Cen- 
tral Labor Union endorsed the strike Menzie wrote a letter 
of protest and induced them to rescind the action. He also 
protested against the entrance into the situation of the Mass- 
achusetts State Board of Arbitration, on the ground that they 
had not been invited by "organized labor." Some of the local 
unions in Lawrence are dissatisfied with the attitude of the 
central body. Last week the local union of molders, which 
had endorsed the strike, withdrew from the Central Labor 
Union as a protest against its stand. 

The citizens generally are opposed to the strike and call it 
a revolution. The newspapers for the most part both in Law- 
rence and in Boston are hostile. The local papers commonly 
refer to the people who refuse to strike as the " loyal " work- 
ers. All classes outside the strike itself refer contemptuously 
to the " foreign element " who comprise its ranks. The citi- 
zens' committee recently organized to promote " neighborli- 
ness " does not conceal its antagonism to the strike. 

So far as the city of Lawrence is concerned, the police depart- 
ment is its spokesman on matters affecting the strike. The 
police are present in large numbers where picketing is going on 
and where friction can so easily arise. It is to Commissioner of 
Safety Peter Carr that the strikers must apply for permits 
to hold parades. The commissioner has refused all applica- 

tions contemplating a parade. At the very outset of the strike 
in refusing such a request he expressed himself forcibly in 
condemnation of the strike and the strikers. His letter to the 
strike committee on that occasion closed as follows: 

Those who seek to exploit the fair name of Lawrence are those 
who care nothing for our city, our state, or our nation. Bolshe- 
vism, the enemy of democracy, the destroyer of property rights, the 
breeder of anarchy, will get no foothold in Lawrence. 

A parade under present conditions will encourage bolshevism. 

There will be no parade. 

For several weeks the strikers have been prevented from hold- 
ing outdoor mass meetings, though the different nationalities 
hold frequent meetings in their own halls. 

The charge most frequently and indignantly made by the 
strikers and their friends is that the police have treated them 
with great brutality. The mill district is patrolled by men 
on horseback who ride close to the curb, clubs in hand. 
Earlier in the strike these mounted men used to facilitate the 
movement of the crowds by riding their horses onto the 

During the time that I wasi in Lawrence I did not see any 
act of aggression or discrimination by the police, beyond the 
singling out of Chairman Bramhall who was ordered to " move 
on " as he was standing on a corner of a crowded street. Other 
persons who were standing at various points on the street at 
that time were not molested. There is so much evidence of 
brutality, however, and from witnesses of such competence, 
that no one can doubt that it has taken place. One of those 
who spoke to me of wanton clubbing by the police was a mill 
official, and he described an incident in front of one of the 
mills which he himself had witnessed. 

On February 16 a group of people from Boston went out 
to Lawrence to look the situation over and carry a message of 
friendliness to the strikers. They were met by mounted police- 
men who drove among them as they started to leave the sta- 
tion, compelled some of them to return to the station, insulted 
the women and beat the men with their clubs. 

A. J. Muste and Cedric Long, the preacher leaders, were 
arrested one day after being on the picket line, taken to the 
police station and charged with inciting to riot and loitering 
and Long was charged with assault. In describing the experi- 
ence Mr. Long says that as they went along the street near one 
of the mills from which the workers were coming, they kept 
repeating the slogan, " 48-54." Policemen kept close beside 
them, and, as Mr. Long tells the story: 

One block beyond the center gate of the mill two mounted men drew 
their horses squarely across the sidewalk and ordered us down a 
small side street, Holly street. We obeyed, well knowing that more 
trouble was coming to us in this deserted place, for here the police 
would employ tactics they would not dare to use on a crowded thor- 
oughfare. By this time there were two mounted men clattering along 
the sidewalk behind us, the horses' hoofs grazing our heels, their 
warm breath on our necks. Other officers, about half of them 
mounted, half afoot, crowded about us on all sides and in front. 
Clubs began to beat upon our backs and shoulders. We were now 
walking just as fast as we could go, but the beatings of clubs in- 
creased rather than diminished. Finally one blow hit my neck, and 
1 fell dazed into the gutter for a moment, only to be picked up and 
pushed on again, the ends of clubs prodding me in the back, many 
others descending on my shoulders. On two or three occasions, offi- 
cers drove their horses across our path and then the blows and 
curses became more violent because we didn't move fast enough. As 
the way opened ahead and the blows seemed to say that they wanted 
us to move still faster, we broke into a run. The treatment con- 
tinued unabated. A horse was again drawn up before us, and hav- 
ing no other way to turn, we stepped into a gateway between two 
houses. Two men came after us and dragged us out. Muste asked 
the officers what they wanted, assuring them we would do what we 
were ordered to do if they gave us the chance. " Get along there! " 
and renewed clubbing was the only answer. 

Finally an unmounted officer grabbed me by the coat, backed me 
against a fence, rammed his club into mv chest — and at the same 



moment either a fist or a club hit my neck and jaw and I fell to 
the ground. When I found myself able to get up again after an 
interval of a couple of minutes I decided that the officers would 
pick me up themselves if they wanted me badly enough, and lay 
there, leaning up against the fence until an auto filled with plain- 
clothes men arrived and I was bundled into it. 

Mr. Muste was invited into a house that he was passing, but 
as he was going toward the entrance he was seized by officers, 
and both men were taken to the police station. The next 
week they were acquitted in police court. The policemen, 
who were the only witnesses against them, testified that there 
was no clubbing. Private citizens came forward, however, 
and testified that both men had been beaten with clubs. 

Before they were forbidden to hold outdoor meetings the 
strikers were in the habit of meeting on an ash dump, the 
only place they were able to obtain for the purpose. An oc- 
currence after one of these meetings that was observed by 
Mrs. William Z. Ripley, of Cambridge, and another lady, 
was probably the worst affair of the sort that has occurred. 
Mrs. Ripley attended the strikers' meeting and says that she 
heard nothing violent or revolutionary. The following ac- 
count by an eye-witness of what happened after the meeting 
is corroborated in all essential particulars by Mrs. Ripley, 
who left the meeting before it broke up, but who was in a 
position to see what occurred. 

I heard a roar, and I saw that the crowd was coming home from 
the dump. A policeman had evidently fallen off his horse, and the 
people were making fun of him. The crowd was walking per- 
fectly quietly — it could not be called a parade because there was no 
band, no flags, no leader. There were a great many baby-car- 
riages and children. There was a line of policemen, up and down 
the sidewalk around the common, across which the crowd had to 
come from the dump. I had not heard a single angry sound. 

But all at once, the police rode right onto the common, straight 
into the crowd. They went in with their clubs, and simply viciously 
struck as fast as they could, indiscriminately. Just as I turned to 
go up the steps into the building, a policeman dashed across the 
street right into the crowd where I had been. 

A man was knocked down, but I did not see anyone try to save 
him. He looked about 50 years old. He fell against the curb, 
receiving a horrible wound in the back of his head. Four police- 
men took him by the shoulders out into the middle of the street, 
where anyone could have attacked them had they wanted to. There 
they beat him and struck him with their clubs. Another policeman 
ran out from the sidewalk, and kicked that poor creature right in 
the ribs. 

A young Italian lately discharged from the army, with three 
gold service stripes on his sleeve, went on the picket line and 
was arrested. He says that he was beaten in the police sta- 
tion with fists and with clubs. I asked a police court at- 
tendant about this case and he expressed doubt about it. 
" They don't beat them in here," he explained. " They do 
that in the street." 

Commissioner Carr denied categorically that the police had 
been brutal at any time. It is necessary to use clubs in dis- 
persing crowds, he told me. Hitting them on the head is the 
way to do it. He reminded me that the police force is over- 
worked and under a great deal of strain ; that it would not 
be surprising if they forgot themselves once in a while — they 
are only human after all. Every policeman is supposed to 
use good judgment about clubbing, he said, but he has to de- 
cide for himself when it is necessary. I asked the commis- 
sioner if he had given the police any instructions as to when 
or how they should use their clubs and he replied that he 
had not. 

The question that is being asked on all sides about Law- 
rence is whether the strike is political or industrial, for bol- 
shevism or for wages. My answer, based upon such acquain- 
tance with the facts as I could gather in a visit of a few days, 
is that it is a strike for wages carried on in a revolutionary 
atmosphere. That is, there are serious questionings of the 
justice of the existing economic order. In addition to that 

there is a feeling on the part of the strikers that the govern- 
ment is against them. Insofar as they have that feeling they 
cannot be said to be enthusiastic about the government, any 
more than you or I would be if we thought that the govern- 
ment was following a policy opposed to our highest welfare. 
And we must remember that to many of them American 
government is personified by the Lawrence police. 

Just how far this anti-government spirit may extend I can- 
not possibly know. Such a spirit is apt to crop out during 
any strike and die down when the strike is over. So far as 
any public manifestation would indicate, there is less of it in 
Lawrence than has been discernible in most of the strikes of 
recent years that I have had occasion to observe. The fact 
that such a feeling is engendered in times of strike is itself 
a phenomenon that suggests the advisibility of a careful search 
for its causes. I should be inclined to dismiss such evidence 
of a revolutionary spirit as I saw in Lawrence as matters of 
not great consequence, were it not for the existence just now 
of conditions favorable to its growth. Because conditions are 
favorable it may be that the spirit of revolution is more wide- 
spread in Lawrence than appears on the surface. 

There can be no doubt that workers everywhere in the 
world have been affected and influenced to a greater or less 
extent by the Russian revolution. Men do not have to favor 
the soviet government or become Bolsheviki to have their think- 
ing somewhat stimulated by news from Russia. All compe- 
tent observers know that there is more of a spirit of independ- 
ence, more of unrest among the workers of America than 
there was before the war. Some of this spirit has undoubtedly 
been stirred up by the exploits of Lenine and Trotzky, and it 
would be surprising if some manifestation of it were not to 
be found in Lawrence as well as elsewhere. 

In the second place, the United States has just concluded 
a war for democracy. Everywhere that was the slogan. Every- 
where the people have been told that they at last were to 
come into their own. The spirit of the times is against all 
autocracies. It is not alone in Lawrence that the workers 
have come to feel that this new democracy is to mean some- 
thing concrete for them — that they are to have more power. 
The simultaneous organization of labor parties in many differ- 
ent centers in the United States shows that they intend to have 
more power. This does not imply revolution in any sense 
other than that any complete change from what is customary 
may be said to be revolutionary. In any movement, however, 
there is usually an extreme Left as well as a Right. I have 
no doubt some of the members of the Left are to be found in 

A third factor that enters very actively into the situation 
at Lawrence is local: that is the employment policies of the 
mills. Traditionally they are opposed to collective bargain- 
ing and have successfully combatted campaigns for organiza- 
tion. Of the 35,000 workers only a handful has succeeded in 
maintaining a union. It is in such an atmosphere that radi- 
calism grows. So in 1912 it was the I. W. W. which came 
into the situation and directed the strike. Today, many of 
the strikers are members of the I. W. W., and many are influ- 
enced by its philosophy. 

Having prevented the growth of any agency through which 
the workers might express themselves, the mills have provided 
no other means of communication between management and 
the great masses of the workers. There is no organized em- 
ployment department in any Lawrence mill. Hiring and fir- 
ing is done by foremen in disregard of what progressive manu- 
facturing concerns all over the country have found to be sound 
policy. With a working population of 35,000 a very large pro- 
portion of whom are women there is no medical service in any 



of the mills; no doctors or nurses; in most of them there is 
no rest-room. In short, modern employment management is 
as yet unknown in Lawrence, and even welfare work, how- 
ever primitive, has hardly made its appearance. 

An encouraging hit of news that came to me in Lawrence 
is that some of the mills are bestirring themselves on this very 
point. One company has secured an experienced man as 
director of personnel who, as soon as conditions return to 
normal, intends to organize the employment work on such a 
basis as to make for better and closer relations between man- 
agement and the employes. Probably other mills will follow 
in the same direction. 

In the meantime there is unrest and some say revolution in 
Lawrence. Whether the thing to do is to club it out or Ameri- 
canize it out is a problem that will have to be settled not only 
in Lawrence but everywhere else. The new employment policy 
just mentioned is a step on the side of Americanization that 
begins, significantly enough, by Americanizing the manage- 
ment. When the problem is attacked in that spirit, when it 
is recognized not only that the immigrant must adapt himself 
to America but that America, too, must change wherever its 
institutions or customs do not meet human needs, then we 
shall be meeting revolution with an impenetrable armor. 

Labor's Call Across the Border 

By John Murray 

MR. MURRAY is English-speaking secretary of the Pan- 
American Federation of Labor, and was the active engineer 
of the International Labor Conference held last November in 
Laredo, Tex., under the presidency of Samuel Gompers. 
There is no American so well equipped to interpret the feel- 
ings of the Latin-American workers; and at a time when 
various interests are spreading their counsels broadcast, it is 
opportune to give a hearing to the voice of labor. — Editor. 

representing the 325,000 members of the Confedera- 
cion Regional Obrera Mexicana (Mexican Federa- 
tion of Labor), has arrived in Washington from 
Mexico City and asks the aid of the organized labor move- 
ment of the United States in solving the problem forced upon 
the workers by the present crisis in Mexico. 

When this is printed Morones will have sailed for Paris 
to lay the matter before the Commission on International 
Labor Legislation of which Samuel Gompers is chairman. 

To the Pan-American Federation of Labor in its offices in 
Washington, the secretary-general of the Mexican labor 
movement made this plea: 

" We ask you to give the widest publicity to tin's matter 
to request the labor men of the United States to speak with- 
out reserve to the labor men of Mexico- — and tell us what, 
in your opinion, will be the result to the working class of 
my country if the proposed alterations in the national labor 
laws of Mexico are enacted at the special session of Conrgess 
to be called to convene in the coming month of May? 

" As at present written in the Mexican constitution," de- 
clared Morones, "Article 123, which comprises in some 
twenty-five hundred words the labor laws of Mexico, states: 
'XVII: The law shall recognize the right of workmen 
and employers to strike and to suspend work.' ' 

Morones paused and put the question to me, bluntly: 
" Have you any such law as this for the protection of workers 
in their right to strike, for the protection of workers in their 
right to collective bargaining, written in the Constitution of 
the United States? " 

I could only answer " No." 

" Here, read for yourself," said the Mexican labor man, 
placing in my hands a pamphlet issued by the Mexican State 
Department entitled, " Official Edition; Bill on Constitutional 

" Why, this relates to oil, Morones," I said; " it seems to 
be an attempt to do away with Mexico's national title to her 
petroleum by changing Article 27 of the constitution, where 
it now reads' ' In the nation is vested direct ownership of . . . 
petroleum and all hydro-carbons — solid, liquid or gaseous'." 

" Many things," said Morones, " begin with petroleum in 
Mexico and end with labor. Even with you in the United 
States the words oil and labor have been terms joined in tragic 

I read on and found the " joker." The joker was to be 
found in the effect of the proposed amendment of Article 123 
relating to labor. The " official edition " set forth the indi- 
visibility of oil and labor in the following manner: 

Finally, a very close connection harmonizes the matters contained 
in Article 27 with some prescriptions of Article 123, since work and 
ownership present themselves in the social and the judicial activi- 
ties as entities between which there is a visible affinity. For this 
reason, if Article 27 is reformed as suggested in this bill, in regard 
to the legality of stoppage of work and closing of business, it becomes 
necessary to reform also Fractions XVII, XVIII and XIX of Articles 
123, which refer to the same matter. 

In short, the " reformers " propose so to change the Mexi- 
can constitution that a strike affecting " public interest " can- 
not take place, legally, " without the previous authorization 
of the executive—" meaning the president of Mexico. As 
it affects organized labor, the proposed "reform" reads: 

The Article 27 of the Political Constitution of the United States 
of Mexico is reformed in the following terms: 

The third paragraph is thus modified : 

The nation will have at all times the right to impose on all pri- 
vate property the conditions that public interest may require, as well 
as to rule the exploitation of the natural elements capable of appro- 
priation, so as to make an equitable distribution of the public wealth 
and look after its preservation. The establishments or negotiations 
belonging to private citizens, either to individuals or companies, and 
considered as of general interest, cannot be closed on account of stop- 
page, strike or any other similar reason, without the previous authori- 
zation of the executive, who will be faculted to manage them when- 
ever it considers that the stoppage or closing of such establishments 
may injure the interests of the community or the requirements of pub- 
lic service. 

" What can be done to the labor laws of Mexico for good 
or for ill," declared Morones, " can be as easily done to the 
labor laws of the Central and South American republics. And 
of necessity the working conditions of the millions throughout 
Latin-America must materially affect working conditions in 
the United States. 



" Take the great copper mines in Cananea, Sonora, Mex- 
ico, as an example," he continued, " they are owned by the 
same group of capitalists who control the bulk of the copper 
output in Arizona and Montana. I ask you, are not your 
Arizona miners vitally interested in a Mexican labor law as 
it either upholds or destroys the Cananea copper miner's right 
to strike ? 

" For these reasons," concluded Morones, " the Confedera- 
tion Regional Obrera Mexicana does not hesitate to lay the 
case of Mexico before the entire labor movement of Pan- 

Mexico has 15,000,000 inhabitants. There is practically 
no middle class. Millions, then, of strikeless workers, men, 
women and children, next-door neighbors to the workers of 
the United States — that is the prospect American labor may 

The investments owned and controlled by American capi- 
talists in Mexico are stated by Wall Street authorities to be 
over $2,000,000,000. If strikes were abolished in Mexico, 
the American-owned mines, mills and oil wells could keep 
right on working and dumping their products into the United 
States while our plants in this country — owned in the same 
financial groups — were completely tied up. Mexican labor 
associates these interests with the pressure upon Mexican gov- 
ernment to " reform " the Queretaro constitution. More, 
it associates the movements for constitutional " reforms " with 
the agitation for Mexican intervention. 

Quotations from speeches in the United States Senate by 
Ashurst of Arizona have already been printed in Mexico 
City's dailies with comment that showed how bitterly Mexi- 
cans resent his proposals for the purchasing from Mexico of 
Lower California (where oil has recently been discovered) 
and that part of Sonora which would connect Arizona with 
the sea. Mexican papers openly declare that the announced 
policies of President Wilson alone can save Mexico from 
dismemberment, and dispatches from Tijuana, Lower Cali- 
fornia, on March 16, tell of the organization of a " League 
to Defend the Integrity of Mexico." The organizers of the 
league have issued a manifesto to the inhabitants of the penin- 
sula in which they state that: 

' The object in this league is to launch a campaign, peaceful 
but energetic and unceasing, against the idea of annexing the 
peninsula of Lower California and part of the state of Sonora 
to the United States." 

Senator Ashurst, of Arizona, introduced the resolution in 
the United States Senate in which the annexation of this terri- 
tory is sought. A group of Americans in the Southwest re- 
ceived the idea with enthusiasm and they are actually working 
in favor of it. 

On January 7, 1919, Senator Ashurst spoke as follows — 
as appears in the Congressional Record of that date : 

Mr. Ashurst: What are a few insurrections, more or less, in 

Mr. Watson : Not of the slightest importance on earth ; but the 
point I am considering is that if we start them we shall have to 
finish the job. 

Mr. Ashurst: Would that be difficult? 

Mr. Watson: No; it would be entirely agreeable with me; and 
I am trying to get the Senator from Arizona to make a bold declara- 
tion of it. 

The same issue of the Record gives the text of the Ashurst 
resolution : 

Mr. Ashurst: Mr. President, on the second instant I introduced 
a Senate resolution, which I send to the desk and ask that the 
secretary read. 

The Presiding Officer (Mr. Hollis in the chair) : The secretary 
will read as requested. 

The secretary read as follows: 

"Resolved, that the President of the United States is hereby re- 
spectfully requested to open negotiations with the Republic of Mexico 
for the purchase of the peninsula of Lower California and for the 
purchase of that tract of land in the State of Sonora, Republic of 
Mexico, approximately in area 10,000 square miles, and lying north 
of the parallel of 31 degrees 20 minutes N." 

In old American geographies the greater part of Texas, New 
Mexico, Arizona and California all were placed within a 
zone named the Great American Desert. It is the taking 
from Mexico — for the most part by force of arms — of slices 
of " desert," that Mexicans most bitterly resent. With his- 
tory just written of how a few Balkan insurrections flamed 
into a world-war, Senator Ashurst puts into the Congressional 
Record the spark which, the train being properly laid, can 
sweep two countries into deadly strife. 

Next to armed intervention Mexico fears the economic boy- 
cott. Never doubt the power of the economic boycott and 
its effect upon hesitating countries declining to come forward 
and toe the mark — I've seen the thing working south of the 
Rio Grande. 

Mexico was in this fix when I traveled to her capital city 
last summer — machinery rusting, ruined and scrapped, roll- 
ing stock refusing to roll, and various things needed to enable 
the southern republic to produce and distribute the food neces- 
sary to sustain life among the people, necessities not obtain- 
able for love or money because there was a world-war, Mexico 
a neutral, and the United States declined to allow anything 
in the way of material supplies to cross the border. 

In the midst of the bloodiest period of her eight years of 
revolution I never saw Mexico's people suffer want so great 
as at this time of her recent economic isolation. Last sum- 
mer I threw a piece of sucked and discarded fruitskin in the 
gutter of a Mexican city. I never repeated the action because 
it was snatched from the gutter by a child and eaten to the 
last shred. Little children watched the fruit stands for just 
such opportunities. As to the ghastly sights that lined the 
railroads at every station — some may call these stricken things 
beggars, but every starving man or woman becomes a beggar. 

Senator Ashurst takes this time of Mexico's destitution to 
propose buying a portion of Mexico ; another congressman 
demands the pressing of damage claims against Mexico; an- 
other would determine the question of title to petroleum lands 
in Mexico in favor of American claimants. Yet, any attempt 
to sell any portion of Mexico to the United States would cause 
the Mexicans to rise in revolt against their government. To 
settle all claims against Mexico would take in round numbers 
one billion dollars in gold — and Mexico has not got it and 
does not know where to get it. Consequently, to the mind 
of Mexican labor the whole pressure of the situation is di- 
rected to such a forced rewriting of the Mexican constitution 
as would end that national right to natural wealth which has 
been hers since the time of the Spanish dominion — and, 
coupled with it, would abrogate that right to strike which 
organized labor looks to as its chief defense. To the mind 
of Mexican labor, they are threatened with an aggravated 
form of absentee capitalism coupled with a new form of in- 
dustrial peonage. 

Latin- Americans are right when they say, "As is done to 
Mexico, so will it be done to all Latin- America." Let me 
add a conclusion just as certain, namely: What is done to 
Latin-America will be done to Pan-America. 

Could the right to strike be effectively maintained in the 
United States if millions of wage workers to the south of 
us were deprived of the right to strike? 


This confidence <we have established throughout the world imposes a burden 
upon us, if <we choose to call it a burden. It is one of those burdens which 
any nation ought to be proud to carry. 



THERE has hardly been time to announce the appointment 
of Herbert C. Hoover as director-general of the inter- 
allied relief organization and of the American Relief Ad- 
ministration endowed with a hundred million dollars under 
the new European Famine Relief Act when he announces 
his intention and that of his co-workers to retire from the 
service of the government in July. In the meantime, how- 
ever, he will have an opportunity of seeing the foundation 
laid to a great international system of emergency relief in 
which American initiative and planning are taking the prin- 
cipal part. The action of Congress has, says Mr. Hoover, 
lifted a load of fear from the hearts of millions of people. In 
fact, his own preparations for the project, assuming that it 
would commend itself to his fellow citizens, date months back. 
In consequence, the short time that has elapsed since the pas- 
sage of the measure was sufficient for effective steps to be 
taken for the distribution of supplies to the parts of Eu- 
rope — all except Russia — and of the Near East where they 
are most urgently needed. 

The powers given the new department under the Presi- 
dent's order of March 2 are far-reaching. It is in complete 
charge of the disbursement of the fund. The work of the 
relief commission for Belgium and northern France has been 
gradually transferred to Antwerp; but from Rotterdam ships 
are carrying supplies to the whole of northern Europe, includ- 
ing Poland, the Baltic provinces and Finland. Shipments into 
Germany began in the first week of March ; they were, how- 
ever, exceedingly small. 

The new American sixty-to-ninety-day boats which, as 
United States navy and army transports and manned mainly 
by navy crews, brought the food to Rotterdam have, we are 
told, created a very good impression in shipping circles there, 
though their design at first called forth unfavorable comment. 
Transportation to the Baltic through the Kiel Canal is done 
by means of small American lake-built boats which during the 
war served as colliers between England and France. All the 
food handled for northern relief by the middle of March was 
American. Policy concerning sources of supply, however, is 
still under consideration in Paris, and no one knows exactly 
how this work will develop, and what part American enter- 
prise will have in it when the blockade of Germany shall have 
been removed. 

Mr. Hoover's principal aids at present are Howard Heinz, 
of Pennsylvania, stationed in Constantinople, Mangus Swen- 
son, of Wisconsin, in Copenhagen, Vernon Kellogg in War- 
saw, Alonzo Taylor in Germany and Austria. E. A. Peden, 
of Texas, is Mr. Hoover's general assistant. In Washington, 
Edgar. Richard and Theodore F. Whitmarsh, who were in 
charge of the Food Administration in Mr. Hoover's absence, 
are joint directors of the new Relief Administration. At the 
Paris office of the inter-allied organization are men with per- 
sonal knowledge of the separate needs of Poland, Jugoslavia, 
Serbia, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and other East-European 


IT would be a sad error to assume that the varied American 
social efforts in France have become unnecessary since the 
armistice or will become so when the treaty of peace is signed. 
We must remember that for long France will be an exceed- 

ingly poor country, indemnities notwithstanding — not only 
this but also a country depressed by losses, suffering and dis- 
organization. Some of the established American services, no 
doubt, will naturally disappear; but the field of service as a 
whole is as wide and rich as ever it was during the war. 

The following paragraphs are from a personal letter written 
by a representative young married French woman, who is 
distressed because of the cessation of the civilian relief work 
of the American Red Cross in France and because of the mis- 
understanding which she believes to exist in this country in 
regard to the continuing needs of French refugees. The orig- 
inal English of the letter has not been revised. 

I have noticed that perhaps there is some misunderstanding be- 
tween French and Americans at present, and I feel very sorry for 
it. The American Red Cross began a splendid work in France, 
excellent in every way, and the people of France will not forget. 
Perhaps Americans have been discouraged by some French persons, 
especially in the many oewvres which worked for refugees or pris- 
oners. Perhaps they met with too many of our terrible defauts de 
race. And I am afraid they thought that the French "counted" too 
much on the "rich Americans" and worked insufficiently themselves 
against the great misery in their own country. I don't know what 
has happened, why some oewvres which are extremely useful do not 
receive any more help from America — almost suddenly. 

I sincerely wish that France were quite able to bear her wounds. 
I have often told you I think many people do not give enough, either 
of money or of time. I still think the same. But I am quite certain 
that France is too poor to get out, by herself, from the dreadful 
misery caused by the war. 

In America some people can give a hundred thousand francs and 
are not deprived in the least; in France two or three people can do 
that, once in their lives. I believe that the French know better how 
to spend money, and therefore strangers see great fortunes in cir- 
cumstances which would be almost poverty to an American occupy- 
ing a similar social position in America. I wonder if on the whole 
the French (i. e. the rich) do not give more, comparatively, than 
the Americans, at any rate as far as money is concerned. 

I quite recognize that Americans are more active in their social 
work, and I believe it is because they give less importance to family 
than the French. "Family" is beautiful but it takes up a lot of 
time, and often the French are shut up in their families and not 
sufficiently active outside. It is a fault, but it is a fact, and strangers 
must understand it to explain our apparent torpor. 

Few women are free in France to leave their husband or children 
and work for the unfortunate. There is less money than in America, 
and more obligations; also, I recognize, a different education, which 
makes every one dependent on something or other. Since the war, 
many French women and many girls have imitated the Americans 
and gone out of their families, because it was necessary. All my 
young friends who are not married work in creches, dispensaries, 
canteens, etc.; and all my friends who are married and mothers do 
something, some social work, although their situation does not make 
it always very easy. You must not forget that, unfortunately, since 
the young women are all occupied, it is the older women who direct 
the oeuvres, and they do it with an old spirit, a tired activity — and 
Americans are discouraged and disappointed. 

But after all, there is the fact that a great part of France has 
been the battle-field for the whole world. Our losses are enormous, 
and we cannot sufficiently help the people of the north of France. 

An example of simple and unaffected service was set by our 
soldiers in France, 450,000 of whom through their official 
magazine, the Stars and Stripes, have in eleven months con- 
tributed to the American Red Cross a fund of two million 
francs for the maintenance of 3,444 French war orphans. On 
Christmas day, in view of the impending demobilization, it 
was decided to consider this family of the Expeditionary 
Army complete and to collect as much more money as may 
be possible for the further support of these children rather 
than adopt new ones. The Red Cross has a special Stars 
and Stripes Bureau which administers this fund and even 




maintains translators for the special purpose of facilitating 
exchanges of letters between the American soldiers and the 
French children — letters which, on the part of the Americans, 
tend to be accompanied by little gifts. Many of the men 
returned to the United States have promised to continue their 
contributions to the maintenance fund, and are frequently 
writing to their personal friends among the little marmots. 
In this connection, mention should also be made of a recent 
gift of 500,000 francs to the children of France by the Amer- 
ican Junior Red Cross. This fund will be used by Dr. Wil- 
liam Palmer Lucas, chief of the Children's Bureau, for the 
establishment of a hospital and clinic in Paris, to be admin- 
istered by a committee of members of the medical faculty of 
the Paris University and representatives of child welfare agen- 

The orphanage at Chavaniac, maintained by the Lafayette 
Memorial Fund, also is indebted to the A. E. F. The soldiers 
took much interest in the children, dug trenches and laid 
pipes which now provide the water supply of the chateau, 
bought and operated a camionette for the use of the insti- 
tution. A modern building with sleeping porches, central heat- 
ing, shower baths and many other improvements has recently 
been completed which will be used exclusively for delicate 
children who need a special regime and open-air life. A 
model farm has been laid out to give the children open-air 
occupation and training in a valuable means of livelihood. 
The dairy is a special feature here. The committee is continu- 
ing also its various activities elsewhere, notably its reestablish- 
ment of the lace-making industry in the Auvergne, its chil- 
dren's colonies at Le Puy, Chadrac, St. George d'Aurac, 
Loudes and Siauges-St. Romain, and its general relief work. 

The cover picture of this issue and the illustration below 
are taken from a valuable little human document, an album, 
obviously home-made, of photographs and autographs sent to 
Mrs. George M. Tuttle, chairman of the American Friends 
of Musicians in France, by the choristers of the Church of 
the Wooden Cross in Paris. These little boys had suffered 
severely from air bombardments and were sent into the coun- 
try to recuperate from their nervous condition. Recent cor- 
respondence of this committee shows a very varied activity of 
aid among French musicians, and particularly children of 
musicians. A French representative of the committee in a let- 
ter refers to the particular difficulty of reestablishing musicians 
in their pre-war vocation. She says: 

Most of these young men will return in a state of great fatigue 
(remember, many of them have been fighting for four years) which 
will not permit them to resume their struggle for a livelihood be- 
fore taking a rest. Added to this, they must remake their tech- 
nique. Undoubtedly the state will take measures, but it will be 
impossible for them to do all that should be done. . . . 

If our musicians have to fight this period alone, burdened with 
these past terrible years, they will be unable to resist, and in order 
to assure themselves of a means of livelihood will renounce their 
careers which formerly were the sole objects of their lives and which 
are a force for those who have need of that light which art alone 
can give. 

A large group of French women leading in social work, ■ 
including Mme. Pichon, wife of the minister of foreign af- 
fairs, Mme. Jules Siegfried, the Countess de Pourtales, Mme. 
Maria Verone, the foremost woman lawyer of France, Mme. 
Avene Sainte-Croix, Mile. Jane Guillemin, government in- 
spector of labor, and Elizabeth Fuchs, recently met with Mrs. 
William G. Sharp, Mrs. Robert Lansing, Mrs. Francis Mc- 
Neil Bacon and other Americans to discuss the needs of 
French women and the assumption of the programs of the Y. 
W. C. A. and other American organizations now operating 
in France when these will withdraw their main forces. 

These French women are exceedingly anxious to effect an 
organization on the lines of the Y. W. C. A. which in these 
difficult days will serve all France. Other conferences are to 
be held to bring in those of various denominations and groups. 
In the meantime, the Y. W. C. A. has taken pains to associate 
with its own workers some of the leading French societies to 
study a common basis for future fellowship and cooperation. 

The Y. seems to have no wish to stop short suddenly the 
many admirable activities which it has initiated and will use 
the next few months in a vigorous endeavor to adapt these to 
peace times and the permanent needs of French women. 


THE hundred year old prophecy of Thomas Campbell in 
his poem on Poland is approaching its fulfilment: 
She, like the eagle, will renew her age. 

Not only politically but also socially and economically, 
recent reports show a return of order — or rather a new spirit 
of order and progress compared with which the order under 
the old imperial regime was hidden revolt. Immediate Amer- 
ican intervention in her reestablishment proceeds along three 
lines: political, economic and emergency relief. Dr. Frank 
Goodnow, president of Johns Hopkins University, has pro- 
ceeded to Poland as head of an American commission ap- 
pointed by the National Civic Federation at the request of 
Ignaze Jan Paderewski, president of the provisional Polish 
government, to assist in organizing the government of the 
new republic and in drafting a constitution. He will be 
assisted by Dr. W. W. Willoughby, returned a few months 
ago from China where he has acted in a similar capacity, 
and by three other members who have joined the commission in 
Paris, Oscar S. Straus, former ambassador to Turkey, Prof. 
Jeremiah J. Jenks and Samuel Gompers. It is a curious call 
and a curious combination, and Dr. Goodnow admits that 
he has no idea what he will be able to recommend until after 
he has made himself thoroughly familiar with the wishes of 
the people on the spot. 

Economical!}', American aid may be said to have begun 
in February when shipments with food cargoes totalling 
17,000 tons from the United States reached Danzig. Some of 
these cargoes represented a combined gift of Polish and Jew- 
ish relief agencies in America and, let it be hoped, signify a 
better understanding between the two races. The population 
of Warsaw, according to John F. Smulski, commissioner for 
the Polish government recently arrived in Washington, has 
greatly increased of late by the arrival over the Russian 
border of a steady procession of refugees. The transporta- 
tion from Danzig to the Polish frontier is operated by Ger- 
man workmen who, of course, participate in the supplies; 
and according to recent reports there has been a lessening 
of discontent and disorder. Special efforts are being made 
to feed debilitated children, condensed milk and other foods 
for the young receiving precedence over other shipments. 

Two contingents of the American Red Cross Commission 
for Poland reached Warsaw in February. They consist of 
fifty members under the command of Lieut.-Col. Walter C. 
Bailey, of Boston. The Polish Red Cross itself is well or- 
ganized but has been hampered enormously by lack of drugs 
and other medical supplies which are rushed from Red Cross 




i 9 i 9 


warehouses in France and Switzerland to help in the fight 
against typhus, cholera, smallpox and trachoma. Count Alex- 
ander Szembek, a representative of the Polish Red Cross in 
Paris, is quoted as saying that the presence of American 
men and women in itself will prove a great moral factor. 


THOUGH far from being the largest or most important 
of American war relief agencies, the Friends' War Vic- 
tims' Relief Committee is receiving and deserves an unusual 
amount of recognition because of the originality of its meth- 
ods and the closeness with which, wherever it operates, it 
has entered the heart of the difficulty and attempted to adapt 
itself to every emergency. The British Red Cross at first 
refused cooperation with this committee 
which is composed of both British and 
American workers because, unlike the 
American Red Cross, it (the B. R. C.) 
is a purely military organization ; but 
the British army gave them circulation 
privileges and other evidences of sympa- 
thetic cooperation. A. Ruth Fry, in 
charge of the London committee, in a 
recent speech revealed many facts about 
the activities which had not before been 
generally known, including those in 
Holland and Belgium for Belgian 
refugees, in Italy, Corsica and Syria 
for Serbian refugees, in Rumania and in 
the Russian prison camps in Germany. 
This is in addition to the activity in 
Russia itself and in France already re- 
corded in the Survey. 

Among the Belgian refugees in 
Holland involuntary idleness was the 
great evil. To preserve self-respect 
workrooms, mainly for the manufac- 
ture of toys — which sold readily in that 
country — and for raffia and inlaid work, 
were established. Girl Guide and Boy 
Scout organizations took charge of the 
young people. Eventually the building 
of transportable houses for the refugees 

themselves became the most important 
means of maintaining morale and stand- 
ards. Several colonies of these homes 
are now located in Holland, the largest 
one consisting of 125 of them. One 
serious aspect of the psychological situa- 
tion is described by Miss Fry as follows: 

Belgium for many years has been divided 
by race. In the refugee camps the Walloons 
and the Flemish have mingled, and it is 
hoped that this old spirit of antagonism has 
diminished. In recent years the political 
situation has become more complex and has 
taken on an economic aspect. The strife be- 
tween the Catholics and the Socialists has 
been, if anything, increased in intensity by 
the events of the war. And the problems of 
reconstruction do not present a field favor- 
able to reconciliation between these groups. 
Now is added a new factor of misunder- 
standing — the emigres and the non-emigres; 
those who fled before the invader and those 
who remained through all the hardships. In 
Paris, under the wings of the Allies, a com- 
mittee of Belgians have been working and 
planning for the reconstruction of their coun- 
try. At the same time other committees have 
been evolving their own plans under the 
shadow of the invader. Until last Novem- 
ber these two groups did not even know of 
each other's existence. 

When, then, the chairman of the Paris 
committee went to Brussels he found him- 
self and his work unknown. And his plans did not harmonize 
in all particulars with those of the Belgians who had been isolated 
behind the lines of the invader. To make matters worse, this chair- 
man of the Paris-formed Reconstruction Committee is confronted 
with a new obstacle: three ministries of the Belgian government are 
disputing among themselves for the honor of directing this work, 
the ministry of the interior, the ministry of public works and the 
ministry of economic reconstruction. 

Today Belgian relief is a mixture of stagnation and luxury. 
Articles of luxury are no more scarce than they were in times of 
peace and are relatively plentiful as compared with necessities. 
Food is scarce and prices have soared to the clouds. Railroad trans- 
portation is irregular and slow. The Belgian government is un- 
naturally anxious to assume control of its own relief work and has 
even seemed ungrateful in its refusal of offers of relief. 

The last remark, it will be noted, is in direct contradiction 
to the article by Emile Vandervelde in the Survey for March 





15 (written by that influential member of the government in 
his own hand), and probably was due only to a temporary mis- 

From Germany, reports of the Friends' committee are very 
unfavorable and bear out everything that George Lansbury 
and Henry W. Nevinson have written during the last few 
weeks. Appearances, they say, are deceptive because, for some 
unknown reason, the present government desires that hotels 
shall be plentifully supplied. To the problems of supply — 
entire exhaustion of nitrates and disorganization of trans- 
portation by the terms of the armistice — are added new prob- 
lems of consumption with the return of troops from Rumania, 
Serbia, Russia, Belgium, France and Austria. 

Many mouths are added, and they are mouths which have been 
used to relatively better fare than that accorded to the civilian popu- 
lation. They must be fed. Relief work is urgently needed and 
should be commenced at once. From the Germans there will be 
considerable assistance and little or no opposition to an influx of 
relief workers from the Allied nations. Such relief workers will find 
a surprisingly small amount of hate; that spirit has been burnt out 
of them by the intense fires of the past four and a half years. 

In Russia, the chief handicap of the relief workers remains 
the inaccessibility of supplies. One hastens to add that, so far 
as is known, there are only two Allied civilian relief workers in 
European Russia, both of them in Moscow and both members 
of the Society of Friends, one an American and the other 
English. They are operating a refuge just outside of that city 
in which five hundred children are being fed and cared for. 
Of this effort Miss Fry says : 

Without this assistance, these five hundred children might have 
died of starvation or at least been dwarfed mentally and physically 
by insufficient food. If the Allied governments would permit other 
workers to go, many other children might be saved to lives of use- 
fulness. And if two lone workers can save five hundred, how few 
additional workers would be necessary to save from starvation 
more, far more, than are reputed to have been killed by the Bol- 
sheviks? . . . 

This relief work in European Russia has been in operation ever 
since the early months of the war. During all that period this 

mission has maintained good relations with each of the many govern- 
ments of Russia. Today 60 per cent of the support of this Moscow 
asylum is given by the soviet government of Moscow, at present 
controlled by the Bolsheviks. In spite of the lurid newspaper ac- 
counts, there may be a spark of good in the Bolsheviks and Soviets, 
or they would not stop in their reputed campaign of slaughter and 
bloodshed to save the lives of little children. 

This desire for more workers is likely to be realized very 
soon; for, the State Department at Washington has just de- 
cided to grant passports to American relief workers and recon- 
structionists who desire to go to Russia under the auspices of 
the American Friends' Service Committee. 


FIVE million dollars 'of the hundred and twenty million 
for which the Board of Foreign Missions of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church is at present campaigning, are to be 
spent by the War Emergency and Reconstruction Department 
— two and a half millions in this country and two and a half 
millions on the building of orphanages and the establishment of 
industrial schools throughout the south of Europe. A deputa- 
tion is now in France studying the needs of the people and 
planning for relief work. Sixty thousand dollars is to be 
used for the enlargement and equipment of orphanages estab- 
lished during the war. A school for girls orphaned by the 
war has been established at Grenoble. Near Lyons is a 
school for boys. Here agricultural instruction is to be added to 
the usual school curriculum. There is a farm of two hundred 
and fifty acres surrounding the school which is being supplied 
with modern agricultural machinery and will be used as a 
demonstration plant for the peasants of the neighborhood who 
wish to modernize their methods of cultivation. 

Nearer Lyons there is a home for orphan girls. This is to be 
used as a training school for social service workers. A third 
orphanage, at Menton, cares especially for anemic children. 
Ten thousand dollars will go to establish workshops in Lyons 
and other industrial cities for women thrown out of work by 



the closing of munitions plants. Many thousands of women 
who have worked continuously for four years in making 
shells, fuses and other munitions, have become dependent upon 
the community until normal industries can be established for 

Among other activities of the Methodist church in Europe 
is a trade school for boys near Venice, reopened since the with- 
drawal of the Austrian armies. This is to be reequipped to 
teach the orphans of soldiers killed in battle skilled trades, 
such as will have a promise of permanent remunerativeness. 
Other schools will be opened as soon as the plans have been 
completed, in the hope that the American public will liber- 
ally support them. 


T N February we mentioned the Serbian desire for an 
-*■ American college to help in the educational reconstruc- 
tion of that unhappy country. The Greeks, apparently, also 
wish for an American college to " interpret American ideas 
and ideals." At least George Roussos, minister of Greece 
to the United States, before leaving this country for Paris, 
where he is assisting Premier Venizelos at the Peace Con- 
ference, attended a dinner of the American Hellenic Society 
in New York and there said : 

We seek the benefit of America's prodigious energy and activity, 
that we may more rapidly exploit the vast riches of the Orient, that 
we may capture and place at the service of man the natural forces 
that are today being wasted. Above all, it is your moral support of 
which we are in need. We wish to see at the foot of the Acropolis 
an American college which shall bring to us American ways of 
thinking, which shall teach that American idealism which is so 
happily combined with practicalism. Instruction should be in the 
hands of American professors, imbued with your ideas and capable 
of implanting them in the young Greek soul. 


LOOKING over a collection of clippings dealing with the 
appeal of Russia for American aid, it is easy to see that 
one and all they lack in one essential bit of information, and 
that is how the equitable and efficient distribution of relief, 
whatever its nature, is to be ensured. Here, for instance, is 
Mme. Breshkovsky pleading for the orphans; but the only 
conclusion possible from her communications and speeches 
is that the total defeat of the present Bolshevik govern- 
ment or dictatorship is a necessary preliminary to the admin- 
istration of the fund she is collecting. Take Mr. Vanderlip's 
suggestion that superfluous army clothes be sold to Russia at 
cost price, Mr. Olgin's appeal for a reopening of commercial 
relationships; they can obviously apply only to the sections of 
Siberia and of European Russia to which the Allies now have 
access. So do the various schemes of economic aid through 
support of cooperative organizations or zemstvos. But there 
is as yet no very clear policy, either in this country or appar- 
ently among the Allies, as regards economic or other aid 
even in the states or governments that lie entirely outside Bol- 
shevik control ; the reason for this must be either that the 
Allied governments do not believe in the stability of any of 
these governments sufficiently to cooperate with them or 
that for political purposes of their own they prefer to wait 
until a time when they will be 
able to deal with the Russian -r-r-r-_- 

territory as a whole. 

The latest concrete proposal 
for Allied aid — likewise without 
relation to the present political 
situation — comes from Theo- 
dore Krystofovich, representa- 
tive in the United States of the 
recognized Russian govern- 
ment. He would like to see 
carried on in Russia a demon- 
stration of modern methods of 

A silhouette drawn by a Russian peasant artist for a 
member of the FriendJ Relief ('"it 

agriculture similar to that commenced by the late Seaman 
Knapp in the southern states of this Union. He believes that 
in European Russia alone systematic improvement and edu- 
cation in husbandry, including the reclamation of over twenty 
million acres of marsh land, combined with the establish- 
ment of a rural credit bank system, with the improvement 
of roads and of sanitation, the organization of model dairies 
and canning industries, in short the introduction of the whole 
American program for rural betterment, would produce un- 
imaginable results in economic prosperity. The Russian peas- 
ant is more teachable than the southern Negro, and only the 
present low standards in education as in everything else are 
responsible for the dreary poverty of that great empire. 
That there is a huge and profitable task ahead for American 
capitalists, engineers and industrialists of many trades in the 
reorganization of Russia, unlimited opportunities for all the 
western nations working side by side, seems to be the one sub- 
ject on which the students of Russian conditions are agreed. 


"D UTH CRAWFORD, of the department on foreign-born 
Av women of the Y. W. C. A., at the invitation of Alice 
Masaryk, daughter of the president of the Czechoslovak re- 
public, is leaving for a six months' stay in Bohemia to help 
in making a social surve}- of Prague. 

The Department of Agriculture, by arrangement with the 
National War Work Council of the Y. M. C. A., has sent 
four sets of agricultural exhibits to France to make the round 
of the American camps, each under the direction of an expert 
from the department. They illustrate all the activities of the 
department for the improvement of farming, and consist of a 
carload of material each. 

Two American doctors are in the sanitary service of Siam 
and have helped during the past year to extend the govern- 
ment's sanitary regulations to several towns in the provinces. 
Dr. M. E. Barnes, of the International Health Board of the 
Rockefeller Foundation, is continuing work in cooperation 
with the Siamese government for the eradication of hook- 
worm, and American medical men at various mission hos- 
pitals are creating a fund of good-will for this country among 
the people. The Siamese government is contributing finan- 
cially to an American agency for the relief of lepers in north- 
ern Siam and also has repeatedly expressed its appreciation of 
the educational work of American missions. 

The Pan-African congress which Dr. Du Bois and other 
American Negro leaders went to attend in Paris, has been 
prohibited by the French government. This congress was 
to have been representative of Negroes in different parts of 
the world and was for the purpose, mainly, of discussing un- 
officially and without responsi- 
bility of members to or for their 
own governments the future of 
Africa and, more particularly, 
the former German colonies on 
that continent. Incidentally, it 
is interesting to observe that a 
group of radical Negroes in 
New York complain that the 
State Department refused them 
passports, while Dr. Du Bois 
and other " reactionaries " were 
allowed to proceed! 

*** fe Wft5> 



THE prison terms of conscientious objectors, along with 
other military offenders, are being greatly reduced, but 
apparently they are not to receive immediate amnesty. 
As already told in the Survey, the War Department is re- 
viewing the cases of all military offenders, that is, of all men 
confined in the United States Disciplinary Barracks at Ft. 
Leavenworth, Kansas, and its branches on Governor's Island, 
N. Y., and Alcatraz Island, San Francisco, to determine 
whether there is ground, now that the war is over, for grant- 
ing complete clemency or for remitting parts of the sentences. 
The authorities at each barracks make recommendations to 
a special clemency board in the office of the judge advocate- 
general. Up to March 19, Ft. Leavenworth, which has about 
3,600 prisoners, or over three times as many as the two 
branches combined, had forwarded 2,504 recommendations. 
These had not been tabulated, but it was the opinion of the 
commandant, Col. Sedgwick Rice, that half of them recom- 
mended total remission of sentence. This, if approved, would 
bring immediate release to the men affected. In most of the 
other cases the recommendations were that sentences of 15, 
20 and 25 years be reduced to the ordinary peace-time basis 
of one, two or three years. Up to March 19 the War De- 
partment had returned only 379 of these and the returns had 
not been tabulated at the barracks. But it was clear, accord- 
ing to Colonel Rice, that the department had been even more 
lenient than the barracks officials. 

Most of the prisoners concerned have committed military 
offenses, such as being absent without leave, disobeying orders, 
desertion ; or civil offenses, such as assault, theft and forgery. 
But over 400 of those at Ft. Leavenworth are conscientious 
objectors, serving sentences of from fifteen to thirty-five years. 
The barracks has recommended reduction of these sentences 
to ten years. The reason for this apparent discrimination 
against objectors is that there exists a special board, headed by 
Judge Julian W. Mack, to consider their cases, and it is felt 
by the barracks officials that if any further clemency is de- 
sirable in regard to the objectors, this board is the authority 
to suggest it. The War Department is still further reduc- 
ing the terms of the objectors, however, by fixing the terms of 
religious objectors at two years, of political objectors at three, 
the difference being in line with the whole policy of military 
officials to regard religious objectors as more likely to be sin- 
cere than those classed as political. Moreover, the objectors 
will be entitled to parole when half of their sentences have 
been served, so that, for instance, a man whose sentence has 
been reduced to two years can, if his prison record is good, 
go on parole at the end of one year. It is said to be the 
hope of the War Department and the barracks officials that 
the objectors will take advantage of parole, but so many of 
them have refused to do so many things that suggest accept- 
ance of military authority that it would not surprise some of 
the officials if a few refused parole and insisted upon serving 
out the unremitted portions of their terms. 

Within the past month objectors who refuse to work have 
again been placed in solitary confinement at Ft. Leavenworth. 
This form of punishment had been discontinued, largely at the 
suggestion of Maj. Herman M. Adler, the noted psychiatrist, 
when it was discovered that no amount of such punishment 
produced a change of mind. For several months objectors 
who declare that they cannot conscientiously perform any 
work in a military prison have been segregated in a wooden 
cantonment at the barracks, where they have enjoyed very 
good living conditions. Major Adler returned to his civil 
duties as state criminologist in Illinois some weeks ago. The 
new executive officer at the barracks, while still permitting 
the objectors who had already been segregated to continue so, 
lias placed some twenty-five others in solitary confinement. 
Most of them are men who had worked for a time at the 
barracks and finally refused as a protest against what they 
regarded as unsuitable living conditions or as the injustice 
of wartime sentences, but four are men who have consistently 
refused to work from the start. The prospect is that these 
men will suffer solitary confinement indefinitely unless they 
agree to work or unless Major Adler's policy is applied to 
them as well as to their fellows. 


PRKSS news from various parts of the country indicates 
the sporadic appearance of an obscure disease, variously 
named in the lay and medical press as " sleeping sick- 
ness," " epidemic coma," " lethargic encephalitis." The mul- 
tiplicity of names simply covers the prevalent ignorance of 
the nature and character of the disease; it is not the real 
African sleeping sickness caused by the tsetse fly. A number 
of cases have been reported in Illinois, in New York, and 
scattered throughout the country, though the total is not large. 
While little is known about the disease, it was first reported 
by Economo in Italy and Hungary as early as in 1890; and 
a similar affection seems to have followed the influenza epi- 
demic in 1890 in northern Italy and Hungary and all over 
Europe, as well as in the United States in 1895. The first 
case noted lately occurred in England in February, 1918, and 
there were a number of cases in France and Austria during 
the same year. 

The most important symptom of the disease is a progressive 
lethargy, beginning in simple drowsiness and steadily pro- 
gressing until ending in a profound coma. Usually the first 
symptom noted is tonsilitis or bronchial catarrh. Dizziness 
follows, fainting attacks, pain in the eyes, blurred vision, head- 
ache, melancholia and stupor. The gravity of the disease is 
not so great as might be implied from its name. In a British 
report it is stated that out of 168 cases 37 died. The Italian 
experience shows a somewhat higher mortality. Its duration is 
variable, lasting from two or three days to two to five weeks. 
In one case, after eight weeks the patient eventually recovered. 
The nature of the disease is as yet undetermined. Some 
regard it as a sequel of influenza; some think that it has no 





Opened March 10 at Charleston, S. C, Navy Yard 

connection with the other. It is entirely distinct from epi- 
demic poliomyelitis. That it is due to involvement of several 
cranial nerves is known and clearly points to its being an 
encephalitis of toxic infective origin. No distinct organism 
has been found to be the cause of the disease. As proof of 
inter-cranial lesions causing the disease is cited a case in which 
after five months there remained a right facial paralysis and 
general mental apathy. No specific treatment has as yet been 
found. The authorities agree that all that can be done is to 
put the patient to bed, give him good nursing, put warm ap- 
plications to the limbs, and perhaps withdraw some of the 
cerebro-spinal fluid. 


TWO weeks ago the financial committees of both houses 
of the New York legislature gave a hearing on a bill 
to increase the pay of employes of the state hospitals. 
Over six thousand men and women are required to run the 
thirteen civil state hospitals, and over one thousand places 
are vacant at the present time because the wages offered to 
nurses, attendants, engineers, domestic workers, bakers, 
laundrymen and other workers are altogether insufficient to 
attract applicants. The bill carries an appropriation of about 
$850,000 for wage increases, three-fourths of which will go 
to ward employes. 

At the hearing, no opposition to the bill was voiced in spite 
of the fact that the additional revenue required this year for 
expenses of state government is enormous. The arguments 
and facts brought forward by the chairman of the State Hos- 
pital Commission, by managers of the various institutions, 
members of the two houses, a representative of the State Fed- 
eration of Labor, and George A. Hastings, executive secretary 
of the Committee on Mental Hygiene of the State Charities 
Aid Association, are sufficient to explain this unanimity. Judge 
Waterman, speaking for one of the boards, said there had been 
no general increase of wages in twenty years. Male employes 
taking care of insane patients received only a dollar a day and 
their board and female employes seventy-five cents a day and 
their board. The increases asked for in the bill are about 25 
per cent. 

Mr. Hastings said: " As a whole, the employes in the state 
hospitals have the most trying work, the longest hours and 
the poorest pay of any employes in the state service, and in 
addition are subject to considerable hazards in caring for 
difficult or dangerous patients." Dr. Isham G. Harris, super- 
intendent of the Brooklyn State Hospital, said the wages at 
his institution were not only much lower than those paid 

similar employes in city institutions, but that, when he tried 
to hire employes in Brooklyn, he had been told they could 
make more in tips working in hotels and restaurants than the 
state offered in wages. One state hospital showed a labor 
turnover of over 100 per cent in a j'ear. 


THAT boarding houses for girls forced to work and live 
away from home need not be conducive to homesick- 
ness if properly built and managed has been the object of 
demonstrations by the emergency housing committee of the 
Young Women's Christian Association. The association, 
which has been housing girls to some extent for fifty years, 
at present maintains through its local associations over two 
hundred houses in the United States and eleven under the di- 
rect supervision of the central committee. The purpose of 
this committee, of which Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. is 
chairman, even during the critical period of the war was not 
merely that of renting and equipping houses to meet! an emer- 
gency in war boom towns or near war camps but also to raise 
the whole standard of such homes. 

An exhaustive study of the whole housing situation as it 
affected women was undertaken soon after this country en- 
tered the war. As a result of this, suggestions with illustra- 
tions and specifications were put into pamphlet form and dis- 
tributed to seven thousand manufacturers at the request of the 
War Department and the housing committee of the Council 
of National Defense. The association has embodied in at 
least one of its own dormitories — here illustrated — its ideal of 
a model home for girls. This building, at Charleston, S. C, 
contains sewing rooms, an infirmary, fudge kitchens and recrea- 
tion facilities. There is but one entrance for residents, mak- 
ing it possible for the matron or social head of the house, who 
has an office near the door, to see everyone who comes in or 
goes out. The entrance hall has several parlors and the recrea- 
tion hall opening from it. The bedrooms are all single, eight 
feet by twelve. A place is provided in the basement, equipped 
with electric dryers, where girls can do as much of their 
laundry work as they wish. 

Another novelty is the players' house erected for the use 
of actresses who go to Camp Dix or Camp Upton to play 
in the liberty theatres, — each house accommodating thirty 
women. Both these camps are far out from cities, and there 
was need of some such provision. At Camp Sherman nurses 
in training for going overseas were found to be in special need 
of suitable housing, and a special building was put up for 
them. The overcrowding in Washington led to the opening 
of a house in a beautiful wood of four acres at Silver Springs, 
Md., within thirty minutes' ride. This house has the distinc- 
tion of being without a printed rule and of being managed 
largely by the girls themselves. The plan worked so well that 
it is now being introduced in a number of other new houses. 


SIMULTANEOUSLY with the announcement of the 
British government's concession to the coal miners of 
shorter hours, higher wages and reform in the system 
of ownership comes the recommendation of Frank J. Hayes, 
president of the United Mine Workers of America, to the 
policy committee of that organization, of the six-hour day and 
the five-day week, a substantial wage increase, and government 
ownership of the mines. The situation in the American coal- 
mining industry, and the remedy required, are described as 
follows by Frank Farrington, president of the Illinois district 
of the United Mine Workers: 

The mining industry is fully SO per cent over-developed, which 
means that there are fully 50 per cent more men employed in the 
mines of the United States than is necessary to supply the normal 
demand for coal. 



So long as that condition exists unemployment will exist and 
■work will be best where wages are lowest, as the demand for coal 
will be largely supplied from districts where it can be purchased 
the cheapest, with the inevitable result that wages in districts having 
the highest scales will always be threatened by lack of employ- 
ment. . . . 

We must create a condition whereby a low wage scale will be of 
no competitive value to an operator when it comes to getting a mar- 
ket for his coal, and the only way that can be done is by reducing the 
hours of labor. . . . 

Our goal should be a six-hour day, five days a week, for all 
miners in the United States, with no double shift work allowed 
except as necessity may require . . . and we should strive to have 
the government prevent the opening of new operations except as new 
operations may be needed to supply the demand for coal. If this 
is done every mine worker will then have a decent chance to earn a 
decent living, and the matter of equalizing and adjusting wages 
will be easy of accomplishment, and until it is done unemployment 
and consequent want and suffering will ever be present among 
the mine workers of the United States. 

Coal operators admit the seriousness of the unemployment 
situation but deny that it can be permanently bettered by the 
adoption of a six-hour day. 

The terms which the British government offers to the coal 
miners include the seven-hour day from July 16, and six hours 
after July 13, 1921, subject to the economic position of the 
industry; a 20 per cent wage increase; and a change in the 
ownership of the mines through nationalization or joint con- 
trol. German miners of the Essen region recently presented 
a demand for a seven and one-half-hour day beginning in 
April, seven hours in 1920 and six and one-half hours in 1921. 


TO make domestic service attractive to the women work- 
ers who are being discharged from industry, plans to 
put housework on a business basis are being worked out 
both in England and America. In New York the central 
branch of the Y. W. C. A. has taken the lead in the move- 
ment, through the efforts of a group of progressive house- 
wives. The employment bureau of the association is recruit- 
ing a new type of domestic worker, known as a " home assist- 
ant," who is placed only under the following conditions: 

Working time. The 8-hour day and the 44-hour week; at least 
two Sundays in the month free, if possible; legal holidays or their 
equivalents free; a vacation of at least two weeks with pay each 
summer after a year's service, or a corresponding amount for a 
shorter period of service. 

Wages. $12 a week for beginners; $15 a week for those with 
training or experience; time and a half for overtime. 

The assistant is called by her last name and title. She 
neither sleeps nor eats at her employer's. Where an especial 
adjustment is made by which, because of inaccessibility of the 
employer's house or some other personal reason, board and 
lodging are supplied by the employer in exchange for part of 
the salary, the 8-hour working schedule, with time and a half 
for overtime, is still adhered to. During the hours on duty 
the employe works steadily, performing any duties that fall 
into her schedule. Specialization is eliminated, and the assist- 
ant agrees to do all kinds of work except heavy washing. The 
schedule may be arranged to suit the convenience of both par- 
ties. Eight hours' work will not cover the preparation of all 
three meals, of course, and the housewife usually is willing to 
get her own breakfast. On the other hand, the worker who 
is accustomed to office hours often objects to staying late 
enough to serve dinner. This is one of tbe " snags " that have 
arisen. Another difficulty is to arrange for time off for the 
worker's meals, but the association's placement secretary feels 
strongly that the free hour, especially that in the middle of 
the day, is helpful in effacing the drudgery aspect of house- 
work. The association finds employers eager to try the new 
plan; the difficulty is to secure enough applicants for the 
positions. Of the first sixty placements made, about half were 
in households where only one worker was employed, and half 
were in households employing two or more assistants. Many 



jJU'AKDJiD first place in the Trudeau Price Poster Con- 
•**■ test in which approximately 450 students from the high- 
schools of Greater New York competed. This contest, held 
under the auspices of tuberculosis committees and the city's 
health and education departments, was the result of an idea 
to make students their own teachers in health education.^ 
Drawn by Isidore Rothstein, Bushwick High School, 

of the applicants were discharged munition workers, while 
others are office workers. A number of young women with 
soldier husbands overseas have applied for half-day work. A 
training course for home assistants has been arranged. 

The New York office of the United States Employment 
Service is also interested in putting household employment on 
an industrial basis, and is making placements of household 
assistants. The secretary in charge of this work said, " Some 
housewives seem to be afraid that we are trying to snatch away 
their cherished Bridgets or Mary Janes, who have been in the 
family for years; but that is just what we are not trying to 
do. We are attempting to develop an entirely new source of 
supply for household labor." In a newspaper advertisement 
for household assistants the Employment Service specified 
" Servants need not apply." The New York Board of Edu- 
cation has offered to give a night training course for the new 
work at one of the high schools which will probably begin 
next fall. The subjects announced are cooking, cleaning, 
laundering, waiting on table, housewifery and buying. 

English housewives are complaining of the great difficulty of 
obtaining servants. Out of 6,000 women recently discharged 
from Woolwich Arsenal it is said that only about six went 
into domestic service. To meet this situation the Women's 
Legion is preparing a minimum wage scale for household 
workers, which ranges from $90 a year for a scullery maid 
to $250 for a housekeeper. The workers are to live with 
the employers; but they are to have definite periods of leave 
and leisure which will include two hours off every day besides 
time for meals, half a day and part of Sunday off every week, 
and a yearly holiday of two weeks with pay. The Women's 



19 i 9 

Industrial Council of England proposed a plan for the 
" Household Orderly Corps," a sort of domestic service ex- 
change which was to be established by subscriptions of the em- 
ployers of a neighborhood. The corps would enroll domestic 
workers and supply them to employers on the basis of a mini- 
mum wage of about $7.50 for a week of 48 hours, with over- 
time at a higher rate and one day off a week. The workers 
were to provide their own lodging, laundry and food. Work- 
ing conditions were to be regulated by a board of manage- 
ment, which should " take adequate steps to ascertain and give 
effect to the views of the workers as well as those of the em- 
ployers." At Bristol an appeal tribunal, consisting of equal 
numbers of mistresses and maids, has been set up by the Bris- 
tol Employment Exchange to adjust differences arising between 
employers and servants. A group of Labor Party women has 
recently drawn up a scheme for domestic employment which 
involves living out, a minimum wage of $8.75 a week, a 5 2 " 
hour week, overtime counted as time and a quarter on week- 
days and as double time on Sundays and holidays. Strong 
organizations for domestic workers are urged as the only 
basis for a satisfactory arrangement of the problem. 


THE rally of Chicago to the work of securing employ- 
ment for the men discharged from the military and 
naval service has been so spontaneous and effective 
that Gen. Leonard Wood is urging its type of organization 
upon the other large cities in the central military division 
which he commands. In response to the call of the United 
States Employment Service, two score or more o'f social agen- 
cies and of the army and navy and the state Free Employment 
Service organized the Bureau for Returning Soldiers and 
Sailors several weeks ago. Its employment office was estab- 
lished at the headquarters of the United States and Illinois em- 
ployment offices, which had previously combined their central 
stations in one building. Prominent representatives of employ- 
ing capital, organized labor and social agencies constituted the 
executive committee of the new bureau, under the general 
supervision of the federel employment service director for Illi- 
nois. The Chicago Association of Commerce led other groups 
of employers in organizing its large constituency of business 
men to cooperate with the bureau and the employment service 
in securing all available work for men returning from militan 
and naval service and for unemployed war workers. 

When the rate of demobilization increased so that two 
thousand men would be discharged daily from Camp Grant 
for sixty days or more, General Wood proposed the centering 
of all the agencies dealing with them in one building. The 
bureau managers heartily responded. Guarantors for the 
rental were found. The centrally located building at 120 
West Adams street was secured. Having been equipped for the 
varied functions of the State Council of Defense, it proved 
to be finely adapted to the manifold needs of the bureau. The 
headquarters committee was appointed to manage the building 
and promote its use by all the cooperating agencies. General 
Wood accepted the chairmanship of this committee and as- 
signed several members of his staff to its executive work. 
Its four other members are H. H. Merrick, president of the 
Association of Commerce, George J. Thompson, representing 
the Chicago Federation of Labor, Graham Taylor, acting for 
the social agencies and for the bureau hoard of managers of 
which he is chairman, and Mrs. Edwin T. Johnson, president 
of the Chicago Woman's Club, which has assumed responsi- 
bility for fitting up and supervising a reception and game 
room for the men resorting to headquarters. The employment 
service has already installed its extensive work in ample office 
space. Many of the cooperating agencies have taken offices 

there for staff representatives. Soldiers, sailors and marines 
can thus have every need met at this one place. Without 
leaving the building they can apply for a job, get advice and 
help from army officers concerning their bonus, their soldier's 
pay or war risk insurance and, their citizenship papers, can 
secure temporary lodgings, clothing and food if in need. 

Congress failed to pass the appropriation bill providing for 
the Employment Service, but contributions by citizens and 
their agencies provide not only for this Bureau for Return- 
ing Soldiers, Sailors and Marines but for the continuation of 
the most important federal employment offices as well. Mean- 
while the Illinois state Free Employment Service is likely to 
be increased by additional appropriations urged by Governor 
Lowden, so that an employment office will be established in 
every city of 25,000 or more population. Thus the number 
of state free employment offices will be increased from five to 


AMONG the first fruits of the recent trip abroad of 
Julia C. Lathrop, chief of the federal Children's 
Bureau, is a conference on child welfare to be held 
under the auspices of the bureau at Washington during the 
week of May 6. Announcements from the Department of 
Labor state that this will be a small conference but that it will 
be followed by similar regional conferences, and that the 
visitors who have accepted Miss Lathrop's invitation to come 
from abroad will speak also at other gatherings such as the 
Southern Sociological Congress and the National Conference 
of Social Work. President Wilson has given the plan his 
cordial endorsement and has charged the conference to con- 
sider " certain irreducible minimum standards for the health, 
education and work of the American child." The following 
have been invited and are expected: From England, Sir Ar- 
thur Newsholme, the chief medical officer of the Local Gov- 
ernment Board, whose work in Great Britain resulted in a 
lowering of the infant death rate during the war; R. C. 
Davison of the Juvenile Labor Exchange, London; and 
Eleanor Barton of the Woman's Cooperative Guild, an or- 
ganization of wives of British wage earners which was accom- 
plished important results in the national protection of infancy 
and maternity. From France, Pierre Hamp, an official of the 
French Ministry of Labor, who is also a well known authority 
on education and child labor; Dr. C. Mulon, who had charge 
of the creches maintained during the war by the French gov- 
ernment for the children of women employed in the munitions 
factories; and Valentine Thompson, editor of La Vie Femi- 
nine. From Belgium, Dr. Rene Sand, professor of social and 
industrial medicine at the University of Brussels and Mme. 
Henry Carton de Wiart. wife of the recent minister of jus- 
tice, and herself in charge of the care of Belgian refugee chil- 
dren during the war. 


SAMUEL T DUTTON, secretary of the New York 
Peace Society and a life-long worker for world peace, 
died on March 28 in his seventieth year. A native of 
New Hampshire, a graduate of Yale and for some time a 
superintendent of schools in New England, Dr. Dutton's 
widely known work in the field of education began in 1900 
when he became professor of school administration at Teachers' 
College of Columbia University and ar the same time superin- 
tendent of the Horace Mann school. He was a trustee of the 
onstantinople College for Women and was profoundly inter- 
ested in the problems of the Near East. Readers of the 
Survey will recall frequent trenchant reviews of books in 
this field which he has written for our page-. 



The Employment Service 

A cloud of dust surrounds the actual de- 
mobilization happenings; without detailed 
investigation it is impossible to decide be- 
tween the contradictory statements of cer- 
tain authorities, such as the New York State 
Employment Service — which proclaims that 
there is a job ready for every discharged 
soldier and sailor, and, on the other hand, 
many of the men themselves who complain 
that if they want a job they have to hunt for 
it themselves with or without the aid of 
social agencies. 

The federal service, in spite of the failure 
of Congress to sustain it, is still alive and 
may hold out until the next Congress votes 
the necessary appropriation for the coming 
year, estimated at about $11,000,000. Con- 
cerning the relation of the service to the re- 
turning soldier, Dr. G. W. Kirchwey, acting 
federal director, says (New York Times, 
March 23): "It has been borne in upon 
us most powerfully that a very large pro- 
portion of the returning soldiers don't want 
their old jobs or wish to go back to the class 
of work they did before they went into the 
service. They have very properly acquired 
a new sense of their own value, have de- 
veloped new ambitions, new capacities. We 
make every effort to find these men the kind 
of jobs they want, or, at any rate, are best 
fitted for, and we encourage them to take 
courses in vocational training to equip them- 
selves for a better grade of work than they 
have ever done before." 

Following the Australian example, the 
federal service is sending experts abroad to 
return on the transports with the men and 
secure a great deal of information on their 
capacities and wants before they get to the 
employment bureau to make their applica- 
tion. Unfortunately, however, the public 
sympathy with the soldier seeking a job and 
the natural impatience of the men them- 
selves has led to the use and acceptance 
of practices which at normal times would be 
adjudged reprehensible. There is, for in- 
stance, a quite general tendency to force on 
employers ex-soldiers whom they do not 
really need in their business. The Depart- 
ment of Labor itself has encouraged the no- 
tion that every star on a firm's service flag 
denotes an obligation to take on one ex-sol- 
dier in place of the worker drafted into the 
army, whether the same man or another. 
That this is leading to injustice and hardship 
must be obvious. 

An employer may not be in a position to 
employ economically a staff of the same size 
as before the war; or, again, he may, with- 
out having made any promise whatever to his 
drafted men, have been able to replace them 
satisfactorily to himself and to his new em- 
ployes. No argument has yet been advanced 
to prove that such an employer is acting in 
the public interest if he dismisses these com- 
petent workers in order to engage and train 
anew an equivalent number of others. 

Even less desirable, from a social point of 
view, are the endeavors of committees and 
individuals to use social pressure upon em- 

ployers for the purpose of forcing ex-soldiers 
upon them. For the moment it may be a 
considerable gain not to have large numbers 
of unemployed soldiers parade the streets; 
but unless they are fitted for the employment, 
they are going to be out of work sooner or 
later, and in the meantime there has been in- 
justice to the displaced civilian workers — 
many of whom have worked at least as hard 
as the members of the forces to win the war 
— and wastefulness in the processes of pro- 
duction which is bound to react on prices. 
The organization described in the Survey 
for March 1 under the name of American 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Protective Association 
has since become incorporated under the 
name of World War Veterans of America 
and claims to have the active cooperation of 
the American Red Cross, the War Camp 
Community Service, the Knights of Colum- 
bus, the Y. M. C. A. and the Jewish Wel- 
fare Board. The organization has, however, 
been disowned by Lieut.-Col. Theodore 
Roosevelt who, before his recent arrival in 
this country, already had completed an au- 
thorized organization of ex-soldiers in France 
and who is in charge of that organization in 
this country. 

A meeting of five hundred officers and en- 
listed men of the A. E. F. met in Paris on 
March 15 under the chairmanship of Lieut.- 
Col. Bennett Clark, son of Champ Clark, and 
appointed a committee, equally representative 
of officers and enlisted men, to cooperate with 
a similar committee to be elected by the 
troops in the United States in preparation for 
a national convention to be held probably in 
November, for the formation of a permanent 
organization of war veterans. Another com- 
mittee was appointed to confer with similar 
French and British bodies on the possibility 
of an interallied organization. 

New York is not the only place, in the 
meantime, where a spontaneous organization 
of discharged soldiers has taken place. In 
Chicago, last week, a request made by Major 
General Leonard Wood to the officials of the 
Soldiers', Sailors' and Marines' Council to 
disband, was refused, and that body is going 
on with its plans, involving a budget of $18,- 
000 which it expects to raise largely among 
trade unions. The movement there seems to 
be somewhat different from that in New York 
in its affiliations and sympathies. At any rate 
it is fostered and supported by leading A. 
F. of L. officials and by the new state labor 


A Symposium 

The March issue of the Annals of the 
American Academy of Political and Social 
Science is devoted to Industries in Readjust- 
ment and covers that subject if not thor- 
oughly at least with a generous recognition 
of the elements that enter a modern con- 
ception of industry. It would be difficult to 
single out individual items from this wealth 
of information and suggestion. A few un- 
connected comments may, however, be es- 

Prof. Irving Fisher sets himself down 

a dangerous " Bolshevik " as that term is 
now currently applied, by saying that " the 
fault of the I. W. W. is not primarily with 
its members but with our existing social and 
industrial system." While we have been 
taught to look upon all social legislation 
that originated in Germany with abhor- 
rence, he points out that probably the Ger- 
man laborer, when the war came, felt that 
he owed something to a government that 
did everything for him and, therefore, was 
willing to make sacrifices. Now that he sees 
that government in its true light, his grati- 
tude, and with it his morale, have collapsed. 
Only a " humanized " industry can depend 
on the loyalty of the worker — and that im- 
plies satisfaction of the instincts of self- 
expression and self-respect. 

Steven C. Mason, president of the National 
Association of Manufacturers, goes on record 
witli the well-known program of that organi- 
zation, but Clyde L. King, editor of the 
number, has wisely avoided putting up as a 
balance a labor man with the equally well 
known trade union program — the usual cere- 
mony of similar symposia. In fact, the more 
vital currents in the labor movement are 
properly excluded from this volume since, 
unfortunately, they have not yet been for- 
mulated or presented anywhere with pre- 
cision and thorough argumentation. 

A. J. Portenar, of the United States Em- 
ployment Service, who in this gathering 
comes nearest the position of a " labor " 
representative, having carried a union card 
for thirty-two years, takes the present unrest 
very seriously. He says: "In my narrow 
field my ear is close to the ground, and the 
rumblings are ominous, but not yet menacing. 
From both demobilized soldiers and civilians 
come the mutterings. They are not ripe for 
Workmen's and Soldiers' Councils, but it is 
not entirely beyond the bounds of the con- 
ceivable that they may become so. Every- 
where like causes produce like effects, and 
the anxiety in European capitals today is due 
to fear of the concededly contagious quality 
of bolshevism." 

A Survey 
Problems of Industrial Readjustment in 
the United States, Research Report No. 15 of 
the National Industrial Conference Board, 
Boston, is intended as a survey of the indus- 
trial problem. Incidentally it contains a 
good deal of useful information on condi- 
tions not only in this country but also in Eu- 
rope, though some of the interpretations 
may be open to criticism. It is rather a su- 
perficial statement, for instance, to say that 
the main problem of adjustment in France is 
that of reclamation of land, rehabilitation of 
injured men and restoration of factories; in 
Italy that of internal social and economic 
development; in Germany that of relation of 
industry to the state; in many other coun- 
tries recovery from inactivity and uncer- 
tainty. As a matter of fact, the larger 
economic and political problems of adjust- 
ment are common to the whole western world 
to an astonishing extent when one remembers 
how largely each country is still looked upon 
as an isolated unit in relation to its develop- 

Labor, immigration and other contentious 




questions are handled very gingerly in this 
essay. However, it is hardly accurate to say 
that " a transition period is necessarily a 
period of hesitation and uncertainty." There 
seems to he little of either in Germany or 
Russia. The Italian government lately has 
taken steps which any " bourgeois " party 
would have utterly denounced five years 
ago; in France all but the politicians are 
for a complete remodeling of the political 
system, especially the relation of the gov- 
ernment to the local authorities. Even in 
Great Britain, the coalition government with 
its great tory majority is entering upon legis- 
lative and administrative changes which 
might be described as " panaceas for the 
problems of industrial readjustment — " 
though this report says these are impossible. 

" Nothing is clearer," says Robert Bruere 
in Harper's Magazine for March, " than 
that we cannot go back to the old ways of 
cut-throat competition, business sabotage, 
harassing and destructive hostility between 
employers and employed, between organized 
industry and the government. If, in their 
natural reaction against the war-time re- 
straints of an efficient bureaucratic system, 
business men yield to the temptation to re- 
turn to the old game of business bucaneering, 
■of fleecing the consuming public, and beating 
down the workers, they will imperil their 
present trusteeship of the economic and in- 
dustrial resources of the nation." 

The tone of this preachment, which is 
typical of scores of articles, is rather like 
that of the old-fashioned Scotch minister who 
would go on for hour after hour haranguing 
his crestfallen congregation in a valiant, yet 
by no means optimistic endeavor thus to save 
them yet a while longer from eternal pun- 

City Life 


Only on the surface is the present " recon- 
struction " housing problem the same as the 
war-time problem. Fundamentally, there is 
a good deal of difference. For a year or so 
it was unpatriotic, nay impossible, to build 
houses on a large scale, except in cities and 
neighborhoods where such investment of 
capital, material and labor was directly 
conducive to the success of war industry. 
Now, government, state and city administra- 
tions encourage builders, so that the present 
surplus of labor may be absorbed as rapidly 
as possible; the general shortage of dwell- 
ings in particular communities calls for ac- 
tivity — and yet, there is little or no building. 
The causes are continued difficulty of getting 
material at a reasonable price, continued 
high rates of interest and, added to these, a 
new uncertainty and conservatism which 
permeates the whole industrial field. 

In some cities, the end of war has merely 
intensified a situation that was critical be- 
fore the war. As C. H. Whitaker, editor of 
the Journal of the American Institute of 
Architects, says in an article in the Public: 
" In New York city, for example, it is 
probably safe to say that there is no known 
manner by which decent houses may here- 
after be erected for low-wage workers. Land 
speculation has raised the cost of sites to 
such a point that a low rental housing is im- 

And again " We have sought to toy with 
it [the housing problem] by passing restric- 
tive legislation in the form of tenement-house 
laws, but if one cares to see an example of 
what this kind of remedial measure offers, 
let him cross over the island of Manhattan 
to the Long Island side and view the areas 
of new slums built under this law. Where 
can he find anything more barren, more in- 

humane, more undemocratic, more destruc- 
tive of every social ideal than this desert 
waste into which thousands of families are 
obliged to consign their destinies?" 

What is happening now is that even these 
deserts are no longer built up, and that in 
the stony wilderness of Brooklyn the rents of 
small working class tenements are rising 
from thirty to forty, fifty and even sixty dol- 
lars a month. The case of New York is 
probably the worst. It is estimated that dur- 
ing the past winter some 300,000 persons 
above the normal, enough to fill 75,000 more 
apartment houses, have crowded into the city ; 
the Tenement House Department estimates 
that at the present time there is a pressing 
demand for 60,000 new apartments in the 
city, not reckoning the always present prob- 
lem of keeping up with the natural increase 
of population and of reducing overcrowding. 

D e centralization 

In England, the government has learned 
the all-important lesson that housing is not 
a matter of brick and mortar alone, and that 
the old method of providing houses in the 
open market, as the baker sells loaves over 
the counter, is gone forever. Their housing 
program is one of a nation-wide system of 
" light railways " and rapid transit on the 
lines perfected in past decades in Belgium, 
of new, preventive principles in laying out 
estates which make it impossible for either 
landowner or transportation company to hold 
a community at their mercy, the encourage- 
ment of new, cooperative non-profit-making 
systems of house building and owning. 

Thus, the only really hopeful sign of 
wakefulness to the new needs and opportuni- 
ties of reconstruction in the housing of the 
people in this country comes appropriately 
from the various groups that have studied 
house building as part of town and city 
building. The present needs cannot be met 
by the old methods, and it is useless to wait 
for "normal " times to return; there will be 
no " normal " times in the sense of a return 
to the economic conditions of twenty and 
thirty years ago. 

As a sample of the modern notion of the 
rask, the January issue of Landscape Archi- 
tecture, the quarterly magazine of the Amer- 
ican Society of Landscape Architects, may be 
recommended. This " Reconstruction Num- 
ber " contains a survey of the whole situ- 
ation by Thomas Adams, town planning ad- 
viser of the Canadian Commission on Con- 
servation, which created great interest when 
read at the Boston conference of the Na- 
tion Housing Association, and, in addition to 
other articles, a number of editorials which 
illustrate the newer viewpoint. 

One of these suggests that the time has 
come to limit the growth of cities and to 
plan the countryside in such a way as to 
make practicable a determined and system- 
atic redistribution of the industrial popula- 
tion. Arthur A. Shurtleff, in an article on 
The Development of a Street Plan, illus- 
trates in detail the method by which the old, 
mechanical platting may be superseded by a 
more scientific, practical and in every way 
preferable subdivision and street-planning. 

A Municipal Program 

The Municipal League of Seattle recently 
referred to its legislative committee the for- 
mulation of a reconstruction program. This 
committee, of which Austin E. Griffiths is 
chairman, on March 3 brought in a " pre- 
amble and outline of definite action " for 
consideration and adoption by the league 
from which the following principles are 
worth quoting: 

" In the field of labor and capital a guid- 
ing principle should be to recognize the jus- 
tice of profit and loss sharing and the wis- 
dom of gradual industrial partnership con- 
trol or a system of democratic industrial co- 

operation so as to preserve personal initiative, 
personal action and personal responsibility 
as against state socialism, state compulsion 
or the newer forms of mass action in the in- 
terest only of an autocratic single class con- 

" In dealing with social life, a guiding 
principle should be recognition of the fact, 
more especially so in the days now passing, 
that the interests of the people on the lower 
rounds of the social ladder are apt to be lost 
sight of and of the great lesson of the war 
that society can act as largely and effectively 
for human betterment in peace as for human 
destruction in war. 

" In the realm of politics, the guiding prin- 
ciple should be the fundamental one of this 
country that just government rests on the 
consent of the governed, with the further ob- 
servation that this consent should find con- 
tinuing expression not only in the form of 
government but in the manner and methods 
of its administration, for if for any reason 
this consent changes to settled discontent, 
there is danger ahead." 

Then follows this outline of definite pro- 
posals for legislation and propaganda which, 
it is suggested, the league should take up: 


A system providing for old age pensions, 

Unemployment insurance, 

Health insurance with maternity benefits, 

Maximums for working time, 

Minimums for working wage, 

A method or board for conciliation and 
equitable adjustment of labor disputes, 

Cheap and rapid transit for city, county, 
and state. 

Cheap light and power for city and coun- 

State credit aid for rural development — if 
for no other reason than to safeguard 
against urban congestion and excessive in- 

This includes cheap land, cheap power, 
cheap water and good roads, 

Garden homes for suburban residents. 


A practical plan to preserve peace to 
lessen the number and area of wars, 

Recreation for old and young to overcome 
the fatigue and sterility of city life, 

A memorial auditorium for King county, 

Abolition of all city and county jails in the 
state for central custodial farms and re- 

Indeterminate sentence and parole for all 

Study and revision of educational methods 
and purposes, so that our free schools shall 
produce their best for the republic. 


A state constitutional conventive, 

Reorganize the administration of the state, 
county and city by concentration of authority 
and consolidation of offices in order to make 
administration cheaper, more efficient, and 
more directly responsible to the voter, 

Reduce boards to one head each. 

Reduce county organization to one com- 
missioner and put county officers under him, 

Combine large cities with their counties, 

Grant the largest cities home rule subject 
to the constitution and to state wide popular 

Especially interesting in this program is 
the stand taken against industrial and urban 
congestion by the provision of cheap land, 
cheap power, cheap water, good roads and 
"garden homes." A recommendation is 
added to the effect that in this program the 
interest of the soldier and his dependents 
should remain in the forefront of consider- 


i 9 1 g 


Social Welfare, the organ of the St. Paul, 
Minn., Central Council of Welfare Agencies, 
lays down a municipal reconstruction pro- 
gram including five points: employment, 
education and Americanization, leisure time 
provisions, health, political reform. 

From many similar programs that have 
come to hand, and from resolutions of city 
clubs concerning the reconstruction period, it 
. becomes clearer that there is not, really, for 
the average American city, a compelling 
necessity to exchange their normal programs 
of reform and progress for a new emergency 
program of reconstruction. 

Apart from special building programs that 
are being formulated here and there, partly 
to absorb labor and partly to make good the 
enforced idleness during the war period, 
very little seems to be happening to which 
the words reconstruction activity might prop- 
erly be applied. As Lent D. Upson, director 
of the Detroit Bureau of Municipal Research, 
says in a recent issue of its organ, Public 
Business: "Why the emphasis on recon- 
struction? The United States has no prob- 
lem of physical reconstruction. The United 
States does have the problem of rededicating 
its intelligence and energy to carrying out 
ideas conceived long ago but which the war 
has definitely emphasized. . . . Detroit's re- 
construction problem is to build a city which 
will be as worth while to live in as it was 
to fight for." 

Various Programs 

A Summary 
Professor Rockwell D. Hunt, of the Uni- 
versity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 
in a pamphlet on Problems of Economic 
Reconstruction, after reviewing some of the 
recent literature on the subject, formulates 
the following theses: 

1. There is an inseparable relationship be- 
tween economics and ethics — in the social 
sciences thinking in water-tight compart- 
ments is not straight thinking. 

2. Governmental control of industry must 
not be permitted to quench private initiative 
or personal incentive. 

3. There must be established a social 
minimum of income, education, opportunity 
below which the individual may not be suf- 
fered to go. 

4. No political shibboleth nor social 
panacea can take the place of a patient 
facing of the facts and a constructive pro- 
gram based thereon. 

5. The conception of labor as a mere com- 
modity must yield to that of the individual 
laborer as a human personality. 

6. Capitalism has gained in the security 
of its position by reason of the war; its fu- 
ture depends on its willingness to come to 
terms with labor on the basis of fair play 
and mutual serviceability. 

7. In all negotiations and controversies be- 
tween capital and labor the state should be- 
come a third, and predominant, partner. 

8. State socialism is not compatible with 
true democracy, and no other kind of social- 
ism is available for many years to come. 

9. The doctrine of complete economic self- 
sufficiency for any nation of the modern 
world is fallacious. 

10. The United States must wisely and 
energetically develop and conserve its own 

f resources. 
North Carolina 
The University of North Carolina has just 
issued a pamphlet entitled Reconstruction and 
Citizenship as the first of an after-the-war 
information series to be put out by the ex- 
tension department, in the belief that "it is 
the function of intellectual leadership to turn 
all its energies to the illumination of the 
! task of American democracy at peace." It 
gives a brief statement of some of the prob- 
lems which are challenging the thought and 

efforts of American people and a program 
of the work which the university hopes to do 
towards helping to solve them. 

The various problems of the reconstruction 
period are divided into several classes, such 
as politics and government, international re- 
lations, industry and economics, rural life in 
North Carolina, social agencies and institu- 
tions, future status of American women, pub- 
lic health, education, culture and practice of 

Four different extension services are 
planned by the university. The first aim is 
to assist any community to form a general 
organization for the education of its citizens 
in the problems of American democracy at 
peace and to supply it with lecturers, at first 
members of the university faculty, to be sup- 
plemented as the work progresses with out- 
side speakers of distinction. This branch 
will also help in promoting public com- 
munity celebrations or other expressions of 
community spirit. The second part of the 
program is to send lecturers to such organiz- 
ations as men's and women's clubs and Y. M. 
C. A.'s and suggest topics for group study 
and reading. 

The Readers' Service will undertake to 
furnish information as to books on topics of 
general or special interest connected with the 
general subject (American democracy at 
peace) and will also send small package li- 
braries on these subjects and act as a distrib- 
uting agency for putting government and 
other publications on reconstruction in the 
hands of interested readers. 

The fourth phase of the work will be di- 
rect publicity. This will include distribu- 
tion of magazine articles and of special 
leaflets written by members of the faculty to 
teachers and other influential persons in the 
community; also issue of the university news 
letter — a weekly sheet to be sent to the press 
with information on topics affecting the wel- 
fare of the state, and circulation of debate 
and composition subjects, programs for 
school exercises and community gatherings, 
and the like. 

The Churches 
From many sides comes concrete evidence 
that the churches do not overlook their op- 
portunity just now for follow-up work 
among those to whom the war has brought a 
new spiritual significance and for reclam- 
ation of those who have lost sight of the 
spiritual side of life. This aspect is dis- 
cussed, for instance, in a pamphlet on Re- 
ligious Education and Reconstruction by Nor- 
man E. Richardson, director of the depart- 
ment of Religious Education of Boston Uni- 

Most of the newer publications that link 
religious work with reconstruction are inter- 
pretive more paticularly of the significance 
of the impending social and industrial prob- 
lems and indicate a new desire of the 
churches to help in the solution of other than 
distinctly church problems. To this end, the 
Joint Commission on Social Service of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, for instance, is 
issuing a series of pamphlets. The first — the 
Church and the Home-Coming Man — gives 
suggestions to the churches for cooperation in 
the readjustment, reemployment, reeducation 
and reclamation of returned soldiers. 

It advises each church to appoint a special 
committee to ascertain conditions in the com- 
munity by a canvass of the returned soldiers 
in their parish or neighborhood, to be fol- 
lowed by efforts of church members towards 
facilitating employment and seeing that it is 
permanent. From such activities, it is stated, 
there may grow a chance of obtaining re- 
cruits for the ministry and for social work. 
The second pamphlet gives a bibliography 
and digest of the more important programs 
of reconstruction work, most of those quoted 
being industrial programs, English and 
French as well as those promulgated in this 

In Great Britain 

The Reconstruction Ministry 

To keep up with the activities and publica- 
tions of the Reconstruction Ministry alone we 
should require all the space of this issue. 
The report for last year, recently issued (Cd. 
9231, H. M. Stationery Office, price 6d.), re- 
veals an organization of even greater com- 
plexity than one was able to gather from 
previous reports. There is, to start with, a 
General Branch with a scope sufficient to 
discourage the archangel Gabriel. Five ad- 
ministrative branches cover: transitional eco- 
nomics, commerce and production, labor and 
industrial organization, rural development 
and social development. The last named 
deals " with questions of health, local govern- 
ment, housing, education and other matters 
relative to the changed conditions of life 
(including social, as distinct from industrial, 
questions affecting the position of women) in 
the transitional period." 

To avoid needless details, it may only be 
observed in passing that there is a " petrole- 
um lamp (provisional) " committee as one 
of a score or so of " interim industrial recon- 
struction committees" directly controlled by 
the " general " branch. 

To judge from the concluding paragraphs 
of this report, what has happened in England 
is exactly what was anticipated by those who 
advised against the appointment of a separate 
administrative reconstruction commission for 
the United States. " Whilst the energies of 
the department were necessarily very largely 
devoted to devising means for dealing with 
the emergencies which were bound to arise 
immediately upon the conclusion of hostilities, 
every effort was made to bring under review 
the wider problems of the future . . ." — 
in other words there has been in the consid- 
erations and plans of the committee and its- 
many subdivisions a constant interplay of 
immediate and distant objectives which, to 
judge from the day's news in the press and in 
Parliament, has caused untold delay and con- 

The committee has been expected to survey 
the field of all government departments and 
do their thinking for them, and at the same 
time to prepare the framework for a new 
political, economic and social state structure 
and machinery. The marvel is not that in 
some of its preparations, such as orderly de- 
mobilization of the army, it has apparently 
fallen short of complete success, but that it 
has accomplished so much of lasting value. 

One feature of the work which deserves 
particular emphasis is that the public has 
been admitted into the counsels of practically 
every one of the sub-committees by means of 
hearings, of really representative advisory 
committees, and of publicity. The series of 
pamphlets on reconstruction problems issued 
by the ministry, eighteen of them so far, at 
two pence each, provides an object lesson in 
clear, concise and instructive, though popular 
educational work by a government depart- 
ment. And many of the larger reports are 
less popular only because of their unwieldy 
traditional size, but are intensely interesting 

There is, for instance, the report of the 
Engineering Trades Committee (Cd. 9226, 
price 6d.), appointed to inquire and report 
whether there are any articles, previously 
imported or for which there was likely to be 
a large demand after the war which could 
advantageously be made, respectively, by 
women, men and women, skilled men with 
engineering trade experience — and all about 
the requirements of the necessary transfer of 
labor, machines and the like. This committee 
had fifteen representative sub-committees for 
different branches of engineering, and the 
whole problem has been discussed with a 
truly British thoroughness. The result is a 
series of reports on " new industries," with 
[Continued on page 62] 



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{Continued from page 59] 
some general observations, however, which 
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The chief difficulty with all these plans and 
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almost total darkness concerning the psycho- 
logical condition which would prevail in 
Great Britain at the end of the war. In this 
respect the situation is not unlike that in the 
United States. " There is," says Mr. Lloyd 
George, " a great hanging back, because men 
do not quite know what is going to happen. 
There are so many doubtful conditions. And 
if men apprehend that an enterprise which 
they propose to start is going to be interrupted 
by some social upheaval they would rather 
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Atlantic City 

JUNE 1—8 

1 The Preliminary Program is j 
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Tomorrow in Human Service 

46th Annual 

National Conference of Social Work 

Atlantic City, June 1—8, 1919 
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gy, with a sub-committee on the psychology 
of captains of industry in particular. Had 
they done so, the present lack of confidence 
might have been foreseen and anticipated by 
appropriate stimuli. 

The Labor Unrest 

The unsettled condition of British labor 
and the means adopted to cope with it and 
to make for a smooth adjustment between 
the demands of the workers and the require- 
ments of the nation are discussed in Mr. 
Gleason's articles in this and other issues of 
the Survey. It may here be said only in 
passing that the government's continual ref- 
erences to its general program of social bet- 
terment, including housing, transportation, 
land settlement and the like, is not regarded 
by the men as a sufficient answer, or any 
answer, to their demands. Their interest, 
for the moment, seems to be closely confined 
to industrial issues; and in vain does the 
prime minister try to charm the workers into 
acceptance of his point of view by holding 
before them beautiful visions of better homes 
and cities. Each time they answer back, 
"And what about wages — about hours?" 

From the statistics of trade disputes given 
in the Labor Gazette for February, it appears 
that at least one-half of the disputes hinge on 
wage questions and over a quarter on ques- 
tions relating to hours. The number of dis- 
putes in January was 105 as compared with 
98 a year ago, not a great difference, but in- 
volving 460,000 workpeople as compared 
with 93,000. 

In France 

" Reconstitution " of Industry 
The Chamber of Deputies has been asked 
to pass a bill appropriating Frs. 62,000,000 
for reconstruction of industries and Frs. 1,- 
256,000,000 for the needs of the liberated re- 
gions. The extent of the industrial needs and 
how they are to be met is graphically de- 
scribed by Pierce C. Williams, commercial 
attache of the United States at Paris, in The 
Nation's Business for March. 

The most recent cabled reports seem to 
indicate that there is a growing feeling that 
even now, at the end of a war almost entirely 
financed by means of loans, it is impossible 
to get much revenue from taxation, and that 
the help of the Allies is absolutely necessary 
to rebuild the credit of France. This means 
that the financial authorities, at any rate, no 
longer look as a great menace upon the neces- 
sity of the country to secure large supplies of 
industrial raw materials and steel from the 
United States to reconstruct industrial life, 
though, undoubtedly, that feeling has been 

Mr. Williams says: "As a result of what 


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I saw on that trip [through the devastated 
region], and from what French industrialists 
engaged in organizing the work of restora- 
tion have frequently told me, I have no hesi- 
tation in saying that the collaboration of 
American finance and industry will be called 
for. ... A glimpse of the devastated re- 
gion is sufficient to convince one that the 
united efforts of the industrial world would 
be required to restore in our day what the 
Germans destroyed." He continues to say 
that the word " reconstitution " used in 
French implies more than mere physical re- 

The French nation has " to reconstitute, to 
recreate, to make over, in all of its various 
aspects, the community life which, before 
the war, abounded in the now war-ravaged 
region. It is really a problem in social engi- 
neering that France must solve. It is a colos- 
sal task in new world pioneering, made a 
thousandfold more difficult by the fact that 
it must be carried out in one of the oldest of 
Old World countries." 


The delay in the practical organization of 
relief reported by a number of correspondents 
has led to forcible protests. At a meeting 
held in the Musee Social, Paris, Professor 
Larnaude, of the law faculty of the Univer- 
sity of Paris, voiced the popular clamor of 
the devastated area for complete indemnifica- 
tion for all the losses suffered and appealed 
to the members of the Peace Conference to 
secure such indemnities from Germany as 
would make possible the meting out of full 
justice. The Chamber of Deputies is debat- 
ing a law on the subject of war damages 
which was introduced in 1914, but has not 
yet been voted upon. 

There are complaints that no advantage is 
taken of the present opportunity to apply 
modern ideas of town planning and city de- 
velopment, and the refugees still stream back 
to their former home communes and re- 
establish themselves as best they can with the 
insufficient assistance that is available and 
with no security of livelihood. 


But not only in the war-swept areas is 
there discontent. The demobilization of the 
army, as in England, does not proceed alto- 
gether smoothly. The soldiers, naturally, are 
impatient to return to their homes at the 
earliest possible moment and to secure suit- 
able employment immediately. In spite of 
the preparations made by M. Deschamps, 
under-secretary of state for demobilization, 
the placing of the ex-soldiers has proved no 
easy matter. In December, a decree was 
issued that all relief works for prisoners of 
war in the different departments should be 
converted into relief works for discharged 

The voluntary organizations engaged in 
that work likewise changed the scope of their 
activities and are administering " first aid to 
the liberated " by the distribution of what- 
ever these discharged soldiers may need to 
take up their civil pursuits, i.e., clothes, tools 
and sometimes money relief. General de 
Lestrac, president of the Federation des 
Foyers du Soldat, and M. Sautter, president 
of the Franco-American Union, have been 
asked by the government to create a new 
organization to meet the present emergency. 
They have, to start with, established an in- 
formation bureau at every depot of demobili- 
zation which also acts as an informal place- 
ment bureau. 

The big problem just now is that of re- 
starting the wheels of industry without which 
information bureaus and employment offices 
are useless. 

Social Reform. 

In the Revue Philanthropique, G. Droui- 

neau describes the principal movements for 

social reform since the armistice was signed. 

Foremost among them he places the drive for 








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the establishment of a ministry of health, 
almost accomplished. Discussing a proposal 
by Dr. Menard for the introduction of com- 
pulsory insurance against tuberculosis, he 
says that the most popular argument against 
it, that it is a German invention, is no argu- 
ment at all, since ob\ iously in entering a new- 
field of social endeavor a country has to learn 
from the experience of other countries; but 
he admits that there is much to be said on 
both sides, and that the matter calls for de- 
tailed study. 

Similarly, he is r.nn-committal with regard 
to a bill introduced in the Chamber by Dr. 
Drizy, president of its committee on public 
health, for an appropriation of 745 million 
francs for the endowment of every new-born 
child with a savings bank credit of one thou- 
sand francs — as nn inducement to breeding. 

The opposition to this scheme is led by Dr. 
Jayle, who contends that it is even more 
important for France to breed better children 
than to breed larger numbers, and that such 
an act might have the undesirable effect of 
encouraging the least healthy stock in the 
state to propagate. 

Dr. Jayle's constructive contribution to the 
discussion is the establishment of what he 
calls an institut familial in each department 
and in all the larger cities to study and deal 
with all causes of depopulation. Both au- 
thors want a tax on bachelors, on childless 
families and on " hypo-productive " families, 
but have not worked out a detailed scheme. 

Questions of thrift have assumed a con- 
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provide milk for the children 
of peaceable mill workers of 
Lawrence on strike for an 
American standard of living, 
and against a cut in their pay. 

Send Contributions to 

Mrs. Glendower Evans 

Lawrence, Mass., or to 

Mrs. J. Sergeant Cram, 505 Fifth Avenue, New York City 

For further information regarding the Lawrence strike 
see John A. Fitch's article in this issue of the Survey 


Recently issued In the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity Studies in Historical and Politico 1 
Science : 

The Helper ind American Trade Unions. 
by John H. Ashworth. Paper, 75 cents; cloth, 

The Boycott in American Trade Unions, by 
Leo Wolman. Paper, $1.00 ; cloth, $1.25. 

The Control op Strikes in American 
Trade Unions, by G. M. Janes. Paper, 75 
cents; cloth, $1.00. 

The Obqanizability of Labor, by W. O. 
Weyforth, Jr. Paper, $1.50; cloth, $1.75. 

Unemployment and American Trade 
Unions, by D. P. Smelser. Paper, $1.25; 
cloth, $1.50. 

A complete list of publications will be sent 
on request. 

iialtimore, Maryland 




Extra Strong 
heavy board 
cover, llx8'/2 

"CADO" Clip File 

(No. 214) (With Binding Clip Inside) 

Simple, handy, and most practical way to file all 
papers. Holds sheets firmly. Permits of instant 
insertion or removal. Opens and closes easily. 


1 I ] » Ml '2:1(1 Slr»d \. .. \... I 

lieve that there is really much chance of sav- 
ing in the near future, because the cost of 
living is likely to remain high and because 
the workers of France when everybody was 
at work and wages were high during the 
war acquired new tastes and standards which 
they are not likely to shed without extreme 
economic compulsion. 

On the other hand he brands as Mephisto- 
phelean and extremely sinister and anti-social 
the talk of Neo-Malthusians who go around 
telling the people that the propaganda of 
thrift is for the purpose of enabling them to 
bear the burden of a great increase in child 
bearing. The warmth with which that 
charge is refuted makes it appear likely 
that that reallv is the motive of some of the 
thrift advocates. 

Above all, says Drouineau, must we learn 
the lessons of the war in the matter of scien- 
tific hospital and relief administration and 
management. He asks for more scientific 
study for clinical research, for more pre- 
ventive services. He would utilize to the 
utmost the services of women who during the 
war have proved themselves so invaluable. 

Home relief, he says, can no longer re- 
main a matter of automatic distribution of 
coal and bread. It must assume a much 
wider circle of interests, including sickness, 
motherhood, child welfare, old age, house 
sanitation, unemployment. Public charity 
must enter more and more into cooperation 
with private agencies — for examples he re- 
fers to Rheims and Nancy, and the ministry 
of health, as a nucleus for a ministry with 
wider scope and powers, is needed to co- 
ordinate these services. 

In Canada 

A General Program. 

The Standing Committee on Plans and 
Propaganda of the Canadian National Re- 
construction Groups (Coristine bldg., Mon- 
treal) has issued a summary of suggestions 
received from many parts of the dominion 
under the title, The Problems of National 
Reconstruction. In most cases, the informa- 
tion presented for attention by the local 
groups under different headings, such as de- 
mobilization, labor, scientific management, 
education, land and agriculture, health and 
housing, etc., consists of extracts from and 
references to the best published material, in- 
cluding, of course, English sources. This 
pamphlet (price 35 cents), therefore, may be 
used by study groups as a brief summary of 
the literature on the subject of reconstruc- 

In the preface, the " radical " viewpoint of 
the compilation is explained by the fact that 
those who do not anticipate or desire a 
change from pre-war conditions, obviously, 
contribute nothing to the literature on recon- 
struction — an admission which indicates 
that this very representative organization of 
Canadians does not mean by that much 
abused term a mere repair of the old social 
order but is looking forward to something 

A chapter on the employer holds out no 
hope of a return to pre-war relationships be- 
tween capital and labor but predicts a par- 
ticipation of labor in industrial control which 
may lead ultimately to the abdication of 
capital as the controlling factor, while 
" works management," the middle industrial 
factor " is acquiring the nature of a distinct 

• • • 

In Back to Mufti, a new magazine pub- 
lished monthly bv the Repatriation Commit- 
tee in collaboration with the Department of 
Soldiers' Civil Reestablishment (Ottawa), a 
general outline is given of the activities of 
(Continued on page 66) 



Wc think that the readers of The Survey will consider our list of Spring publications an interesting 
one. All of these books will be found at the better book stores some time during the month of April. In 
sending orders to us, please add fifteen cents, per copy for mailing expense. 

Paul U. Kellogg — Arthur Gleason 

British Labor and the War 

Reconstructors for A New World 

(Note: Originally announced for 1018 publication.) The publication of this book was postponed because the authors 
wished to bring it strictly up to date and have it cover the entire British Labor movement up to the time of tin- 
Pence Conference. It gives the fullest account that has yet appeared of the war and reconstruction aims of British 
Labor, deals also with the attitude of the American Federation of Labor toward the British Labor Movement 
tains valuable appendixes containing material not before published; also a comprehensive index. $2.00 

John Reed 

Ten Days That Shook the World 

Reed's long awaited book on Russia — a moving picture of those 
thrilling days In Petrograd. A serious attempt to tell all of 
1 lie details about the Bolshevik coup d'etat, it will be used 
as an original source by historians of the great Russian Revo 
1 11 1 ion. it contains documents, speeches, newspaper clippings, 
correspondence, etc., never before published in tbis country. 
Profusely illustrated. tS.00 

Major Walter Guest Kellogg 
The Conscientious Objector 

Foreword by Secretary of War Newton D. Baker 
In tbis book, the Chairman of the Board of Inquiry lor Con- 
scientious Objectors presents bis own observations of the 
Objector, derived from an official examination of a large num- 
ber of all types in the military camps of the country, together 
with a brief history of the subject and seine recommendations 
as to future action in regard to this vital factor in our na- 
tional wellbeing. %1M 

Ruth Dunbar 
The Swallow 

Not a war book, but a novel based upon the actual experiences 
of one of the few survivors of the original members of the 
famous Lafayette Escadrille. We believe tbis delightful novel 
of adventure, suffering heroism and love will prove one of the 
big surprises in Spring fiction. This inspiring message of 
faith and optimism makes it a memorable contribution to re- 
cenl literature. A small part of the boob appeared in the 
t'entury Magazine. W.50 

Theodore Dreiser 
Twelve Men 

Not short stories, not sketches, SOMETHING ENTIRELY 
NEW. Eull of drama, color, pathos, humor. A seething 
picture of American life. Everyone will guess who these 
twelve men were and arc. Dreiser himself moves through the 
pages of this book and is shown in lights and shadows that 
will be intensely interesting to everyone. Ii.75 

Richard Le Gallienne 
The Modern Book of English Verse 

An anthology edited with an introduction by Richard Le Gal- 
lienne. In this anthology Mr. Le Gallienne, as he says in his 
Introduction, followed the more or less usual lines generally 
adopted in compiling such anthologies as " The Oxford Book 
of English Verse," etc. In tbis volume of between 500 and 
GOO pages, particular stress is laid upon Modern English poetry. 
Both the editor and the publisher feel that this book will take 
its place with the very few fine and exhaustive anthologies of 
English verse. $100 

Upton Sinclair 
Jimmie Higgins 

\ new novel by the author of "The Jungle," of SENSA- 
TIONAL interest, it is an absorbing and dramatl 
of the struggles, temptations and decisions ol an everyday 
workingman who, at first opposed to America's entry into the 
war. becomes a patriot, joins the troops in Frame, but finally 
protests against lighting in Archangel. Sinclair win. " Til id 
is the best thing I have ever done," and Beveral distinguished 
critics who have read the manuscript agree with him 

Edgar Saltus 
The Paliser Case 

A NEW NOVEL by the author of " Imperial Purple, Daugb 
ti is of the Rich," etc. This is a drama of gold, ol pain, ol 
curious crime and the heart of a girl, by one of America's 
most brilliant writers. There are some characters m "The 
Palisei <'ase" that will live long in American fiction. Beware 
of beautiful Cassy Cara. She may go to your head. 

Henry James 
Travelling Companions 

This collection of stories, nunc ..t which has ever before ap 
peared in book form, will be a veritable find not only to .lames 
enthusiasts, nut to all readers Ol line short fiction. Everj 
in the book is more entertaining and of higher llterarj 
value than can be found in almost any collection of shorl 
stories now being publisher] 

Eugene O'Neill 
The Moon of the Caribbees and Six 
Other Plays of the Sea 

These plays, " Bound Bast for Cardiff," " In the Zone," " lie," 

etc., have been generally acclaimed as the best that ba 

written by an American in the last ten year- John 

of the New York Times, Clayton Hamilton in Vogue, The 

Nation, The Christian Science Monitor, Current Opinion, etc., 

all say that Eugene O'Neill is one of the few great American 


Albert Mordell 

The Erotic Motive 

in Literature 

What is the real meaning of the dream in Kipling's " The 
Brushwood Boy"? Is the poetry of Wordsworth and Brown 
ing as free from erotic interpretation as most of their readers 
believe'.' This book is a most fascinating and novel interprets 
tion of the writings of the world's' greatest poets and novelists. 
An entirely nontechnical and entertaining psychoanalytical 
study that" will surprise many and shock only a few. S1.15 

Edward J. O'Brien 

The Great Modern English Stories 

A companion volume to "The Great Modern French Stories." 
and one of the series of the Great Modern Stories win b will 
include American, Italian, Scandinavian, etc. S/.7.7 

On April 20th the two following titles will be a tided to THE PENGUIN SERIES— V— THE CURI- 
OUS REPUBLIC OF GONDOUR and other Whimsical Sketches by SAMUEL L. CLEMENS, author of 
Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, etc., and— VI— SKETCHES AND REVIEWS— by WALTER PATER 
— ($1.25 per volume) and EIGHT NEW TITLES IN THE MODERN LIBRARY (70c. each— send for 

BONI AND UVERIGHT, publishers, I05A. West 40th St., New York 




Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are : Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travels, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per agate line; fourteen lines to 
the inch. 

" Want " advertisements under the various 
headings " Situations Wanted," " Workers 
Wanted," etc., five cents each word or initial, 
including the address, for each insertion. Ad- 
dress Advertising Department, The Survey, 
112 East 19th St., New York City. 


WANTED— Trained Social Worker of 
Case Work experience, for position as 
Field Supervisor for National Organization 
entering on comprehensive Social Welfare 
Program in the South. Address 3116, 
Survev . 

WANTED — An experienced teacher in 
ungraded work for thirty children in a 
Tuberculosis Institution near Philadelphia. 
Address, Apt. 60 D., Hotel Lorraine, Phila- 

WANTED — By a progressive Jewish 
Child-Caring Organization, a competent 
up-to-date superintendent, capable of de- 
veloping a system of child-caring. Address 
with full particulars. 3120, Survey. 

CASE WORKER, Yiddish speaking, 
wanted at once. Trained or experienced, 
$1,200.00. Opportunity. Charles W. Mar- 
gold, The United Jewish Charities of 
Hartford, Conn. 

WANTED — Experienced Supervisor for 
Public Health Nursing. Give references 
and salary expected. Miss Landis, 2202 
Francis Street, St. Joseph, Mo. 

TRAINED Visitor for Organization 
dealing with delinquent girls. Must be 
member of Episcopal Church. Salary 
$1100. Address: Room 152, 2 East 24th 
Street, New York. 

Penna., desires trained visitor. 

WANTED — Registered nurse, with post- 
graduate work in Public Health Nursing, 
as assistant to head-worker, Social Service 
Dept. of General Hospital, 30 miles from 
Philadelphia. Address 3122 Survey. 

WANTED — Five young women with 
good educational background and with ex- 
perience in family case work to assist 
Home Service Sections developing family 
work and to act as travelling representa- 
tives of Division Department of Civilian 
Relief. Send full statement of qualifica- 
tions and experience. A. W. Jones, Jr., 
Director Civilian Relief, Southwestern 
Division, American Red Cross, Frisco 
Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 


CAMP DIRECTOR — Experienced, so- 
cial worker, physicial training instructor, 
college graduate, seeks large proposition 
where executive ability and knowledge are 
essential. Address 3102 Survey. 

sity and School of Philanthropy graduate; 
experienced in organizing, publicity, cam- 
paigning, investigation and administration 
of recreations, charities, employees' wel- 
fare, co-operative movements, boys' work, 
social centers, and general community bet- 
terment programs; at present in War De- 
partment as social service executive; is 
available for general social organization or 
for specialized work in charities, recrea- 
tions, research, Americanization, boys' 
work, public health movement, etc. Ad- 
dress 3098, Survey. 

Girls' Club wishes broader field. Salary 
$2,700 to $3,000. Reply Survey, 3108. 

CHANGE has available a woman of un- 
usual experience and ability for directive 
or subordinate position in children's insti- 
tution, preferably outside of New York. 
Address c/o National Social Workers Ex- 
change, 130 East 22nd Street, New York. 

COMPETENT MATRON, experienced 
nurse and housekeeper, college education, 
good references, wants institutional or pri- 
vate position May 1st. Address 3125 

WANTED — Executive position by social 
worker of several years' experience, cover- 
ing a wide field. Prefer child welfare 
work — industrial or delinquency. Thorough 
case worker. Address 3123 Survey. 

desires position. Five years' experience in 
social work. Valuable business experience 
previously. Address 3124 Survey 

[Continued from page 64] 
that committee, and the relations of the dif- 
ferent government departments to it and to 
each other in the work of placing the dis- 
charged soldier in a normal civil livelihood. 

Just now the question of land settlement is 
widely discussed; a writer in this magazine 
suggests, what many are saying, that the 
task must he tackled as a land-settlement 
proposition with sound economic motives and 
purposes rather than as a proposition to aid 
ex-soldiers. New legislation in this sense is 
shortly to he introduced in Parliament by the 
minister of the interior. 

Land and Houses. 
The present provision for settlement on 
dominion crown lands has proved insufficient 
and unsatisfactory, and the provision of 
financial assistance also is so limited and 
said to be so hedged around as to be of little 
assistance except to the man who could al- 
most get along without it. The new bill 
will give the Soldier Settlement Board power 
to acquire privately owned lands by expro- 

The present financial plan applies both to 
land settlement and to housing projects by 
local authorities and consists in loans made 
by the dominion government to the provin- 
cial governments over periods not exceeding 
twenty years at 5 per cent interest, on con- 
dition that " each province must prepare and 
submit to the federal government, a general 
housing scheme. This must include a sched- 
ule of minimum standards . . .; the cost 
of the dwelling must be set according to 
type, size and construction, and each pro- 
vince will fix its own maximum . . .; the 
money may be advanced for building houses 
on sites owned by the provincial govern- 
ments or municipalities, housing societies or 
cooperative companies." 

A returned soldier, under the present regu- 
lations, if he wishes to settle on a farm may 
secure a loan up to $4,500, provided he have 
$500 of his own. Additional loans for the 
purchase of stock and for making improve- 


Listings fl/ty cents a line, four weekly inser- 
tions: copy unchanged throughout the month 
Order pamphlets from publishers 

Transactions op the First National Co- 
operative Convention. 300 pp. $1.00. 
Published by The Cooperative League of 
America, 2 West 13th St., New York. 

Toward thi New Education. The case against 
autocracy In our public schools. 164 pp. 25 
cents. Teachers' Union of the City of New 
York, 70 Fifth avenue, New York city. 

Workshop Committbis. Suggested lines of 
development. By C. G. Renold. Reprinted 
from the Survey for October 5, 1918. Sur- 
vey Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New 
York City. 5 cts. 

For Value Received. A Discussion of Indus- 
trial Pensions. John A. Fitch. Reprinted 
from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey Associ- 
ates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Edwards' Prize Essay for 1919, " Russia's 
Social Problem, The Peasant." Free of 
Dean E. R. Groves, New Hampshire College, 
Durham, N. H. 

" Children's Health Story Number " of 
•• The Crusader." Original stories teaching 
health and hygiene. Five cents a copy. 
Wisconsin Anti-Tuberculosis Association, 

Industrial Council Plan in Great Britain. 
Reprints of the Reports of the Whitley Com- 
mittee and Related Documents, together with 
Report on Operation of Works Committees. 
First complete and convenient presentation 
of these important documents. 

How the Government Handled Its Labor 
Problem During the War. Handbook of 
Federal War Labor Agencies. Condensed 
account of organization, function and per- 
sonnel, with excerpts from basic documents, 
25c. each, postage 4c. additional. 10 copies. 
$2.00. Bureau of Industrial Research, 465 
West 23rd St., New York. 


Fifty cents a line per month, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly ; $2 a year ; pub- 
lished by The National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene, 60 Union Square, New York. 
Public Health Nurse; moutbly ; $2 a year; pub- 
lished bv National Organization for Public 
Health Nursing, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

ments also may be secured on compliance 
with certain conditions. 

Speaking of the housing loans, the Mone- 
tary Times, Toronto, a financial journal, 
writes: " If the movement now inaugurated 
proves a success, it is difficult to see where it 
will end and what importance it will have in 
improving the housing conditions of the 
country. . . . There has been little criti- 
cism of the action of the government and a 
great deal of favorable comment. This is 
also significant in view of the fact that the 
entrance of public enterprise into a field 
heretofore left entirely to private enterprise 
introduces the possibility of far-reaching 
changes in economic and social conditions 
which might be regarded with apprehension 
by those who believe in the virtues of free 

It is calculated that with the $25,000,000 
set out by the dominion government for these 
loans at 5 per cent, assuming that each pro- 
vince will add about one fourth to the capi- 
tal invested in the enterprise, a total of 
10,000 houses, able to accommodate half a 
million persons, will be built. For further 
particulars of this scheme and discussion of 
its details, the reader may be referred to the 
Canadian Municipal Journal (CoristirK 
bldg., Montreal) and to the excellent new 
monthly Social Welfare (published by the 
Social Service Council of Canada, Confed- 
eration Life building, Toronto.) 



ISLATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y ; 131 E 23 
St., New York. For national employment serv- 
ice for mobilizing and demobilizing war work- 
ers; maintaining labor standards; workmen's 
compensation ; health insurance ; efficient law 


Gertrude B. Knipp, exec, sec'y ; 1211 Cathedral 
St., Baltimore. Urges prenatal, obstetrical and 
Infant care ; birth registration ; maternal nurs- 
ing ; infant welfare consultations; care of chil- 
dren of preschool age and school age. 


— Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y, Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
tions in home, school, institution and commun- 
ity. Publishers Journal of Hume Economics. 
1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

LEAGUE — Wm. D. Foulke, pres. ; C. G. Hoag, 
sec'y ; Franklin Bank Bldg., Phila. Leaflets 
free. P. H- Review, quarterly, 40c. a year. 
Membership (entitles to Review and other pub- 
lications), 51. 

CIATION — 105 W. 40th St., New York. For 
the repression of prostitution, the reduction of 
venereal diseases, and the promotion of sound 
sex education. Information and catalogue of 
pamphlets upon request. Associate Membership. 
$2.00 ; Annual, $5.00 ; Sustaining, $10.00. Mem- 
berships include quarterly magazine and month- 
ly bulletin. 

OF CANCER — Curtis E. Lakeman, act- 
ing exec, sec'y ; 25 W. 45 St., New York. To 
disseminate knowledge concerning symptoms, 
diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Publica- 
tions free on request. Annual membership dues, 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres. : Dr. J. H. 
Kellog, sec'y ; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
beritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic 
possibilities. Literature free. 

CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 
'Protestant denominations. Rev. Charles S. 
Macfarland, gen'l sec'y ; 105 E. 22 St., New 

Commission on the Church and Social Serv- 
ice ; Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y ; 
Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y ; 
Miss Grace W. Sims, office sec'y. 

Commission on International Justice and 
Goodwill ; Rev. Henry A. Atkinson, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life ; 
Rev. Edmund deS. Brunncr, exec! sec'y ; 
Rev. C. O. Gill, field sec'y. 

Committee for Christian Relief in France and 
Belgium. United American religious agen- 
cies for the relief and reconstruction of the 
Protestant forces of France and Belgium. 
Chairman, Rev. Charles S. Macfarland ; 
cor. sec'y, Rev. Eddison Mosiinan. 105 E. 
22 St., New York. 

National Temperance Society and Commission 
on Temperance. Hon. Carl E. Millikcn, 
chairman Commission. 

CHURCHES — Constituted by the Federal Coun- 
cil of the Churches of Christ in America. Rob- 
ert E. Speer, ch'm ; William Adams Brown, 
sec'y ; Gaylord S. White, asso. sec'y. Coordi- 
nates the work of denominational and inter- 
denominational war-time commissions ; fur- 
nishes them a means of common expression; 
provides for cooperative enterprises during 
war and reconstruction. 105 East 22 St., New 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, princi- 
pal ; 6. P. Phenix, vice-prin. ; F. K. Rogers, 
treas. ; W. H. Scoviile, sec'y ; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a 
State nor a Government school. Free illus- 
trated literature. 

WOMEN (NATIONAL) — Headquarters, 146 
Henry St., New York. Helen Winkler, ch'm. 
Greets girls at ports ; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. Hag international system of safeguard- 
ing. Conducts National Americanization pro- 


Harry W. Laidler, sec'y; 70 Mfth Ave., New 
York. Object — To promote an intelligent inter- 
est in socialism among college men and women. 
Annual membership, $2, $5 and $25 ; includes 
quarterly, The Intercollegiate Socialist. 

CIAL HYGIENE, LNC— 50 Beacon St., Boston; 
Pres., Charles W. Eliot ; Sec'y, L. V. Ingraham, 
M. D. Circulars and Reading List upon re- 
quest. Quarterly Bulletin. Memberships : 
Annual, $3.00; Sustaining, $10.00; Life, $100. 

field Storey, pres. ; John K. Shillady, sec'y ; 70 
Fifth Ave., New Y'ork. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American cit- 
izenship. Furnishes information regarding race 
problems, lynchings, etc. Membership 40,000, 
with 145 branches. Membership, $1 upwards. 

ton Ave., New York, To advance physical, so- 
cial, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests 
of young women. Student, city, town and coun- 
try centers ; physical education ; camps ; rest- 
rooms, lunch-rooms and cafeterias ; educational 
classes ; employment ; Bible study ; secretarial 
training school ; foreign work ; war work coun- 


Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y ; 105 East 22 St., New 
York, 35 State branches. Industrial and agri- 
cultural investigations ; legislation ; studies 
of administration ; education ; delinquency ; 
health ; recreation ; children's codes. Publishes 
quarterly Child Labor Bulletin. Photographs, 
slides and exhibits. 


— Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y ; 7u Fifth Ave., 
New York. Originates and publishes exhibit 
material which visualizes conditions affecting 
the health and education of children. Cooper- 
ates with communities, educators and organiza- 
tions through exhibits, child welfare campaigns, 

GIENE — Clifford W. Beers, sec'y ; 50 Union Sq., 
New York. Pamphlets on mental hygiene, men- 
tal disorders, feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebri- 
ety, criminology, war neuroses and re-education, 
social service backward children, surveys, stato 
societies. Mental llmjiene; quarterly; $2 a 

TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward II. Van Cleve, 

managing director ; Cordon L. Berrv. field sec'y ; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22 
St., New Y'ork. Objects : To furnish informa- 
tion, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement — samples free, quanti- 
ties at cost. Includes New York State Commit- 


— Julia C. Latbrop, pies., Washington, D. C. ; 
William T. Cross, gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth 
Court, Chicago. General organization to discuss 
principles of humanitarian effort and increase 
efficiency of agencies. Publishes proceedings 
annual meetings. Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, 
etc. Information bureau. Membership $3. 40th 
annual meeting June 1-8, 1919, Atlantic City. 

Main divisions and chairmen : 

Children, Ilenrv W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Cyrus B. Adams. 

Health, Dr. C.-E. A. Winslow. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Robert W. 

The Family, Joanna C. Colcord. 

Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. Flor- 
ence Kelley. 

The Local Community. Frances Ingram. 

Mental Hygiene. Maj. Frankwood E. Wil- 
liams, M. O. R. C. 

Organization of Social Forces, William J. 

Uniting Native and Foreign Born in Amer- 
ica, Graham Taylor. 


— Robert A. Woods, sec'y ; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state and 
nation for meeting the fundamental problems 
disclosed by settlement work ; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighbor- 
hood life. 

TIONS AMONG NEGROES— L. Hollingsworth 
Wood, pres. ; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y ; 
200 Fifth Ave.. New York. Investigates condi- 
tions of city life as a basis for practical work ; 
trains Negro social workers. 


— Miss Maude Wetinore, ch'n, 257 Madison 
Ave., New York. To mobilize and train the 
volunteer woman power of the country for 
specific service along social and economic lines ; 
cooperating with government agencies. 


— Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y ; 35 E. 30th St., 
New York. Evening clubs for girls ; recreation 
and instruction in self-governing and support- 
ing groups for girls of working age. Magazine, 
The Club Worker, monthly, 75 cents a year. 

HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y ; 150 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects : To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing ; to develop standards of tech- 
nique ; to maintain a central bureau of in- 
formation. Official organ, the Public Health 
Nurse, subscription included in membership. 
Dues, $2.00 and upward. 


— Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22 St.. 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations 
with trained workers. 

bert Colgate, pres. ; Rush Taggart, trei.s. ; Orin 
C. Baker, sec'y ; rooms 2'l-21, 405 Lexington 
Ave., New York. Composed of non-commercial 
agencies interested in the guidance and protec- 
tion of travelers, especially women and girls. 

LEAGUE— Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres. ; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703), Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the workshop through organiza- * 
tlon and also for the enactment of protective 
legislation. Information given. Official organ. 
Life and Labor. 

AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y ; 1 Madison 
Ave., N. Y. C. Playground, neighborhood and 
community center activities and administra- 
tion ; cooperating with War Dept. Commission 
on Training Camp Activities. 


Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causes 
of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ment. Its chief activities are the Race Better- 
ment Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and 
lecture courses and various allied activities. 
J. II. Kellogg, pies. ; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir., 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Conducts research in re-edu- 
cation for disabled soldiers and industrial 
cripples. Publishes reports on reconstruction 
work here and abroad, and endeavors to estab- 
lish an enlightened public attitude towards the 
physically handicapped. 

provement of Living Conditions — John M. 
Glenn, dir.: 130 E. 22 St., New York. Depart- 
ments: Charity Organization, Child-Heiplng, 
Education, Statistics, Recreation, Remedial 
Loans, Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, 
Library, Southern Highland Division. 

Wilson, pres. : Richard S. Childs, sec'y; 10 West 
Dili St., New York. Clearing house for informa- 
tion on short ballot, commission gov't., city 
manager plan, county gov't. Pamphlets free. 

Forest, pres. : Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y ; publish- 
ers of the SURVEY; Paul U. Kellogg, editor; 
Edward T. Devine, Graham Taylor, Jane Ad- 
dams, associate editors; departments: Civics, 
Graham R. Taylor; Industry, John A. Fitch; 
Health, George M. Price. M.D. ; Education, 
Crime, Winthrop D. Lane; Foreign Service, 
Bruno Lasker, 112 East 19th St., New York. 

TUSUEGEE rNSTTTUTE— An institution for 
the training of Negro Youth ; an experiment in 
race adjustment in the Black Belt of the South ; 
furnishes information on all phases of the race 
problem and on the Tjskegee Idea and meth- 
ods. Robert R. Moton, prin. ; Warren Logan, 
treas. ; Emmett J. Scott, sec'y ; Tuskegee, Ala. 

son Ave., New Y'ork. Conducted by the Play- 
ground and Recreation Association- of America - 
under the War Department and Navy Depart- 
ment Commissions on Training Camp Activities, 
to mobilize all the resources of the communities 
near the camps for the benefit of the office™ 
and men. The War Camp Community Service 
stimulates, coordinates and supplements tbt 
social and recreational activities of the camp 
cities and towns. Joseph Lee, pres. ; H. S. 
Braucher, sec'y. ~ 



Army Anthropometry and Medical 
Rejection Statistics. 

A Plea and a Plan for the Eradication 
of Malaria. 

The Malaria Problem in Peace and 

The Mortality from Respiratory Dis- 
eases in Dusty Trades. 

A Plan for a More Effective Federal 
and State Health Reorganization. 

Facts and Fallacies of Compulsory 
Health Insurance. 

The Failure of German Compulsory 
Health Insurance— A War Revel- 

Weekly Index Numbers of National 
Health and Wellbeing. 

Leprosy as a National and International 

On the Physical Care of Children. 

The Mortality from Degenerative Dis- 

Some Theoretical and Practical Aspects 
of Industrial Medicine. 

Acute Infectious Diseases of Children 

Whooping Cough. 

Scarlet Fever. 

Mortality Charts 

Industrial Accidents. 




Typhoid Fever. 
Whooping Cough. 
Scarlet Fever. 


Snfiuraitce Compart? of Sirartta 

Incorporated under the laua of the State of New Jersey 

Home Office, Newark, N. J. Forrest F. Dryden, President 

Mention "The Survey" 





Labor in Democratic Society 

Charles JV. Eliot 

The Whitley Councils 

Arthur Gleason 

The Harvester Works Council 

Meyer Bloomfield 

A National Dependency Index 

/. A4. Rub i now 

The Red Cross Conference at Cannes 

Henry P. Davison 

April 12, 1919 10 Cents a Copy £4.00 a Year 





(Order from publishers) 

Pamphlets are listed once in this column 
without charge. Later listing may be made 
under CURRENT PAMPHLETS (See page 

A Tentative Procram for Community Cen- 
ters. Chicago Board of Education, Chi- 

The Russian Question. H. F. W. The So- 
cial Service Bulletin, January-February, 
1919. The Mehodist Federation for Social 
Service, 150 Fifth avenue, New York. 

The Future of the American Public 
Health Association. By Lee K. Frankel. 
Reprinted from American Journal of Pub- 
lic Health, February, 1919. From Ameri- 
can Public Health Association, New York. 

America's War Aims and Peace Program. 
(In English or German.) By Professor 
Carl L. Becker. American Friends of Ger- 
man Democracy, 6 West 48 street, New 

What is the Policy of Our Nation To- 
wards Russia. Speech of Hon. Hiram W. 
Johnson in the Senate. Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, D. C. 

An Appeal to the Dreamers and Toilers. 
By John de Kay. Chapter 17 of the World 
Allies. Benteli, Ltd., Bern-Biimpliz, Switz- 

The Minimum Wage Stunt. A Pronounce- 
ment by Mr. B. Seebohm Rovvntree, critic- 
ally examined by Seneca Simplex. The 
Yorkshire & Northern Land Values 
League, 71 North street, Keighley, Eng- 
land. Price 3d. 

Debate on the Single Tax. For the farm- 
ers' consideration. By Thomas B. Preston. 
From the Farmers' Open Forum. Single 
Tax Service League, 1482 Broadway, New^ 

Shall We Abolish the Cause of Poverty. 
By Adolph Feldblum. What Use is the 
Ballot. By Eleanor Danziger. How 
Does the Single Tax Concern Women. 
By Mary Ware Dennett. From Amy Mali 
Hicks, Chairman of Committee on New 
Voters of the Single Tax Service League, 9 
East 17 street, New York. 

Methods and Principles of Community Or- 
ganization. American Association for 
Community Organization. Council of So- 
cial Agencies, 806 Neave Bldg., Cincinnati. 

Making Ready for the New Day. By Vic- 
tor Yarros. Reprinted from the Nation, 
October 19, 1918. From John Cotton Dana, 
Public Library, Newark, N. J. 

The Church in the Community. Defini- 
tions of Christian Cooperation. By Alfred 
W. Anthony. Home Mission Council, 156 
Fifth avenue, New York. 

The Soldier Citizen and His Home Town. 
By Edna Amberg and William H. Allen, 
Educational Bureau of War Work Coun- 
cil, Y. M. C. A., 347 Madison avenue, 
New York. 

Volunteer Social Service in Chicago. Bul- 
letin No. 3 of Joint Committee of Chicago 
Central Council of Social Agencies and 
Woman's Committee State Council of De- 
fense, 168 N. Michigan avenue, Chicago. 
Price 10 cents. 

Reconstruction Problems: (5) New Fields 
for British Vugineering, (6) Raw Materi- 
als and Employment, (7) Guide to Work 

and Benefits for Soldiers and Civil War 
Workers, (8) Re-Settlement of Civil War 
Workers, (9) Naval Demobilization, (10) 
Labour Conditions and Adult Education, 
(11) Commercial Forestry, (12) The Re- 
Settlement of Officers — Army and R. A. F., 
(13) Rural Industries. Ministry of Recon- 
struction. Two pence each. H. M. Sta- 
tionery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, 
London, W. C. 2. 

Ministry of Health Bill 4. February, 1919. 
Price 2d. H. M. Stationery Office, as 

Ministry of Reconstruction: Memorandum 
on Ministries of Health Bill, 1918. Cd. 
9211. Price Id. Housing (Financial As- 
sistance) Committee. Interim Report on 
Public Utility Societies. Cd. 9223. Price 
2d. Statement with regard to Advisory 
Bodies appointed by the minister. Cd. 
9195. Price 2d. 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th in- 
terim reports of Civil War Workers' Com- 
mittee. Cd. 9192. Price 3d. H. M. Sta- 
tionery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, 
London, W. C. 2. 

Report of Working Classes Cost of Living 
Committee. Cd. 8S80. Price 3d. H. M. 
Stationery Office, as above. 

House Planning in Scotland. Report of 
Women's House-Planning Committee of 
Local Government Board for Scotland. 
Price 4d. H. M. Stationery Office, 23 
Firth street, Edinburgh, or as above. 

Public Health (Influenza) Regulations. 
November 18, 1918. Statutory Rules and 
Orders 1513. Price Id. H. M. Stationery 
Office, London. 

Report on Soldiers Returned as Cases of 
Disordered Action of the Heart. By Na- 
tional Health Insurance Medical Research 
Committee. Price Is. H. M. Stationery 
Office, London. 

The Covenant of Peace. An essay on the 
League of Nations by H. N. Brailsford. 
B. W. Huebsch, New York. Price 25 

Workers' Calendar of Peace and Recon- 
struction. Women's Employment Pub- 
lishing Co., 5 Princess street, Cavendish 
square, London, W. 

What Every Baby Needs. Popular Errors. 
The Expectant Mother. Mothercraft 
Training Centre. Story of the Teeth. 
Leaflets by Dr. F. Truby King, of Babies 
of the Empire Society, General Buildings, 
Aldwych, London, W. C. 

At the World Peace Table. A playlet 
suitable for school and settlement com- 
mencement and farewell parties by Re- 
becca Salsbury. Institute for Public Ser- 
vice, 51 Chambers street, New York. 

Nationalism and Zionism. By Felix Adler. 
Questions of the Day Series no. 4. The 
American Ethical Union, 2 West 64 street, 
New York. Price 10 cents. 

Syria for the Syrians Under the Guard- 
ianship of the United States. By H. I. 
Katibah. Syrian National Society, 46 
Hudson street, Boston. 

Tuberculosis Findings. Framingham mono- 
graph No. 5, medical series. Framingham 
Community Health and Tuberculosis Dem- 
onstration, Framingham, Mass. 

Report of the Machinery of Government 
Committee. Ministry of Reconstruction. 
Cd. 9230. H. M. Stationery Office, London. 
Price 6d. 

Substitution of Women in Non-Munition 
Factories During the War. Home Office. 
H. M. Stationery Office, London. Price 9d. 

Report of the Engineering Trades (New 
Industries) Committee. Ministry of Re- 
construction. Cd. 9226. H. M. Stationery 
Office, London. Price 6d. 

Final Report of Committee on Relations 
Between Employers and Employed. Min- 

istry of Reconstruction. Cd. 9153. H. M. 
Stationery Office, London. Price Id. 

Second Report of the Committee Dealing 
with the Law and Practice Relating to 
the Aquisition and Valuation of Land 
for Public Purposes. Ministry of Recon- 
struction. Cd. 9229. H. M. Stationery 
Office, London. Price 4d. 

Report of the Work of the Ministry for 
the Period Ending 31 December, 1918. 
Ministry of Reconstruction. Cd. 9231. H. 
M. Stationery Office, London. Price 6d. 

Compromise or Independence. An examin- 
ation of the Whitley report. By J. T. 
Murphy. Sheffield Workers' Committee, 
56 Rushdale road, Meersbrook, Sheffield, 
England. Price 2d. 

Anti-Loan Shark License Laws and Eco- 
nomics of the Small-Loan Business. 
Extracts from a handbook by Clarence 
Hodson. Legal Reform Bureau, 26 Cort- 
landt. street, New York. Price ten cents. 

Mental Diseases in New York State Dur- 
ing the War Period. By Horatio M. Pol- 
lock. Reprinted from State Hospital 
Quarterly, February, 1919. State Hospital 
Press, Utica, N. Y. 

Negroes a Source of Industrial Labor. By 
Dwight Thompson Farnham. Reprinted 
from Industrial Management, August, 
1918. From author, New York. 

Wartime Changes in the Cost of Living. 
Research Report No. 14. National Indus- 
trial Conference Board, 15 Beacon street, 
Boston. Price $1. 

Christian Tasks in the New Democracy. 
By Charles R. Zahniser. Reprinted from 
the Christian Statesman. Pittsburgh 
Council of Churches, 245 Fourth avenue. 

On the Evening of a New Day. By Samuel 
McChord Crothers. Reprinted from Atlan- 
tic Monthly, January, 1919. 

Tuberculosis. A medical specialty through 
popular demand. By George T. Palmer. 
Reprinted from Illinois Medical Journal, 
February, 1919, by the Illinois Tubercu- 
losis Association, Springfield, 111. 

Report of Special Commission Relative to 
Control, Custody and Treatment of De- 
fectives, Criminals and Misdemeanants. 
House No. 1403. Wright & Potter, 32 
Derne street, Boston. 

Reconstruction Programs — A Bibliography 
and Digest. Bulletin No. 2. Joint Com- 
mission on Social Service of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, 281 Fourth avenue, 
New York. 

Negro Migration in 1916-17. Reports by 
Leavell, Snavely, Woofter, Williams, Ty- 
son. With an introduction by J. H. Dil- 
lard. Division of Negro Economies, U. S. 
Dept. of Labor. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D. C. 

Decision of Courts Affecting Labor, 1917. 
By Lindley D. Clark and Augustus P. Nor- 
ton. Bulletin No. 246, Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. Government Priming Office, 
Washington, D. C. 

Reconstruction and Citizenship. University 
of North Carolina Extension leaflets, after- 
the-war information series No. 1. Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 
N. C. 

Report of the Special Commission on Edu- 
cation, January 29, 1919. No. 330. Wright 
& Potter Printing Co., 32 Derne street, 

Remedial Railroad Legislation, 1919. 
Edited by Robert S. Binkerd. New York 
and Washington Association of Railway 
Executives, 61 Broadway, New York. 

Supplement to Remedial Railroad Legisla- 
tion. Containing Testimony before Senate 
Committee by Mr. J. Kruttschmitt and 
statement by Mr. Daniel Willard. Associ- 
ation of Railway Executives, 61 Broadway. 
New York. 

The Survey 


Survey Associates, inc. 









cents. Cooperating subscriptions $10 

Charles \V. Eliot 
Meyer Bloomfield 

Arthur Gleason 
I. M. Rubinow 

Henry P. Davison 

Single copies of this issue, 10 
year. Regular subscriptions weekly edition $4 a year; foreign postage 
$1.50 extra; Canadian 75 cents. Regular subscriptions once-a-month 
edition $2 a year; foreign postage 60 cents extra; Canadian 35 cents. 
Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in advance. When 
payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. Copyright, 
1919, by Survey Associates, Inc. Entered as second class matter at 
the post office at New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. 
Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 
1103, act of October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1918. 


Labor in Democratic Society 
The Harvester Works Council 
The Whitley Councils 
A National Dependency Index 
The Red Cross Conference at Cannes 

Extension of Home Service 

Results of Children's Fear 

District Settlements 

The Lawrence Strike 

Minimum Wage Protest . 

The Chicago Vote . 

Case Work for Reconstruction . 

Labor Vote in the Middle West 

Franchise as Service . 

Oklahoma's Children 

Middle Class Union 

The Human Loss of France 

A League of Nations Pageant . 

To Measure Fluctuations in Dependency 

Conferences that Fail — and Why 

How to Prevent Street Begging 

Two of Louisville's Ex-Beggers 

Educational Work by a City Church . 

County Public Health Associations 

Business Methods for Health Dividends 

Reorganizating Charities in Philadelphia 

The Group House: It's Advantages and Possibilities 

A Month's Record of Service .... 








Charles W. Eliot is the president emeritus of Harvard University. 

Meyer Bloomfield, a pioneer in the field of vocational placement, 
has recently returned from making a study of British labor and, 
with his brother Daniel, has organized an employment management 
service at Boston under the firm name of Bloomfield and Bloomfield. 

Arthur Gleason is the Survey's London correspondent. 

I. M. Rubinow, an insurance actuary and a leading advocate of 
social insurance in this country, is at present in Palestine as chief 
medical officer for the Zionist Organization. His present article, 
however, grows out of another experience — as chief of the Bureau 
of Social Statistics in the Department of Public Charities during the 
Mitchel administration in New York. 

Henry P. Davison, of the banking firm of J. P. Morgan & Co., 
has recently retired as chairman of the War Council of the Amer- 
ican Red Cross. He heads the delegation from the United States 
at the International Red Cross Conference now in session at Cannes. 

ROBERT W. de FOREST, President 

ii2 East 19 street, New York 



SAMUEL S. FELS. Philadelphia 
LEE K. FR.ANKEL. New York 
JOHN M. GLENN, New York 
C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, Calif. 

San Diego 

955 Grand avenue, Chicago 

ROBERT W. de FOREST, Chairman 

JULIAN W. MACK, Chicago 
SIMON N. PATTEN. Philadelphia 


ALFRED T. WHITE. Brooklyn 

Survey Associates, Inc., is incorporated under the laws of the state »i 
New York, November. 1012. as a membership organization without shares 
or stockholders. Membership is open to readers who become contributors 
of $10 or more a ye2r It is this widespread, convinced backing and per- 
sonal interest which has made the Survey a living thing. 

1^ VERY mail for the last ten days has brought us tidings of good 
cheer — letters from Survey readers East, West, North and South, 
coming in as $10 cooperating subscribers, and letting us know that 
our tuggings at the bootstraps these last six months in rehabilitating 
the Survey have counted; and that there is a growing body of con- 
vinced readers back of us in seeing the year through. 

t) ACK in 1916, the Survey began to get requests for copies of our 
-*-* magazine numbers containing Mr. Goethe's series on exploiting 
the American playground. The requests came from French school 
teachers and officials. They were straws showing how inextinguish- 
able, even in the midst of war, were the stirrings of social aspiration 
among the people of France. Faring on war bread, they had not 
forgotten hyacinths — or, shall we say, the flowers that live in the 
springtime of Youth? 

Now comes this letter: 


Courbevoie, Seine, 
7, Avenue de la Republique. 

Demobilized for several days, I am reading a collection of educa- 
tional magazines that has been heaping up for four years. I see in 
the Manuel General that you offer to send articles that have ap- 
peared in the Survey on the American playgrounds. As teacher in 
a public school and founder of a patronage [any kind of social 
tvork?~\ this question interests me greatly and I should be glad to 
receive these articles. 

Yours, etc., 


This is as true a note of the springtime as a Robin's call — a note 
of resurrection and deliverance, recreation, reconstruction. This is 
the sort of yearning a man kept close to his heart in the grim 
business of four years of struggle; a heart that had not forgotten 
that it had once been a boy's. 

AND, speaking of springtime and reconstruction, every reader of 
the Survey will receive this next week a special Eastertide 
offer. So often do we have to make appeals, that there is something 
grateful about this business of making an offer that is a genuine 
offer — something close enough to the nature of a bargain to make 
us feel a bit open-handed about it — but something which will mean 
as much to the Survey and the work it is doing as to everybody else 

Watch for the offer and act upon it. 

The Long Table: Survey Associates and readers are cordially 
invited to draw up a chair Friday afternoons at 4 o'clock in the 
Survey library, 112 East 19 street. 

On Friday, April 11, so manv members of the staff will be absent 
from the city that a postponement must be taken for one week. 




ISLATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y ; 131 E 23 
St., New York. For national employment serv- 
ice for mobilizing and demobilizing war work- 
ers; maintaining labor standards; workmen's 
compensation ; bealtb insurance ; efficient law 
enforcement. • 


Gertrude B. Knipp, exec, sec'y ; 1211 Cathedral 
St., Baltimore. Urges prenatal, obstetrical and 
infant care ; birth registration ; maternal nurs 
ing ; infant welfare consultations; care of chil- 
dren of pre-school age and school age. 


— Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y, Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
tions in home, school, institution and commun- 
ity. Publishers Journal of Home Economics. 
1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

LEAGUE— Win. D. Foulke, pres. ; C. G. Hoag, 
sec'y ; Franklin Bank Bidg., Phila. Leaflets 
free. P. It. Review, quarterly, 40c. a year. 
Membership (entitles to Review and other pub- 
lications), $1. 

CIATION— 105 W. 40th St., New York. For 
the repression of prostitution, the reduction of 
venereal diseases, and the promotion of sound 
sex education. Information and catalogue of 
pamphiets upon request. Associate Membership, 
$2.00 ; Annual, $5.00 ; Sustaining, $10.00. Mem- 
berships include quarterly magazine and month- 
ly bulletin. 

OF CANCER — Curtis E. Lakeman, act- 
ing exec, sec'y ; 25 W. 45 St., New York. To 
disseminate knowledge concerning symptoms, 
diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Publica- 
tions free ou request. Annual membership dues, 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres. : Dr. J. H. 
Kellog, sec'y ; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic 
possibilities, Literature free. 

CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 
Protestant denominations. Rev. Charles S. 
Maefarlantl, gen'l sec'y ; 105 E. 22 St., New- 

Commission on the Church and Social Serv- 
ice ; Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y ; 
Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y ; 

Miss Grace W. Sims, office see'y. 

Commission on International Justice and 
Goodwill; Rev. Henry A. Atkinson, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life; 
Rev. Edmund deS. Brunner, exec! sec'y ; 
Rev. C. O. (Ull, field sec'y. 

Committee for Christian Relief in France and 
Belgium. United American religious agen 
cits for the relief and reconstruction of the 
Protestant forces of France ami Belgium. 
Chairman, Rev, Charles S. Macfarland ; 
cor. sec'y, Rev. Eddison Mosiman. 105 E. 
22 St., New York. 

National Temperance Society and Commission 
ou Temperance. Hon. Carl E. Mlllikcn, 

chairman Commission. 


CHURCHES— Constituted by the Federal Coun- 
cil ol the Churches of Christ in America. Rob- 
ert E. Speer, Ch'm ; William Adams Brown, 
sec'y ; Gaylord S. While, asso. sec'y. Coordi- 
nates the work of denominational and inter- 
denominational war-time commissions; fur- 
nishes them a means of common expression ; 
provides for cooperative enterprises during 
war and reconstruction. 105 East 22 St., New 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, princi- 
pal ; G. I'. l'honix, \ ice prin. ; F. K. Rogers, 
Ireas. : W. II. Scovllle, see'y; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a 
State nor a Government school. Free illus- 
trated literal are. 

WOMEN (NATIONAL) — Headquarters, 146 
Henry St.. New York. Helen Winkler, ch'm. 
Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides, nns international system of safeguard- 
ing. Conducts National Americanization pro- 


Harry W. Laidler, sec'y; 70 l'ifth Ave., New 
York. Object — To promote an intelligent inter- 
est in socialism among college men and women. 
Annual membership, $2, $5 and $25 ; includes 
quarterly, The Intercollegiate Socialist. 

CIAL HYGIENE, INC.— 50 Beacon St., Boston! 
Pres., Charles W. Eliot ; Sec'y, L. V. Ingraham, 
M. D. Circulars and Reading List upon re- 
quest. Quarterly Bulletin. Memberships : 
Annual, $3.00; Sustaining, $10.00; Life, $100." 

field Storey, pres. ; John R. Shillady, sec'y ; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American cit- 
izenship. Furnishes information regarding race 
problems, lyncbings, etc. Membership 40,000, 
with 145 branches. Membership, $1 upwards. 

ton Ave., New York. To advance physical, so- 
cial, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests 
of young women. Student, city, town and coun- 
try centers ; physical education ; camps ; rest- 
rooms, lunch-rooms and cafeterias ; educational 
classes ; employment ; Bible study ; secretarial 
training school ; foreign work ; war work coun- 


Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y ; 105 East 22 St., New 
York, 35 State branches. Industrial and agri- 
cultural investigations; legislation; studies 
of administration; education; delinquency; 
health ; recreation ; children's codes. Publishes 
quarterly Child labor Bulletin. Photographs, 
slides and exhibits. 


— Chas. F. Powlison. gen. sec'y ; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New Y'ork. Originates and publishes exhibit 
material which visualizes conditions affecting 
the health and education of children. Cooper- 
ates with communities, educators and organiza- 
tions through exhibits, child welfare campaigns, 

GIENE— Clifford W. Iieers, see'y ; 50 Uuion Sq., 
New York. Pamphlets ou mental hygiene, men- 
tal disorders, feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebri- 
ety, criminology, war neuroses and re education, 
social service, backward children, surveys, stato 
societies. Menial lhi.jicne; quarterly; $2 a 

TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve. 
managing director ; Gordon L. Berry, field sec'y ; 

Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22 
St., New York. Objects: To furnish informa- 
tion, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement — samples free, quanti- 
ties at cost. Includes New York State Commit- 


— Julia C. Latbrop, pres., Washington, 1 >. C. : 
William T. Cross, gen. see'y; 315 Plymouth 
Court, Chicago. General organization to discuss 
principles of humanitarian effort and increase 
efficiency of agencies. Publishes proceedings 
annual meetings. Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, 
etc. Information bureau. Membership, $:!. 4i;th 
annual meeting June 1-8, 1919, Atlantic City. 

Main divisions ami chairmen: 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Cvrus B. Adams. 

Health, Dr. C.-E. A. Winslow. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Robert W. 

The Family, Joanna C. Colcord. 

Industrial ami Economic Problems, Mrs. Flor- 
ence Kelley. 

The Local Community, Frances Ingram. 

Mental Hygiene, Maj. Frankwood E. Wil- 
liams, M. o. R. C. 

Organization of Social Forces, William J. 

Uniting Native and Foreign Born in Amer- 
ica, Graham Taylor. 


— Robert A. Woods, si i y j 20 I n on Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state and 
nation for meeting the fundamental problems 
disclosed by settlement work: seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighbor- 
hood life. 

TIONS AMONG NEGROES— L. llollingsworth 

Wood, ores.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec. Bec'yj 
200 Fifth Ave., New York. Investigates condi- 
tions of city life as a i.asis for practical work: 
trains Negro social w.-rkers. 



— Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'n, 257 Madison 
Ave., New York. To mobilize and train the 
volunteer woman power of the country for 
specific service along social and economic lines ; 
cooperating with government agencies. 


— Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30th St., 
New Y'ork. Evening clubs for girls ; recreation 
and instruction in self-governing and support- 
ing groups for girls of working age. Magazine, 
The Club Worker, monthly, 75 cents a year. 

HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y ; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects : To stimulate the extension of public 
bealtb nursing ; to develop standards of tech- 
nique ; to maintain a central bureau of in- 
formation. Official organ, the Public Health 
Nurse, subscription included in membership. 
Dues, $2.00 and upward. 


— Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22 St.. 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations 
with trained workers. 

bert Colgate, pres. ; Rush Taggart, treus. ; Orin 
C. Baker, sec'y ; rooms 20-21, 465 Lexington 
Ave., New Y'ork. Composed of non-commercial 
agencies interested in the guidance and protec- 
tion of travelers, especially women and girls. 

LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres. ; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703), Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the workshop through organiza- 
tion and also for the enactment of protective 
legislation. Information given. Official organ. 
Life and Labor. 

AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, secy ; 1 Madison 
Ave., N. Y. C. Playground, neighborhood and 
community center activities and administra- 
tion ; cooperating with War Dept. Commission 
on Training Camp Activities. 


Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causes 
of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ment. Its chief activities are the Race Retter- 
ment Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and 
lecture courses and various allied activities. 
J. II. Kellogg, pies. ; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir., 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Conducts research in re-edu- 
cation for disabled soldiers and industrial 
cripples, Publishes reports on reconstruction 
work here and abroad, and endeavors to estab- 
lish an enlightened public attitude towards the 
physically handicapped, 

provement ol Living Conditions — John M. 
Glenn, dir.: 130 E. 22 St.. New York. Depart- 
ments: Charity Organization. Cliild-IIeiping. 
Education, Statistics lion. Remedial 

Loans, surveys and Exhibits, Indu? trial Studies, 
Library, Southern Highland Division. 

i. iocs. : Itlchard s. fluids, sec'y : IP West 
Pih St., New York. Clearing bouse for informa- 
tion on snort ballot, commission gov't., city 
manager plan, county gov't. Pamphlets tree. 


Forest, pres. ; Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y ; publish- 
ers of the Ri'iiVEV ; Paul 1. Kellogg, editor; 
Edward T. Devlne, Graham Taylor. Jane Ad- 
dams, associate editors: departments: Civics, 
Graham It. Taylor; Industry. John A. Fitch; 
Health, George M. Trice. M.i>. : Education, 
Crime, Winthrop D. Lane: Foreign Service, 
Bruno I.asker. 112 Fast 19th St., New York. 

TUSUEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for 
the training of Negro Youth ; an experiment in 

race adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; 
furnishes information on all phases of the race 
problem and ou the Idea and meth- 

ods. Robert R. Moton, prin. : Warren Logan, 
treas. : Emmett .1. Scott, sec'j : Tuskege©, Ala. 

son Ave., New York. Conducted by the 

ground and Recreation Association 'of Am. lies 
under the War Department and Navy Depart 
nient Commissions on Training Camp Activities, 
to mobilize all the resources of the eonun 
near the camps for the benefit of the officers 
and men. The War Camp Community Service 
stimulates, coordinates and supplements the 
social and recreational activities of the camp 
cities and towns. Joseph Lee. pros.: II. 3. 

Braucher, see'y. 

Labor in Democratic Society 

By Charles W, Eliot 

AS ADDRESS before the Committee on Social Welfare 
of the Massachusetts legislature on a petition asking for tin 
appointment of a commission to investigate hours of labor. — 

I HAVE been attending for some years to the disturbed 
state of many of the national industries and to the re 
suiting losses and sufferings in the community as a whole, 
and have frequently been in communication with repre- 
sentatives of each party to the industrial strife : but my real 
interest in all contests between capital and labor has always 
been the effect of such disputes and antagonisms on social wel- 
fare in democratic society. That is my point of view in what 
I say here today. As to the appointment of a commission on 
hours of labor I favor it, but chiefly because I believe it to he 
inexpedient, not to say absurd, to attempt to fix by law the 
same number of hours for all industries without regard to 
their infinite diversities, or for all establishments in the same 

Today we all see clearly that the war between capital and 
labor, or between the employing class and their employes, is 
getting to a stage or condition which seriously endangers the 
existing industrial and social structures in most of the civil- 
ized nations, and the political structures in those nations which 
have had no experience in the practice of liberty. 

After the firm establishment of a limited league of nations 
with plenty of force at command, the thing most to be desired 
by the free peoples and by those who are hoping to become 
free is a just settlement of the industrial strife. I propose, 
therefore, to put before you in as concise a form as I can the 
changes which must be brought about in the present policies 
and procedures of the two parties to this strife before any just 
and durable peace settlement can be expected. Some of these 
changes have already been brought about in an experimental 
and scattered way. They greatly need to be universally 

On the Part of Employers 
i. Abandonment of every form of despotic or auto< 
government in factories, mines, transportation services, and 
all other industries which deal with the necessaries of modern 

2. Universal adoption of cooperative management and 
discipline throughout the works or plant, the employer and 
the workman having equal representation in managing 


3. Adoption by all corporations, partnerships, and indi- 
vidual owners of every means of promoting the health and 
vigor of employes and their families, including the provision 
of free medical and nursing service, good housing, and all 
feasible protection against accident, sickness, alcoholism and 
vice, not as a matter of charity but as a sound business meth- 
od. Prolonged education for adults who are already earning 
their livelihood should be included among these means. 

4. Careful provision in all large services — so large as to 
preclude intimate relations between the employer and the 
employed — of the means of dealing promptly and justly with 
complaints of employes, whether individuals or groups. In 
complaint cases foremen may be witnesses, but never judges. 

5. Universal use in large services of well-trained employ- 
ment managers for dealing with the engagement, distribution, 
shifting, promotion and dismissal of emplo\e-. 

6. General adoption of a genuine partnership system be- 
tween the capital and the labor engaged in any given works 
or plant, whereby the returns to capital and labor alike after 
the wages are paid shall vary with the profits of the estab- 
lishment, the percentage of the profits going to pay-roll be- 
ing always much larger than that going to share-holders or 
owners and pay-roll never to be called on to make good 
losses. As in ordinary partnerships the annual or semi-annual 
accounts should be open to the inspection of all persons di- 
rectly interested. As a means of securing to employes full 
knowledge of the partnership accounts they should always be 
represented in the directorate. 

7. Constant effort on the part of managers to diminish 
monotony and increase variety in the occupation, from day 
to day and }'ear to year, of every intelligent and ambitious em- 
ploye. There is no uniform mode of putting this policy into 
effect in all the various industries; but there are two methods 
of wide applicability. The first of these is the policv of 
shifting employes from one task to another in the long series 
of tasks involved in the production of the establishment; the 
second is the policy of offering instruction at cost out of hours 

The Survey, April 12, 1919, Volume 42, No. 2. 112 East 19 Street, New York city 




to aspiring young employes. This policy requires on the part 
of those who apply it acquaintance with individuals, skill in 
selection, and persevering good will. 

8. Universal acceptance of collective bargaining through 
elected representatives of each side. 

On the Part of Employes 

1. Abandonment of the doctrine of limited output; be- 
cause this doctrine demoralizes every person who puts it into 
practice by never doing his best. 

2. Abandonment of the idea that it is desirable for work- 
ers of any sort to work as few hours in a day as possible 
and without zeal or interest during those few. 

3. Absolute rejection of the notion that leisure rather 
than steady work should be the main object of life. On this 
point three principles may be said to be established by the his- 
tory of civilization itself, first, that a leisure class in any com- 
munity is apt to become a useless or even dangerous class; 
second, that civilization advances among different races in 
proportion to the prevalence among the masses of the love of 
liberty under law, and of the habit of steady work as dis- 
tinguished from the intermittent work of the hunter or the 
nomad; and third, that the higher or most satisfactory em- 
ployments or occupations permit and encourage every man to 
work to the limit of his strength and health out of love for 
the work itself, or his own satisfaction in it. This is true of 
all the learned and scientific professions and of the higher 
walks of business and politics. In this respect the lower oc- 
cupations need to be assimilated as much as possible to the 

4. The first question for any young man to ask when he 
is choosing an occupation is, what chance is there in the oc- 
cupation contemplated for variety, interest, and instructive- 
ness as life goes on, not in how few hours a week can he 
earn his livelihood in it. In other words, it is a great object 
in life to have an occupation which yields in itself continuous 
satisfaction and contentment, and at the same time is not sub- 
ject to sudden interruption or ceasing at the will of other 
people. Of course the mental workers, whose success depends 
chiefly on their own capacity and industry, have great advan- 
tages in this respect over handworkers who tend machinery. 
On the other hand, they have but slight advantage over dili- 
gent workers in such occupations as farming, carpentry, black- 
smithing, and printing, for example, in which there is large 
variety, and personal knowledge and skill count for much. 

^. Abandonment of two conceptions which underlie the 
use of violence or force for winning the victory in contests 
between employers and employed. The first is the concep- 

tion that capital is the natural enemy of labor, and the sec- 
ond, the conception that unorganized laborers are traitors to 
their class. These conceptions belong to an industrial era 
which is really passed. They are miserable survivals of much 
earlier times when hours of labor in factory industries and 
in farming were unwholesomely long, wages deplorably low, 
and the mass of the people had little control over legislation 
or the manners and customs of the ruling classes. 

6. Abandonment of all violence toward property or per- 
sons in the prosecution of industrial disputes. It is a con- 
sideration strongly in favor of this abandonment that a strike 
covering the whole territory of the nation or a large part 
thereof has lately become possible, because of recent improve- 
ments in means of communication. Such a strike, or even 
the threat of it, is capable of inflicting much suffering on 
millions of noncombatants. 

By Both Parties to the Industrial Strife 

1. Willing adoption by both parties of the methods of 
conciliation, arbitration, and ultimate decision by a national 
government board as sufficient means of bringing about just 
and progressive settlements of all disputes between capital 
and labor. The war has demonstrated within the last two 
years the feasibility of adjusting disputes between employers 
and employed by these means. To be sure it has been under 
abnormal conditions that these means have proved to be 
temporarily sufficient ; so that the immediate problem before 
the country is how to demonstrate that these means are suffi- 
cient under normal conditions, and that they are the only ones 
which a free and law-abiding people should hereafter use. 

2. Recognition by both parties that a new and formidable 
danger threatens civilization, and that all good citizens of the 
republic should unite to suppress anarchy and violent socialism 
and to secure to all sorts and conditions of men " life, liberty, 
and the pursuit of happiness." 

3. General acceptance of the view that American liberties 
are to be preserved just as they have been won. They have 
been slowly achieved by generations of sturdy, hard-working 
people who valued personal independence, industry, thrift, 
truthfulness in thought and act, respect for law, family life, 
and home, and were always ready to fight in defense of these 

4. Acceptance of the truth that the democracy which is to 
be made safe in the world does not mean equality of possessions 
or powers, or a dead level of homogeneous and monotonous 
society, but on the contrary the free cultivation of infinitely 
diversified human gifts and capacities, and liberty for each in- 
dividual to do his best for the common good. 

The Harvester Works Council 

By Meyer Bloom field 

THE announcement by the International Harvester 
Company of a works-council plan, and the adop- 
tion of this plan after a secret ballot by the em- 
ployes of seventeen out of twenty Harvester 
plants, are matters of great interest to those who follow devel- 
opments in industrial relations. 

For a year or more British industry has been promoting 
cooperation between management and representatives of the 
workers through various projects of shop, works and trade or 
industrial councils. The Whitley councils, so called, are 
the best known examples, and, in various forms, they are to 

be found in thirty trades or more. Few Whitley councils, 
however, make such complete provision as does the Harvester 
plan for consideration of questions which employes believe 
come within the range of their own peculiar knowledge and 

To illustrate, the function of employment is mentioned spe- 
cifically as one of the topics in which the Harvester council 
will take part. But few of the English factories have made 
proper arrangements for what in this country we have come 
to call " employment management." The Hans Renold Com- 
pany in Manchester, the Phoenix Dynamo Works, in Bradford, 



and the Rowntree Cocoa Works, in York, are conspicuously 
good examples. For several years the International Harvester 
Company has been dealing with this question intelligently, 
and it could do so because it took steps to prepare their large 
foreman body for the right organization of this work. Fore- 
men, however, are excluded from membership in the Har- 
vester Council. The clause reads: " Foremen, assistant fore- 
men, and other employes having the power of employment or 
discharge, shall not be eligible for nomination." 

The Harvester Industrial Council plan provides for equal 
representation of employes and management in the " consid- 
eration of all questions of policy relating to working condi- 
tions, health, safety, hours of labor, wages, recreation, educa- 
tion, and other similar matters of mutual interest." In case 
of a deadlock, the veto power is not lodged with a high offi- 
cial of the company ; the procedure is appointment of a gen- 
eral council which, if itself becomes tied, throws the matter 

at issue into the hands of an arbitrator or arbitration com- 
mittee, " impartial and disinterested." 

There are other features of importance in the Harvester 
plan. On the whole, it is one of the best approaches yet made 
to what may be called the management-sharing movement. 
A scheme, sincerely put forth by an organization such as the 
International Harvester Company, with safeguards for em- 
ployes against interference or coercion, and looking to a joint 
or democratic method in policy-making, to participation by 
employes in vital management activities, is a contribution to 
sound industrial relations. In such a scheme the men are 
required to give up nothing. They are recognized as factors 
in management, and are given opportunity, but rarely open, 
as framers of labor policy. Industry and management have 
everything to gain in releasing energies of the rank and file 
that seek outlets to larger service, and in encouraging those 
who produce to use their brains and wills as well as their 

The Whitley Councils 

[The Second of a Series of Three Articles] 

By Arthur Gleason 

THE leather council held its first meeting on Decem- 
ber 30, 191 8, and its second meeting on January 20. 
With leather as with wool, the control of the War 
Office through the Raw Materials Branch has been 
absolute. This leather council, representing all sections of the 
trade, employers, workmen, government departments — tan- 
ners, light leather, saddlery and harness, factors, merchants 
and importers, boot manufacturers, hide merchants, boot 
operatives, leather workers, curriers — sits periodically in order 
to advise the director of raw materials during the transition 
period from war production to peace trading. The council 
appointed special committees to report on such matters as 
East India tanned kips, and the purchase in the United States 
and Canada of upper leather. The chairman, Sir Arthur 
Goldfinch, director of raw materials, informed the council 
that since their last meeting an important development had 
taken place with regard to the international hides, etc. agree- 
ment. This agreement, which had been signed on Novem- 
ber 4 by the United States, France, Italy and Great Britain, 
provided for the allocation of hides and other raw materials of 
the leather trade amongst the participating countries, and the 
fixing of maximum prices to be paid by them. An interna- 
tional executive had been appointed under the agreement, and 
British delegates had been nominated, but had never left the 
country. Owing to regrettable misunderstandings the United 
States had cut itself free from all restrictions without for- 
mally withdrawing its signature to the agreement. This had 
now been done, and consequently Great Britain was entirely 
free to act in its own interest. There was no doubt an argu- 
able case for international cooperation with a view to reducing 
undue competition, but without the concurrence of the United 
States such cooperation was impossible. As a result of the 
cancellation of the agreement, the chairman continued, the 
Raw Materials Department had recommended the immediate 
withdrawal of the restrictions upon the importation of hides, 
skins, and tanning materials. 

The functions of the leather council are as follows: 

To advise as to the needs of the industry in regard to raw 
materials during the transition period. 

To prepare plans which will facilitate the turnover from 
war to peace conditions. 

To speak on behalf of the industry in matters on which 
the Standing Council of Post-War Priority may wish to con- 
sult with them. 

To act as an advisory body to the War Office on matters 
relating to the purchase and sale of leather, hides, skins and 
tanning materials, and other matters connected with the ex- 
isting control of the industry. 

To deal with any other matters which may be referred 
to the council by the War Office, Board of Trade, Ministry 
of Reconstruction, Ministry of Labor or any recognized 
trade body connected with the industry. 

This particular leather council is neither a permanent joint 
standing industrial council nor an interim reconstruction com- 
mittee. It is a transitional compromise council to meet the 
present situation of government control relaxing into private 

The first meeting of the wool council was held in late 
November, the second meeting on December 19, a third on 
January 23, and since then on the third Thursday of each 
month. This council is created to deal with the problem of 
government control and the shift to peace conditions. The 
kind of question tackled jointly by employers and workers is 
this : 

Mr. N. Rae, on behalf of the British Wool Federation, expressed 
general agreement with the views set forth by the chairman and 
hoped that it would be possible to recommence auction sales in 
London by the middle of 1919, and from that time onwards to re- 
instate the ordinary course of trade. He was not afraid, in view of 
the abundant wool supplies in sight, that there would be any tendency 
to excessive speculation in wool. He stated that the wool federation 
was strongly against the purchase of the British clip for 1919. 

Mr. W. Mackinder, for labor, expressed the view that very great 
caution should be exercised in releasing government control, and he 
was strongly in favor of the next British clip being purchased by the 
government. He thought it was necessary that measures should be 
taken to prevent profiteering and to ensure that the expenditure of 
national money in buying the various wool clips within the empire 
should result in abundant supplies of woolen necessaries at the 
cheapest possible prices. Mr. J. W. Bulmer, Mr. H. Whitehead and 
others of the employers agreed with Mr. Rae that the pre-war trading 
conditions should be restored as soon as it was safe to do so, and they 



pointed out that already in North and South America and elsewhere 
prices of wool were falling. In their opinion, the best guarantee 
that the market should be freely supplied with cheap woolen goods 
was the early reestablishment of competition. So soon as wool was 
plentiful, any danger of the consumer being unduly squeezed would 
disappear. Mr. Ben Turner, of the textile workers, offered his 
general support to Mr. Mackinder's views and hoped the government 
would not be rushed into removing control a moment sooner than it 
could be done with entire safety to the interests of the consuming 

- The solution of this debate was found in the creation of a 
statistical committee and a standing committee, with equal 
representation to employers and labor. At the second meet- 
ing of the wool council, the labor members wished the govern- 
ment to purchase South American wool (not more than 
20,000 tons). The employers desired the unrestricted impor- 
tation of this wool on private account. Labor was defeated. 

Mr. A. Shaw, speaking for labor, desired it to be understood that 
the labor delegates would not accept any responsibility for the un- 
employment that might result in case no South American wool was 
imported. The responsibility for that must lie upon the shoulders 
of the government. 

The chairman, Sir Arthur Goldfinch, said that in his position as 
director of raw materials he felt that the responsibility lay upon his 
department of opening the way for the necessary importation of 
South American wool at the earliest possible date, and if government 
consent could not promptly be obtained to the proposed purchase on 
national account, he would feel it his duty to recommend that free 
imports by private traders should immediately be permitted. 

Never before in industrial history has labor dealt with 
questions of this magnitude in the field (not of working con- 
ditions) but of raw materials and the control and allocation 
of supplies. At the third meeting, the chairman indicated 
that he had given 

full consideration to the majority and minority reports of the two 
sections of the wool council regarding the various questions discussed 
at the meeting of December 19, which involved indirectly the whole 
question of wool control. He was inclined to agree to some extent 
with the views of the labor delegates as to the inadvisability of 
delivering the wool market over to unrestricted competition before 
the war was ended, and whilst so many abnormal conditions exist at 
every point. On the other hand, he was entirely at one with the 
manufacturing and commercial sections of the council as to the dis- 
advantage of continuing the present system of control any longer than 
could be avoided. He did not believe it was possible for any govern- 
ment department to distribute wool against ration certificates without 
some wasteful and uneconomic results. The system of sale by auction 
was undoubtedly the best means of getting each grade of wool into 
the hands of the man who could make the best use of it. In the 
chairman's opinion there was absolutely no reason whatever for a 
general collapse in wool values which, if it took place, would only be 
followed by a rapid rise later on. The French Ministry of Commerce 
also had put in a very strong plea for the stabilization of wool prices, 
and the general trend of opinion at the Peace Conference was likely 
to be altogether contrary to distribution of the essential raw materials 
by a scramble between the various nations. Throughout the years of 
the war this country had been a stabilizing influence in the wool 
market, and the chairman thought it would be greatly to our advan- 
tage as well as to that of our Allies to maintain that policy. The 
statistical position, he thought, was favorable. 

The purpose of joint standing industrial councils is to carry 
into effect the proposals of the Whitley report, which have 
been approved by the government. They are established only 
in industries in which both the employers and the workpeople 
are well organized in their respective associations, and they 
consist of equal numbers of representatives of associations of 
employers and trade unions. Their general function is to 
secure the largest possible measure of joint action between 
employers and workpeople for the development of the indus- 
try which they represent as a part of national life and for the 
improvement of the conditions of all engaged in the indus- 
try; and it is open to councils to take any action that falls 
within the scope of this general definition. 

" Among their more specific objects may be mentioned the 
regular consideration of wages, hours and working condi- 
tions in the industry as a whole; the consideration of measures 
for regularizing production and employment; the considera- 
tion of the existing machinery, and the establishment of ma- 

chinery where it does not already exist, for the settlement of 
differences between different parties and sections in the indus- 
try with the object of securing the speedy settlement of diffi- 
culties; the collection of statistics and information on mat- 
ters appertaining to the industry ; the encouragement of the 
study of processes and design and of research, with a view to 
perfecting the products of the industry; the improvement of 
the health conditions obtaining in the industry and the pro- 
vision of special treatment where necessary for workers in the 
industry; the consideration of the proposals for district coun- 
cils and works committees, put forward in the Whitley report, 
having regard in each case to any such organizations as may 
already be in existence; and cooperation with the joint indus- 
trial councils for other industries to deal with problems of 
common interest. The Ministry of Labor is the department 
responsible for assisting industries in the setting up of these 

In the constitutions of these councils one finds such state- 
ment of purpose as this: 

The consideration of means whereby all manufacturers and opera- 
tives shall be brought within their respective associations. 

To minimize the fluctuations of trade by intelligent anticipation, 
and the augmentation of demand in slack periods. 

To ensure that the industry is consulted before the introduction of 
legislation which may affect the industry. 

The Whitleys are only beginning to be established in gov- 
ernment service (the plans are now under way), and they 
have failed to take root in the great industries where the 
battle is keenest. It should also be remembered that five out 
of the fifteen members of the Whitley Committee — J. R. 
Clynes, J. A. Hobson, A. Susan Lawrence, J. J. Mallon, and 
Mona Wilson — have reported as follows: 

By attaching our signatures to the general reports, we desire to 
render hearty support to the recommendations that industrial councils 
or trade boards, according to whichever are the more suitable in the 
circumstances, should be established for the several industries or 
businesses, and that these bodies, representative of employers and 
employed, should concern themselves with the establishment of mini- 
mum conditions and the furtherance of the common interests of their 

But while recognizing that the more amicable relations thus 
established between capital and labor will afford an atmosphere 
generally favorable to industrial peace and progress, we desire to 
express our views that a complete identity of interests between capital 
and labor cannot be thus effected, and that such machinery cannot be 
expected to furnish a settlement for the more serious conflicts of 
interest involved in the working of an economic system primarily 
governed and directed by motives of private profit. 

The Garton Foundation, of which Arthur Balfour, Vis- 
count Esher and Sir Richard Garton are trustees, has just 
issued a revised report, in which they welcome the Whitley 
scheme because it " goes a long way towards securing indus- 
trial autonomy," because " the machinery is decentralized and 
elastic," and because " the object of the councils is to secure 
constructive cooperation in the improvement of industry." 
But they add: 

At the same time it must be recognized that there is a certain 
danger in this industrial autonomy. The possibility of employers 
and employed in any industry combining to exploit consumers or to 
put pressure upon the government for the promotion of sectional 
interests must not be overlooked. It is true that the government has 
the power of refusing to give legislative sanction to the proposals of 
the councils; but this hardly meets the whole difficulty. It seems 
inevitable that if joint industrial councils become common, some 
central organization, representative of all important industries, should 
be created for the purpose of coordinating the action of the various 
councils and adjusting the competing claims of overlapping or inter- 
connected industries. In such case it will be necessary very carefully 
to consider and define the powers of such central organization and 
its relation to Parliament, in order to guard against the possibility of 
steps being taken by this functional body or by t he industrial councils, 
which might prove detrimental to the interests of the general public 
or to national life in its social aspects. 

It is excellent to write a constitution and create a function- 
ing industrial organization for two and one-half million 
workers. Bur the Whitley scheme of joint control has failed 



to establish itself among the 1,634,000 men and 170,000 
women (figures of 1914) in the metal trades; the 274,000 
men and 415,000 women (figures of 1914) in cotton spin- 
ning and weaving; the million and a half workers in the 
Triple Alliance of miners, railwaymen and transport workers. 
And until also the government services, including the Post 

Office, are actually operating through Whitley councils, we 
must record the fact that they sprout and grow in the weaker 
trades and fail to find rootage in the fields of hottest dispute, 
where the workers are in fullest strength of numbers, or- 
ganization and self-consciousness to guide them in self-gov- 

A National Dependency Index 

Its Place in the Program of Reconstruction 
By I. M. Rubinow 

IT may be too much to claim that statistics won the war 
any more than that food or coal or saving won the w ar, 
but it is doubtful whether the high efficiency of the 
war machine could have been achieved without the help 
of the apparatus of scientific statistics. It is certain that in 
the nation's effort for restoration of normal life, statistical 
inquiry will be no less essential. Some practical method of 
measuring the volume of existing distress will sooner or later 
become a matter of necessity. 

Past experiences offer evidence in support of this view. Dur- 
ing the severe periods of depression which the industrial centers 
of this country were forced to face in the winter of 19 13-14 
and again in the winter of 1914-15, there was a loud clamor 
for accurate information. Expensive investigations were un- 
dertaken by governmental as well as private agencies for the 
purpose of ascertaining, with some proximity to truth, the 
amount of existing distress. It is perhaps no exaggeration to 
say that hundreds of thousands of dollars were spent in many 
rapidly and poorly organized inquiries. House-to-house can- 
vasses were essential; thousands of cards, schedules and ques- 
tionnaires were collected, but after having been reduced to 
tabular presentation, appeared with such delay that they be- 
came matters of historic interest only. In the meantime, in 
the absence of accurate data, the wildest estimates were dis- 
tributed from chair, pulpit, and the press. Statements from 
the one camp that millions of families were starving were 
met from the other by pleasant denials of any unusual distress. 
Intelligent and constructive social action is impossible when 
based upon the necessity of matching the New York Times 
against the New York Call. 

The plea is here made for a better organization of the cur- 
rent statistics of human suffering and distress (always neces- 
sary, but particularly so during the critical years through which 
the country must pass in the immediate future) because of the 
confidence of the writer that the method which he has suc- 
ceeded in devising offers a practical, extremely easy, and very 
inexpensive way of furnishing the public opinion of this coun- 
try with this information. This article is written with the def- 
inite purpose of placing this method before the readers of the 
Survey, with the hope that in some way the means will be 
found to materialize the plans. What the writer has in mind 
is not a patented device existing only in drawings and never 
tried out in actual practice, but the continuation of a plan 
that has proved to be thoroughly feasible by a careful scien- 
tific test. 

During the latter part of 1916, the writer had the privil 
of being requested by John A. Kingsbury, then commissi 
of public charities of New York city, to organize within his 
department and assume the management of a Bureau or So- 

cial Statistics, for the study of those aspects of social life of 
the great commonwealth with which the Department of Pub- 
lic Charities was called upon to deal. It seemed to the writer 
at the time that it would be almost impossible to present either 
a scientific analysis or any constructive suggestions, without 
having at least an approximate idea of the fluctuations in the 
amount of distress and the causes which lie behind them. Un- 
fortunately, political fortunes of the city soon led to the aban- 
donment of this work, as the bureau was abolished on January 
1, 1918. The dependency index was its first accomplishment, 
and it may be pointed to with a certain modicum of pride, 
especially in view of the bureau's short existence, which did 
not extend beyond five months. 

The technical detail.; of the dependency index, which are 
many and complex, have been explained at length in an article 
in the American Economic Review for December, 1918, and 
it is unnecessary to repeat them in this place. Briefly the statis- 
tical thought underlying the construction of the dependency 
index may be stated as follows: 

It is frequently true that while an exhaustive measurement 
of any social phenomenon presents tremendous difficulties, a 
proximate determination of the fluctuations is a much simpler 
problem. For that reason indices of wages and prices and - 
many other phenomena are constructed. It would be almost 
impossible, without a very large expenditure of funds, to as- 
certain, even for one particular period, the total amount of 
existing need in all its degrees and ramifications, let alone 
doing that as a continuous process. There are, however, a 
great many manifestations of distress, want, and eventually 
dependency, which are being measured at present by the vari- 
ous relief and social agencies called upon either by govern- 
mental authorities or their own contributors to render account 
of their activities. Careful and competent compilation of 
these numerous sources of information should give a compre- 
hensive and fairly accurate picture of the situation in the com- 
munity as a whole. 

The short existence of the bureau prevented as complete a 
compilation as would have been possible with more time and 
resources, but what has been secured appears sufficiently char- 
acteristic of the general situation. Throughout the work the 
writer was forced to limit himself to those swnptoms of the 
economic maladjustment for which statistical data were read- 
ily available; not what was desirable, but what was possible 
and available, proved to be the only workable basis. Never- 
theless, the following manifestations of relief and welfare worV 
were successfully brought together : 

1 . The general case work of relief organizations. 

2. Care of homeless men and women. 

3. Operations of the municipal lodging house. 



4. Free burials. 

5 . Commitment of children to institutions. 

6. Payment to private hospitals with public funds for 
care of indigent patients. 

7. The medical work of dispensaries. 

8 . Chattel loans. 

9. Free loans. 

For each of these varieties of activity the number of cases 
assisted each month was obtained, and whenever possible the 
number of applications as well. The inquiry was extended back 
to January, 1914, for the purpose of creating a background 
from which the current figures might be judged, and the fig- 
ures immediately became of considerable interest. The period 
was selected so as to carry back the series of statistical data to 
before the beginning of the European war. Since the informa- 
tion collected was in no case all-inclusive of the particular 
form of social activity, the absolute figures were less important 
than the month-to-month fluctuations, and for this reason the 
data was recomputed on a percentage basis. The year 1916 
being perhaps more nearly normal than any of the others in- 
cluded, was purposely selected as a basis. This, however, is 
subject to later modifications and if the system be continued 
and data for a decennial period be accumulated, an average of 
ten years would undoubtedly offer a much better basis for statis- 
tical calculations. 

Even without combination the information in regard to these 
numerous forms of social welfare activity present an extremely 
interesting picture, but much more important — and more usable 
— are the results which are obtained when all this information 
is reduced to a single statistical " index." (See accompany- 
ing table and diagram.) 



Month 1914 1915 1916 1917 Cycle 

January 226.5 280.7 119.6 106.6 138.8 

February 188.5 232.7 105.7 96.6 118.1 

March 207.1 234.6 110.7 107.2 124.9 

April 189.6 180.7 98.5 94.5 106.7 

May 146.9 158.2 104.9 101.6 96.9 

June 139.2 137.5 105.5 94.3 90.2 

July 140.8 125.4 91.9 91.4 85.1 

August 124.6 120.7 93.0 87.6 80.7 

September 137.3 104.5 85.7 74.9 76.2 

October 162.6 115.1 89.2 82.7 85.1 

November 191.4 114.9 94.2 80.7 91.1 

December 252.5 123.6 100.2 83.8 106.1 

Average 175.6 160.7 100.0 91.8 100.0 

The mystery attached to statistical indices by the lay reader 
is entirely unnecessary. It should be remembered that the vari- 
ous quantities collected mean nothing of themselves, but are 
of value only insofar as they show increases or decreases. As- 
suming, then, that one hundred represents the average amount 
of distress in New York city during 1916, the table demon- 
strates the fluctuations up or down during the four years. The 
diagram puts this in graphic form. The index brings out sensi- 
tively the critical period of the winter of 1913-14 and again of 
the winter 1914-15; the rapid improvement beginning with the 
summer of 1915, under the influence of the first European 
munition orders and the recovery of economic activity; and the 
continuous reduction in the amount of economic distress which 
social agencies are called upon to meet as a result of abnormal 
industrial activity in the last two years. This economic baro- 
meter is equally sensitive in pointing out the remarkable regu- 
larity of the annual cycle of economic distress with its increases 
in the fall and winter and reduction during the latter months 
of the summer. 

It is probably true that the picture of social conditions rep- 
resented by these figures offers nothing that is startingly new, 
at any rate to the careful student of social problems. The 
question may be raised whether the effort was worth while 
if it resulted in nothing more than the reassertion of well- 
known truths. It must be remembered, therefore, that the 
purpose of carrying the work four years back was mainly to 
test the sensitiveness of the index as well as to offer a basis 
for comparisons with later data. It is believed that the index 
fully met the test as to its general accuracy, that its sensitive- 
ness is at least as great as that of most other indices extensively 
used in economic and statistical discussions. Moreover, so 
much that is written on the problems of destitution and de- 
pendency is pure surmise and guess-work, that statistical sup- 
port is always desirable and useful. 

The practical value of the index rests primarily on its con- 
tinuation as a current measurement. For these practical pur- 
poses speed is a matter of primary importance. The methods 
used are so simple that it is possible, with proper organization 
of the work, to furnish public opinion with the final results 
month by month with a delay of not over two weeks: i.e., to 
publish by the fifteenth of each month the index figure for the 
preceding month. 

Both the method and these preliminary results have been re- 
cently submitted to a large number of expert social statisticians 
and on the whole have created a great deal of interest and 
favorable comment. Several objections, however, have been 
raised against the very concept of a dependency index, and the 
legitimacy has been questioned of including some of the symp- 
toms which may not necessarily be expressions of dependency 
in the strict meaning of the word. The objections will prob- 
ably hold against such phenomena as chattel loans, dispensary 
practice, or even many cases of commitment of children. But 
the index would lose a good deal of its practical usefulness if 
it were limited strictly to cases of actual dependency and ex- 
cluded available phenomena of economic distress, out of which 
dependency must necessarily arise later. Its very use as a 
guide to preventive action in the struggle against dependency 
is based upon the opportunity of including all these " twilight " 
cases. Again, the right to combine all the diversified facts of 
economic distress into one statistical unit has been questioned 
by a prominent expert. As published in its complete form 
the index does a good deal more than simply reduce all these 
various phenomena to one impersonal column of statistical 
figures. The changes in the number of dependent families or 
committed children or free burials, etc., are as interesting and 
important when taken separately as when brought together. If 
collective social action in regard to the entire problem of eco- 










nomic distress should find any useful guide in the dependency 
index as a whole, the details in regard to each group of phe- 
nomena would be of even greater value in directing social 
effort into specific channels. 



Considerable light is thrown by the facts brought together in 
this index upon the problem of causation of dependency and 
destitution. Human nature does not change from month to 
month. Its changes from year to year are surely not as rapid 
as have been the changes in the dependency index. It is for 
this reason alone that the violent changes in the index offer a 
complete rebuttal to the views still held only too widely that a 
problem of distress is primarily a problem of human nature. 

When the different groups of phenomena are separately 
studied, the following somewhat general observations appear 
justified. The numerous manifestations of economic malad- 
justment may be roughly divided into two large groups. Some 
of these display a pronounced annual cycle. The same 
phenomena also show violent changes from year to year. These 
are the highly variable factors of dependency — outdoor relief, 
care of homeless men and women, registration in municipal 
lodging houses. Very largely these conditions follow crises, 
depressions or other less exceptional disturbances and fluctua- 
tions of employment. To a very large extent they reflect the 
problem of a disorganized labor market. 

There is another group of dependency which manifests it- 
self in the statistics of other methods and institutions of pub- 
lic relief and which is much more steady. The fluctuations 
from month to month, from year to year, are much less pro- 
nounced. It seems that we are dealing here, not with social 
epidemics, but with endemic social diseases. Though the word 
" disease " is used here figuratively, it is peculiarly appropriate, 
because this is the group of dependency and distress which arises 
very largely from sickness and resulting death or need. Thus 
among these prominent factors of public need we find dis- 
pensary work, free burials, the commitment of children (which 
frequently results from death or disabling sickness) and chattel 
loans, which is the proud family's way of meeting the economic 
emergency before applying for charitable relief. 

The plan has as yet been tried out in one community only, 
but as this was the biggest and most complex of all communi- 
ties in the country, it is reasonable to assume that if it proved 
feasible in New York city, it could be done with a good deal 
less effort in smaller cities. Granted an efficient and expeditious 
collection of the necessary data in fifteen to twenty-five indus- 
trial centers scattered throughout the country, the material 
thus collected would give a composite picture of social condi- 
tions throughout the country that would be extremely useful 
in normal times and would become invaluable if this country 
should have to go through a period of severe economic stress 
and strain. 

On a national scale the plan is too comprehensive for individ- 
ual effort. It cannot be realized without some funds and the 
support either of governmental authority or of the moral 
authority of an influential quasi-public institution. The finan- 
cial requirement is not so great that it should prove an insur- 
mountable obstacle. The entire method is so simple, and so 
largely depends upon material already being collected by in- 
dividual organizations, that it might be carried out for the 
entire country for as modest a sum as $50,000 a year. It is 
perhaps no exaggeration to say that a single enumeration un- 
dertaken in the winter of 191 3 or 191 4 by a large private busi- 
ness company cost perhaps as much as that. 

Since the method and its results have been presented to the 
American statistical profession, it may be hoped that inde- 
pendent efforts in that direction will be made in various com- 
munities. While such work may prove of great local value, 
for a national purpose some unity of plan and methods will 
be extremely important. It is the writer's hope that a way 
may be found for national action and it is with this hope that 
the matter is herewith presented to those who may be assumed 
to be the most keenly interested in it. 

The Red Cross Conference at Cannes 

By Henry P. Davison 

Paris, March 28. 

WITH a view to preparing a program to relieve 
suffering and to combat disease in the general in- 
terest of humanity, the Committee of Red Cross 
Societies has called a conference of the leading ex- 
perts of the world to be held at Cannes, France, beginning 
April 1. Below is a list of the men, each a foremost specialist 
in his chosen field, who have been invited to attend the con- 
ference as representatives of their respective countries, France, 
England, Italy, Japan and the United States: 


Professor Roux, director Pasteur Institute, Paris; 

Dr. F. Widal, physician to Hospital Cochin, Paris; 

Maj. Eduard Rist, Service de Sante, France; 

Dr. Calmette, director Pasteur Institute, Lille; 

Dr. Leon Bernard, Paris; 

Prof. Paul Courmont, Lyon ; 

Dr. Laveran, professor of protozoology, Pasteur Institute, Paris; 

Dr. Milian, physician to St. Louis Hospital, Paris; 

Dr. Armand Delille, Paris; 

Dr. Maurice Pehu, University of Lyon. 


Sir William Osier, Bart., M.D., F.R.S., LL.D., regius professor 
of medicine, Oxford University; 

Sir Walter M. Fletcher, Sc.D., M.D., F.R.S., secretary of Medical 
Research Committee, (National Insurance Act), London; 

Col. S. Lyle Cummins, C.M.G., M.D., R.A.M.C, advisor in 
pathology, B.E.F. ; , 

Sir Robert Phillips, M.D., Edinburgh; 

Sir Arthur Newsholme, M.D., London; 

Dr. F. W. Menzies, principal assistant medical officer, London 
Countv Council ; 

Lt.-Col. Sir Ronald Ross, K.C.B., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., etc., con- 
sultant for malaria, British Army; professor of tropical sanitation, 
Universitv of Liverpool; 

Col. W. L. Harrison, R.A.M.C, London; 

Sir William Leslie Mackenzie, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E., etc., medical 
member local government board for Scotland, and Royal Commission 
on Housing (Scotland); 

Dr. Truby King, New Zealand. 


Dr. Ett. Machiafava, professor of anatomy and pathology, Uni- 
versity of Rome; 

Lt.-Col. Aldo Castellani, professor, Faculty of Medicine and 
Surgery, University of Naples; 

Dr. Giuseppe Bastianelli, professor, University of Rome; 

Col. Cesare Baduel, professor of pathology and clinical medi- 
cine, Florence, chief of Bureau of Sanitary and Local Welfare, 
Italian Red Cross, Rome; 

Dr. Poli, professor, University of Rome; 

Dr. Ducroy, professor of dermosyphilography, University of Pisa; 

Dr. Valagussa, professor, University of Rome. 


Dr. R. Inabe, director, hygiene laboratory, College of Military 
Medicine, Japan; 



Dr. K. Shiga, professor, Imperial Institute for Infectious Diseases, 
Tokio ; 

Dr. Hideyo Noguchi, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, 
New York. 


Dr. William H. Welch, A.B., M.D., LL.D., director, School of 
Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University; 

Dr. Simon Flexner, M.D., Sc.D., LL.D., director laboratories of 
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York; 

Dr. Hermann M. Biggs, A.B., M.D., LL.D., public health com- 
missioner, New York state; 

Dr. E. R. Baldwin, M.D., director of the Edward L. Trudeau 
Foundation for Tuberculosis, New York; 

Dr. Theobald Smith, Ph.B., M.D., LL.D., director of animal 
pathology, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research; 

Dr. Wycliffe Rose, A.B., LL.D., director-general, International 
Health Board, Rockefeller Foundation; 

Col. George Walker, M.C., United States Army, A.B., M.D., 
fellow, American College of Surgeons; in charge of venereal dis- 
eases, A.E.F. ; 

Col. William F. Snow, M.C., United States Armv, B.A., M.D., 
president of the Association of State and Provincial Boards of 
Health of North America; 

Col. Homer Swift, M.C., United States Army, A.B., M.D., con- 
sultanl in medicine, A.E.F. ; 

Dr. L. Emmett Holt, A.B., M.D., LL.D., professor, diseases of chil- 
dren College Physicians and Surgeons; 

Dr. Samuel Hamill, M.D., professor, diseases of children, Phila- 
delphia, Polyclinic and College for Graduates in Medicine; direc- 
tor child welfare for state of Pennsylvania; 

Dr. Fritz Falbot, A.B., M.D., chief of Children's Medical de- 
partment, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. 

American Red Cross Representatives 

Dr. Livingston Farrand, A.B., M.D., LL.D., formerly president 
of the University of Colorado, director-general, American National 
Red Cross; 

Maj. A. II. Garvin, M.D., A.R.C., chief Bureau of TuberculoM- 
A.R.C., France; 

Maj. William Palmer Lucas, A.B., M.D., A.R.C., professor of 
pediatrics, University of California Medical School; chief of Chil- 
dren's Bureau, American Red Cross, France; 

Col. Richard P. Strong, M.C., United States Army, M.D., Sc.D., 
director, Department of Medical Research and Intelligence, Ameri- 
can Red Cross; professor tropical diseases, Harvard University 
Medical School. 

Additional Representatives 

Assistant Surgeon-General N. S. Cummin, Public Health Service, 
now in France; 

Col. F. F. Russel, representing the War Department in connection 
with the public health conference; 

It -Col. Lindsay R. Williams, M.C., United States Army; 

Lillian D. Wa'ld, representing the federal Children's Bureau. 

Acceptances have already been received from a majority of 
those to whom invitations have been sent and it is expected that 
favorable replies will be received from the others before April 
1. These first conferences at Cannes are a preliminary step on 
the part of the Committee of Red Cross Societies to formulate 
and to propose to flu- Red Cross societies of the world an ex 

tended program of Red Cross activities in the interest of 
humanity. The first conference will have to do with the prep- 
aration of the part of the program which deals with the or- 
ganization of an International Council and Bureau of Hygiene 
and Public Health which will consider work to be undertaken 
in connection with the prevention of epidemic disease, tuber- 
culosis, venereal disease, and child welfare. The specialists 
who will attend are the recognized authorities on these subjects. 
As a result of these conferences a complete program will be 
made which will deal with the latest and best means to re- 
lieve suffering and to combat disease. This program will be 
submitted at a conference of all Red Cross societies to be held 
in Geneva thirty days after peace is declared. The official 
call for this later conference was issued February 13 by the 
International Red Cross at Geneva. 

Announcement of the formation of the Committee of Red 
Cross Societies was made in Paris about three weeks ago. It 
has established headquarters at Cannes with administrative 
headquarters at 2, Place de Rivoli, Paris. The committee is 
composed of representatives of the Red Cross societies of 
France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and the United States 
with Henry P. Davison, formerly chairman of the War 
Council of the American Red Cross, as chairman. Based on 
the necessity of united effort to relieve the general suffering 
following upon the war, the plan is to extend and enlarge for 
the times of peace the activities of Red Cross societies which 
proved to be of such widespread usefulness during the hostili- 
ties. Through the medium of a central organization the latest 
discoveries and experience of science and practice which may 
tend to the relief or prevention of disease and suffering will 
be made known to the people of the various nations through 
their respective Red Cross societies. There will be the stimu- 
lation of effort in relieving distress and the promotion among 
the peoples of the world of the spirit of common interest in 
the general welfare of humanity. 

The plan aims to develop a new fraternity and sympathy 
among the peoples. As the League of Nations aims to hold 
all peoples together in an effort to avoid war and to insure free- 
dom this league of Red Cross societies aims at devising a 
precedure whereby all peoples may cooperate actively in pro- 
moting the health and happiness of one another. 

President Wilson, Clcmenceau, Lloyd George, Orlando, 
Baron Sonnino, and other representatives of the principal gov- 
ernments have expressed their official approval of the plan. 

The Cannes conference of public health experts will be 
followed by other conferences with the object of formulating 
for submission to the meeting in Geneva, a program tor the 
extended and increased activities in peace times of the Red 
Cross societies of the world. 




POLICIES governing the extension of Red Cross Home 
Service in the directions recently indicated in the 
Survey (The Future of Home Service, March 15) 
have been adopted by national headquarters. The decision to 
allow expansion was reached, it will be remembered, only after 
impressive evidence that there was a strong demand for such 
expansion from all parts of the country, especially from places 
which have no other social agencies. Home Service sections 
all over the country are accordingly authorized, after receiving 
approval of their plans, to extend to any families such counsel 
and assistance as they are now giving to the families of soldier- 
and sailors, upon certain conditions. They are not to attempt 
to duplicate the work of any existing agency already organized 
and equipped to do this kind of work. They are not to allow 
extension of their activities to jeopardize the efficient discharge 
of their responsibility to soldiers and sailors and their families, 
which must be recognized as a primary obligation during the 
months of demobilization. They must make formal applic; - 
tion through the chapter executive committee to the division 
manager for approval of their plans to extend their work, 
accompanied by evidence that the preceding conditions have 
been met, that they are in position to finance their work for 
one year, and that it will be conducted in accordance with 
standards set by the Department of Civilian Relief. 

When an application has been approved, the section will 
have the privilege of carrying on its extended work as long as 
the Red Cross affords auspices for such work, except that the 
privilege may be withdrawn at any time by the director general 
of civilian relief on the recommendation of the division man- 
ager and the division director of civilian relief if the established 
practices and standards of the section are in violation of the 
standards set by the Department of Civilian Relief. National 
and division offices will maintain an advisory and cooperatne 
relationship to Home Service work, rather than executive, since 
it is recognized that the fullest measure of local autonomy is 
necessary and desirable. In widening its clientele the Red 
Cross will adhere to the principle which it has applied in its 
work for soldiers and sailors, that its action shall in any case 
be " responsive " rather than " initiatory." It will not orig- 
inate contact with any family or go where it is unwelcome. 

Projects for other forms of social service than that indie 
are anticipated, as work with individuals and families n 
ally leads to other activities. For the present, during the ex- 
perimental period, such proposals are to be referred to national 
headquarters, through the appropriate channels, for apps 
As the peace programs become better defined, it will be pos- 
sible to delegate more and more authority to the Home Si 
sections with respect to the scope of their work, and ultii 
all decisions will rest with the local chapter. 

Home Service and Public Health Nursing are to be co- 
ordinate activities in the chapter. Each is considered neces- 
sary to the full success of the other. In no instance is Public 

Health Nursing to be undertaken by the Home Service sec- 
tion, or Home Service by the Committee on Nursing Activities. 

Funds now set aside for Home Sen ice may he used for the 
work on an extended scale, and additional grans may be made 
for this purpose by the chapter executive committee from any 
unappropriated funds in the chapter treasury. Home Service 
funds may be spent for relief or any other form of service or 
for operating expenses of the sections, but not for building or 
operating hospitals, orphanages or other institutions, and not 
for subsidizing the work of other agencies. A peace-time 
manual of Home Service is in preparation by the Department 
of Civilian Relief at national headquarters, and an organiza- 
tion in headquarters and in the division office will be effected 
as promptly as possible, to stimulate and guide the sections in 
their post-war activities. Until such organization is perfected, 
Home Sen ice sections which apply on their own initiative 
for permission to extend their scope will be aided to reach a 
wise decision, but no general stimulation of the sections will 
be undertaken. 

In thus extending Home Service, the Red Cross wishes it 
to be understood that it in no wise commits itself to provide 
auspices for such work permanently; but that in any com- 
munity or in the country as a whole, the Red Cross may with- 
draw whenever the interests either of the Red Cross or of the 
work demand. 


COMPLETE reports for the Children's Year, which 
clo ed on April 6, are not yet available, but a prelimi- 
nary summary has been issued by the federal Children's 
Bureau. " Permanent measures for child welfare all over the 
country " have resulted from the efforts of some eleven million 
women who have been interested in the year's activities. The 
goal set was " to save 100,000 babies and to get a square deal 
for children," and the method was the inauguration of three 
drives in addition to the regular work of the Children's Bu- 
reau, such as its studies of child health, foods and the relation 
of wages to both, and its large task, recently resumed under 
new legislation, of enforcing the federal child labor pro- 

The first of the drives was to test the height and weight of 
children under six, and of nearly seven million record cards 
sent out for this .purpose, 1,619,283 have already been re- 
turned. A second test, for the babies not hitherto measured, 
has been undertaken in some communities this spring. The 
test has emphasized the need for preventive work and has al- 
ready resulted in the setting up of new agencies to do it. In 
twenty-four states new public health nurses have been em- 
ployed during the year; from ten of these states a total of 137 
new nurses have been reported. Children's health centers, to 
which mothers may go for expert advice, have been established 
to the number of 134 in fifteen states, with an unspecified num- 
ber in nine other states. The second drive, for the providing 




of the sort of recreation that makes for a stronger young 
America, has resulted in the establishment of new playgrounds 
in sixteen states. The third drive, " back to school," is still 
actively under way. The most practical evidence of its suc- 
cess is the report of the establishment of scholarship funds to 
enable the children of needy families to continue at school 
after they reach the legal working age. The goal of this drive 
is for at least one such scholarship in each of the 281,000 
schoolhouses of the United States. 

This goal, like many of the others set for Children's Year, 
is still far from being attained. But the work is being con- 
tinued, in the forty legislatures now meeting and before other 
official bodies, and very widely through the private social 
agencies and organizations of women. The climax will come 
in the conference with foreign experts to be held May 6 in 
Washington [see the Survey for April 5, page 56.] A gen- 
eral result of Children's Year, which must await further re- 
ports for accurate evaluation, is "a new consciousness of the 
value of the child and his need for proper surroundings, good 
health, wholesome play, adequate schooling, protection from 
premature work, and special care when needed." 


BACK in 1915 " direct settlements " was a very popular 
term with the New York state legislature. They 
amended the workmen's compensation law that year so 
as to permit the employer to settle directly with the injured em- 
ploye and without a formal hearing by the Industrial Com- 
mission. The state Federation of Labor and the American 
Association for Labor Legislation opposed the amendment, but 
they were told that great benefits would flow from it. Claim- 
ants would receive compensation more promptly, the expense 
would be less, and a closer relationship would be established 
between employer and employe. 

After four years an investigation of the operation of direct 
settlements is now under way. In a preliminary report just 
issued it is stated that all of the claims in support of the 
amendment have either been proved false or evils have grown 
up under it which nullify whatever good might otherwise have 
been accomplished. Some time ago Governor Smith appointed 
Jeremiah F. Connor of Oneida, New York, as a special 
investigator under the Moreland act to investigate the affairs 
of the state Industrial Commission. Mr. Connor has not 
completed the investigation, but he has issued a preliminary 
report on the subject of direct settlements in which he charges 
that there has been underpayment in at least 50 per cent of the 
cases that have been settled directly between employer and em- 
ployee. He charges that although the law requires that the 
settlement shall be between the employe and the employer and 
not between the employe and an insurance company, that 
nevertheless settlements are made with the insurance company 
in a majority of the cases, and that as a result the insurance 
companies may be said to be administering the workmen's com- 
pensation law. Where a large employer is able to carry his 
own insurance, settlements are made between the employe and 
the claim agent, whose interest is to make as low a settlement as 
possible. Reports of these settlements made to the Industrial 
Commission are so incomplete as to render impossible the com- 
pilation of accident statistics for the state, indeed they are so 
incomplete that " in the great majority of cases it is an abso- 
lute impossibility for the commission to determine whether 
the report of the agreement is in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the act." 

Mr. Connor took 1,000 reports of agreements under the 
direct settlement law for the month of October, 191 8, from 
the files of the commission. Examiners of the commission 
selected from these 349 cases where the injuries appeared to 
be serious. At the time of making his report Mr. Connor 
had investigated 1 10 of these cases. He became convinced 
that so much injustice had been done that he secured rehearings 
of these cases before the commission, with the result that it 
was found that in more than half of them the compensation 

paid to the injured employes had been less than that required 
by the compensation act. The hearings developed the fact 
that in many cases the injury was much more serious than the 
report filed with the commission would indicate. 

In the case of Nora Ryan, a laundrywoman, the report de- 
scribed the injury as " loss of whole of little finger." Direct 
settlement was made for $139.65, the correct amount for such 
an injury, but when the claimant came before the commission 
it was found that a considerable portion of her hand had also 
been amputated, and the commission awarded her $617 addi- 
tional compensation. Joseph Giardini was reported to have 
dislocated his elbow and was paid $30 in the direct settlement. 
The hearing revealed the fact that the injury " was probably 
a fracture, but in any event it resulted in a stiffening of the 
arm at the elbow joint so that the forearm is rigid at right 
angles." The commission ordered the payment of $1,920 ad- 
ditional compensation. Joseph Martin, a subway employe, 
was struck by a train, receiving severe injuries to his right arm 
and a possible fracture to his skull. He was paid $94 as a 
direct settlement, and subsequently the company gave him $48 
as " so-called charity." The commission at the rehearing 
awarded him additional compensation in the sum of $1,100. 
In these instances and similar ones quoted by the report the 
cases had been closed and would never have come before the 
commission, nor would the claimants have received the added 
compensation, had it not been for the special investigation. 
Out of the 1,000 cases examined attending physicians' reports 
were missing entirely in 714, and most of those filed were mis- 
leading as to the character of the injury. 

The proportion of cases settled directly is very large. In 
the up-state districts in 191 8 out of 13,500 agreements filed 
about 12,500 were direct settlements. Mr. Connor states his 
belief that in the past year claimants have lost $500,000 
through underpayment. 

Second only to the injustice to claimants as an evil re>ult 
of the direct settlement amendment is the loss of statistical 
material which would have gone far towards putting insurance 
rate-making on a scientific basis. In thousands of direct set- 
tlement cases the records do not show the extent of disability, 
the character of the injury or the amount of compensation paid. 
Leonard W. Hatch, chief statistician of the Industrial commis- 
sion, stated in December, 191 8: 

The simple fact is that any creditable statistics relating to ex- 
tent of disability or compensation paid under the New York law 
after the first year, are for the most part blocked by the incomplete 

Mr. Connor recommends an amendment to the workmen's 
compensation law abolishing direct settlements and requiring 
the Industrial Commission to pass upon all cases, and further 
that the Industrial Commission be given a special appropriation 
of $25,000 to investigate and rehear every agreement approved 
pro forma since the direct settlements law became effective. 


THE Lawrence textile manufacturers have rejected the 
proposal of the strikers, made last week, that the issue 
between them be referred to H. B. Endicotr. shoe 
manufacturer and prominent in the Massachusetts Counsel of 
National Defense, as sole arbitrator. The emplo\ei< ex- 
press themselves as being satisfied with the present situation. 
In announcing their proposal the strike committee said that it 
the employers rejected it " the responsibility for the continu- 
ance of this unfortunate industrial strike must rest squarely 
and solely upon their shoulders." In the same statement the 
committee took occasion to say: "We repudiate the absurd 
charge that this strike against the reduction of wages is an at- 
tempt at Bolshevist revolution." 

This is the third attempt within two weeks to bring about 
a settlement of the strike. As the result of mediation by a 
committee appointed by the mayor of Lawrence, conferences 
were held on March 24 between representatives of the Amer- 



ican Woolen Company, the Kunhardt and the Everett mills 
and committees of their own employes. The committees sent 
to the American Woolen Company and to the Kunhardt Com- 
pany included representatives of the strike committee who 
had not been employes of the mills in question. Upon the re- 
fusal of these representatives to withdraw, the conferences 
abruptly came to an end. At the Everett Mills the con- 
ferences got no farther than the establishment of the fact that 
the strikers' demands were still what they were at the outset, 
namely 48 hours' work for 54 hours' pay. After this an at- 
tempt of one of the members of the Massachusetts State 
Board of Arbitration to hold a public hearing was frustrated 
by the action of the other members of the board. 

Last week the Harvard Liberal Club of Boston at a din- 
ner attended by several directors and large stockholders of the 
mills at Lawrence, and three representatives of the strikers, 
heard a discussion of the strike. Robert H. Gardiner, Har- 
vard '76, director of the Arlington Mills, presided. Among 
the speakers were Edward F. McGrady, the Rev. Cedric 
Long, Harvard '13, in behalf of the strikers, Senator Au- 
gustus Peabody Loring, Harvard '78, Wm. R. Evans, Jr., 
director of the Everett Mills, and Messrs. Mack and Fran- 
chesci, of the strikers, John F. Moors, of the Harvard Cor- 
poration, and Judge George W. Anderson. The following 
resolutions were adopted and a committee of the club was ap- 
pointed to confer with the officers of the mills and with the 
district attorney. 

" Whereas the differences between the officials of the 
manufacturing companies and the operators of the mills at 
Lawrence have become so serious as to become a matter of 
public concern : Now be it resolved, that a committee be 
appointed by the chair to bring about a conference between 
said officials and the operators, or committees representing 
both of them, in the presence of some unprejudiced board, 
with the view to adjusting said differences without delay. 

" Resolved, that a committee be appointed to wait upon the 
district attorney and request him to investigate alleged 
violations upon the part of the police, or by any other person." 
A considerable group of strikers are now proposing that a 
demand be made for a 44-hour instead of a 48-hour week. 
This move is favored by the Italian, Polish, German and 
Jewish groups, but at the last report no such action had been 
taken by the executive committee. This proposal is prob- 
ably due to the entrance into the situation of the Amalga- 
mated Clothing Workers, who have been successful in estab- 
lishing the 44-hour week for themselves. This strong, inde- 
pendent organization of workers on men's clothing has as- 
sumed at least partial direction of the strike and has decided 
to finance it by contributions from the general treasury of the 
union and by assessments which the New York members of 
the union have voted upon themselves. The Amalgamated 
has not yet decided to extend its jurisdiction to the textile 
industries, and will not do so for the present. 

A convention has been called to meet in New York this 
week to form a new textile union. Delegates are expected 
from Lawrence, Paterson, Passaic and other centers. 


AN open letter of protest to Thaddeus C. Sweet, speaker 
of the New York Assembly, has been sent in behalf of 
the National Consumers' League by Mrs. Florence Kel- 
ley, general secretary, declaring that the Massachusetts form 
of minimum wage bill introduced by Mr. Sweet as a substi- 
tute for the measure proposed by the Women's Legislative 
Conference, is a sham bill. Mrs. Kelley warns Mr. Sweet 
that his action is likely to result in strikes and industrial un- 
rest. Mrs. Kelley's letter in full is as follows: 

Because New York is the greatest industrial state in the union, 
its labor laws are of national importance. They affect more 
workers than any other state labor laws, and they are copied 
by other states. The evil repute acquired by men who oppose good 

measures in New York and delay their passage, is therefore nation- 
wide, like that of former Senator Elon R. Brown. For these reasons 
your answers to the following questions will be of nation-wide in- 
terest and will be given widespread publicity. 

1. Why, when the cost of living is the highest known, when 
women's wages are falling and men are returning to claim their 
former place — do you recommend the passage of a notorious sham 
bill, calculated to befool the voters and to leave the women wage 
workers as poor as they are today? 

2. Why do you, by substituting the Massachusetts minimum wage 
bill for the bill endorsed by the Women's Labor Legislative Con- 
ference, list yourself with Senator Brown as an enemy of women 
and children who work for their living? 

In 1913, when the Massachusetts bill was passed, it was an ex- 
periment and a compromise. After six years, it is everywhere 
known to have merely the value of a rushlight. It reveals from time 
to time where wages are at their worst. But it does not effectively 
improve them for it has no compulsory features. It does nothing 
for the victims of the meanest and the most incompetent employers. 
To introduce it in any state at this late day is to fly in the face of 

In the years while you and your fellow legislators have pre- 
vented the passage of the workable law in New York, other states 
have gone forward until, whatever bill passes now, we shall be 
fourteenth in the list. To propose the Massachusetts law adds insult 
to that grievous injury. 

Under the speeding and strains of industry today, women must 
have more pay for their work, if our civilization and our race are 
not to suffer permanently. 

3. Why, then, do you block the bill which has been most care- 
fully drafted in the light of six years' experience and will, when 
enacted, insure improvement for the worst paid of all? 

4. Why do you take upon yourself the moral and the political 
responsibility for the strikes in which women will be compelled to 
join in order to live? 

5. Is this a good time to encourage strikes? 

6. Why do you prefer strikes to passing honest labor laws? 


CHICAGO reelected its present mayor, William Hale 
Thompson. There were 688,361 votes cast in the mayor- 
alty election out of a total registration of about 792,000. 
Only 38 per cent of these voters, or 257,888 were credited to 
the mayor on the face of the returns, before the official count. 
His election was possible because there were five other candi- 
dates in the running. Two of them — Robert M. Sweitzer, 
regular Democratic nominee, receiving 240,288 votes, and 
Maclay Hoyne, states attorney, elected as a Democrat, run- 
ning on an "independent" candidacy, receiving 110,19'/ 
votes — together polled 93,298 votes more than the mayor. 
Three labor tickets polled 79,287 votes — the independent 
labor party 54,467, the regular Socialist ticket 23,105 and the 
Socialist Labor faction 1,715. Thus although 430,473 votes 
were cast for other candidates, the mayor won by a plurality 
of only 17,600, although four years ago he was elected by a 
plurality of 147,477. The Municipal Voters' League regis- 
ters the election of ten aldermanic candidates whom it en- 
dorsed and lost only three. 

The labor vote is distinctive in two respects, first by the 
marked decrease of the Socialist vote, which totaled only 
24,820, not one-fourth as large as was once before cast for a 
Socialist candidate; and still more significantly by the initial 
vote marking the advent of the independent labor party. 
While the party was launched by the Chicago Federation of 
Labor and ratified by the state Federation of Labor, not only 
thousands of trade unionists, but scores of the trade unions, 
openly avowed their preference for other party affiliations and 
voted for other candidates than the president of the city 
federation. The disapproval of political party action by the 
officials of the American Federation of Labor was cited as 
justification for this dissent in some instances. Nevertheless, 
John Fitzpatrick, who led the new labor party ticket, de- 
clared that the 54,467 votes it registered " established the 
labor party on the map, and proved that it has come to stay." 
" We're on the way," he added, " and next proceed to the 
state convention, where the foundation of the state labor 
party in Illinois will be laid. We have started on the fight 


THE SURVEY 1 OR APRIL 12, 19 19 

for freedom for the workers not only of Chicago and Illinois, 
but of the United States." 

id issues were voted by large majorities carrying a float- 
age of $11,300,000:. The largest majority favored one of' 
the improvements included in the city plan, and the smallest 
carried an appropriation of $600,000 to build three addi- 
tional wards to shelter 750 more inmates of the county poor 
farm. The other city bond issue was to cover $9,500,000 
due on city indebtedness and judgments against the city. But 
already the continuance of this discredited administration in 
office has aroused opposition among members of the legisla- 
ture to the measures providing fo* an increase of the hitherto 
strictly limited bonded indebtedness of Chicago. It may also 
imperil the bills restoring home rule over public utilities 
and other interests of the city. 

The vote on the question, Shall the city become anti-saloon 
territory? was significant only in its unexpectedness. It was 
forced upon the ballot by the very recent decision of the Su- 
preme Court against the decision of the election commis- 
sioner-- to keep it off the ballot a year ago. In view of the war 
emergency prohibition coming into effect July 1 and the con- 
stitutional amendment perpetuating the country-wide pro- 
hibitory policy, the drys made no organized effort to support 
the local issue, while the wets massed their whole force against 
it. The result, which they expect to exert influence on Con- 
gress, was a wet vote of 391,460, and a dry of 144,032. The 
wets carried every ward, 80 per cent of the men and 57 per 
cent of the women who voted on the proposition voting against 
prohibition. In only six wards a majority of the women voters 
voted dry. The Union Liberty League commenting on the 
result declares that 

Chicago has spoken in tones that will ring in the ears of those 
subservient lawmakers who have so cravenly surrendered the liberty 
of American citizens. There will be no let-up until fanaticism has 
been completely overthrown. This is the message Chicago sends to 

On the other hand the Dry Federation officials express satis- 
faction in the vote polled without any organized effort or 
publicity on its part upon a local issue now considered irrele- 
vant and dead. They add : 

The question is no longer a debatable one. Any community or 
organization which continues agitation against prohibition will be 
guilty of a woeful lack of patriotism, and any attempt to nullify- 
any part of the Constitution of the United States will certainly be 


AN unusual meeting of the Detroit Social Workers' Club 
with an attendance of over 200 was held on March 31 
to consider the character of case work done in the City 
of the Straits. The Research Bureau, affiliated with the As- 
sociated Charities and with the Community Union, for three 
years has been making a survey of so-called " trouble " cases, 
i. e., families registered by five cr more agencies with the 
Registration Bureau. The study included 752 families, and 
4,635 records were consulted in 51 different agencies. The 
conclusions were presented by Prof. Arthur Evans Wood of 
the Department of Sociology of the University of Michigan, 
v ho has collaborated with Harry L. Lurie, director of the 
Research Bureau, in the preparation of the material. The 
findings of the study indicate the pressing need for better case 
work standards in Detroit. Professor Wood emphasized that 
though the study showed that many social ills cannot be met 
by case work, nevertheless there were many deficiencies which 
could be met by an improvement in the standards of social 
workers and of agencies themselves. Full use is not being 
made of the Psychopathic Clinic, of health clinics of various 
kinds, and of the Registration Bureau. The necessity of care- 
ful analysis of family difficulties is frequently disregarded and 
ill-considered treatment results. The social agencies are often 
at fault by failing to recognize the need for trained workers. 
Other agencies who recognize this need find it difficult to 
secure an adequate staff. Professor Wood concluded by stress- 

ing that improvement in case work is an obligation and an 
opportunity of reconstruction. One immediate result of this 
unique effort at self-analysis is found in the appointment of a 
representative Consultation Committee affiliated with the Com- 
munity Union to meet weekly to consider present methods of 
case work in Detroit and to help in their improvement. The 
study itself will shortly be published. 


ELECTION returns from some of the towns and cities 
in the Middle West seem to indicate that the young 
Labor Party has made an impression on the voters. In 
Topeka, Kansas, their candidate for mayor was defeated by 
only 44 votes, while three of their candidates for city com- 
missioners were elected. All the Labor Party candidates for 
members of the board of education were elected in Kansas 
City, Kansas, and the mayoralty was lost by a fraction more 
than one per cent of the total vote. Almost the entire labor 
ticket was successful at Ft. Madison, Iowa, only two offices 
being reported in doubt. In Chicago, the 55,000 votes re- 
ceived have given the officials of the organization confidence 
that the three-month-old party will live. Emphasis was placed 
on including " both workers with hands and workers with 
mind " in the term " labor " and on a thoroughgoing recon- 
struction platform. The next step in Illinois is the organiza- 
tion of a state labor party. The State Federation of Labor 
voted ten to one in favor of it and the convention is to be held 
at Springfield April 10-12. 


THE outstanding feature of the jubilee convention of the 
National American Suffrage Association, held in St. 
Louis, March 24-29, was the creation of a new organi- 
zation, the League of Women Voters. It will be temporarily 
an auxiliary of the older body, composed of state leagues of 
two classes, of women " citizens " in non-suffrage states, of 
women " voters " in suffrage states. By the time of the next 
convention in February, 1920, it is hoped that the federal 
amendment will have been passed and that the new league can 
then take over and give a slant to the present association. The 
league is to be strictly non-partisan, non-sectarian and non- 
militant in its organized work. Its strength will be used, ac- 
cording to Carrie Chapman Catt. president of the association, 
"not to punish [political parties], but to get inside to formu- 
late their policies." It will " secure protection in their right 
to vote to the women citizens of the United States by appro- 
priate national and state legislation, and . . . increase the 
effectiveness of women's votes in furthering better govern- 

Service, not partisanship, is the present temper of the women 
who belong to the association. Their spirit is indicated by 
their adoption with practically no changes of the recommen- 
dations of Mrs. Raymond Robins, of the National Women's 
Trade Union League, as the working program for the new- 
league in its protection of women in industry. Her sugges- 
tions were : 

Abolition of child labor, and compulsory education of all children 
to the age of sixteen years. 

Eight-hour day and weekly day of rest. 

Abolition of night work for women and minors except in cases of 
rare emergency. 

Minimum wage commissions.. 

Equal pay for men and women doing equal work. 

Insurance against sickness, accident, and unemployment, and pro- 
vision for old age and invalidity pensions and maternity benefits. 

Right of workers to organize and to bargain collectively through 
their chosen representatives. 

System of public employment bureaus. 

Adequate appropriation and inspection force in each state depart- 
ment of labor and a special bureau of women of industry in each. 

International labor commission. 



Eight standing committees were created for the league and 
chairmen appointed: Industry, Mrs. Robins; Child Welfare, 
Julia C. Lathrop; Unification of Laws, Catherine Waugh 
McCulloch ; Food Supply and Demand, Mrs. Carl Barus; Re- 
search, Mary Sumner Boyd; Citizenship, Elections, and Social 
Morality, with chairman yet to be appointed. These commit- 
tees are instructed to familiarize themselves with their sub- 
jects and to publish and issue literature to the league members. 

The association adopted twelve resolutions among them 
being: the passage of the suffrage amendment by the sixty-sixth 
Congress; the establishment of a national department of educa- 
tion ; endorsement of a league of nations " to secure a world- 
wide peace based upon the immutable principles of justice;'' 
urging of the government " to bring about the prompt redress 
of all legitimate grievances, as the removal of the sense of in- 
justice is the surest safeguard against revolution by violence;" 
the endorsement of physical education of children and of the 
educational campaign for social morality; the establishing of 
the Woman in Industry Service as a permanent bureau in the 
Department of Labor; the urging that the government in its 
next census be asked to classify the unpaid women housekeepers 
as home makers, " thus recognizing their important service to 
the nation." 

Readers of the article by Florence Kelley, The Consumer and 
the Near Future, in the Survey for April 5, will be interested 
to know that the League of Women Voters went on record as 
supporting " the Federal Trade Commission in its efforts to 
secure remedial legislation in the meat-packing industry." 


IN 191 7 the National Child Labor Committee made an 
intensive survey of child welfare conditions in Oklahoma. 
This survey covered many fields: recreation, education, 
child labor, the child in agriculture, juvenile delinquency, and 
poor relief. Oklahoma is a new state and whatever legisla- 
tion there is on these subjects is comparatively progressi\ e. 
A study was furthermore made of the laws dealing with the 
general protection of the rights of the child and parent. The 
entire report revealed many discrepancies in existing laws. 
For instance, it was found that the compulsory education law- 
provided for no means of its enforcement. The child labor 
law and education law contradicted each other. A child had 
to attend school until he was sixteen, but he could secure 
working papers at fourteen. A law creating juvenile courts 
made no provision for probation officers to handle juvenile 
cases. Juvenile offenders were kept in the city or county jail 
until their cases might be disposed of, because of the lack of 
provision for separate quarters. 

Following up its work, the National Child Labor Com- 
mittee sent a special agent to the Oklahoma legislature when 
it convened this year. With the cooperation of the State 
Federation of Women's Clubs, the State-Wide Welfare 
League, and several other social agencies, eleven bills were 
drawn by Henry G. Snyder, an attorney of Oklahoma Citj 
and state adviser of the National Child Labor Committee. 
Out of this program of twelve, five bills were finally passed. 
The life of the compulsory education bill serves as an 
illustration of the routine which such bills as had the 
fortune to pass went through. The act provided for the 
appointment of a county truancy officer by the county superin- 
tendent of public instruction. It raised the age at which 
children must attend school from sixteen to eighteen years 
unless the eighth grade of school had been completed or 
working papers secured. Introduced with the rest of the 
program it was referred to the Education Committee, com- 
posed of three schoolmen and four farmers. The bill origi- 
nally provided for compulsory attendance during the 1 
school term — the old law required attendance for but two- 
thirds of the term. But at the committee hearing, at which 
only one-half of the members were present, objections were 
immediately raised to the full-term session on the ground of 
needing child " hands " during the cotton season. The 

amendment was dropped. For many moments it seemed as 
though the fate of the bill would be disastrous. Finally it 
was placed upon the calendar. There it rested, one day 
mysteriously pushed to the head of the list, the next shifted 
back to the foot. On the first day of the last week of the legis- 
lature, it was taken up, passed by the Senate with little dis- 
cussion and sent to the House. The secret of this rapid-fire 
action was much buttonholing by the workers — \oters — back- 
ing the child welfare bills. Here the bill relived its Senate life. 
It soon became evident that its passage w !<1 be a last hour 
affair. At five o'clock on the day of adjournment it was 
called up for discussion. Many argument- were presented 
in opposition and, when the roll was called, it lacked three 
votes for a constitutional majority. The sponsor of the bill 
in the House became excited. He had kept tab of the ayes 
and nays and knew what was happening. S h c arose, 

stalked out, and a few seconds later brought back three 
representatives from the hall. They shouted "Aye" — and 
the compulsory education bill passed. 

In like manner was passed the act providing for the crea- 
tion of a Children's Code Commission b\ the governor for 
the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing and revising 
laws pertaining to children. A bill prohibiting the sale and 
dispensing of narcotic drugs, wheh was included in the child 
welfare program at the request of the Council of Defense 
because of their problems with drug addicts, also ran the 
gauntlet successfully. An interesting feature figuring in the 
passage of this bill was the exhibition of a number of " dope 
fiends " to both houses in session — and a sort of living moving 
picture of how drugs are taken. An act providing for the 
licensing and supervision of maternity hospitals by the state 
Department of Health, and an amendment to an existing 
statute making a man guilty of misdemeanor who is an 
habitual drunkard, or who abandons or neglects to support 
his family, were both passed. 

A child labor bill raising the age at which children may be 
employed from fourteen to sixteen years, and regulating the 
age at which children might sell newspapers, died on the 
Senate calendar. Its brief career was a stormy one for it 
was twice accidentally " lost," then substituted and amended, 
and in spite of all failed to survive. A bill creating count) 
Boards of Public Welfare to take charge of the health and 
social welfare of rural communities; one, prescribing the use 
of silver of nitrate solution for new-born infants' eyes; an- 
other, prescribing the support of children born in or out of 
wedlock; another raising the age of majority of females to 
that of males ; and another prohibiting the natural or foster 
parent of an infant child from injuring said child — all these 
either died on the calendar or were " killed " in discussion. 
An act providing for the recovery of damages for prenatal 
injuries was killed in the House committee — after passing 
the Senate — through the zeal of railroad attorneys. 


THE people who gathered on March 6 at the Cannon- 
street Hotel in London and " packed the great hall 
to suffocation " to take part in forming a national 
Middle Classes Union, for the most part came from the sub- 
urbs and wore pretty decent clothes, though, according to the 
speeches made and vigorously applauded, one might have 
thought that the working classes and the bureaucrats between 
them had not left the shirts on their backs. According to 
Bernard Shaw, a middle-class man may be defined as a man 
who would refuse anything less than a five-pound fee. There 
were at this meeting, however, men — and women, far more 
women than men — who obviously did not aspire so high. 
There were also modestly proclaiming themselves as middle- 
class some whom we should have placed higher on the sociar 
scale: Sir E. Marshall Hall, K. C, M. P. (who occupied 
the chair), and the bishop of Birmingham, the mayor of 
Westminster, Dean Inge, Sir Arthur Pinero, Sir James Barrie, 
Sir A. Conan Doyle, George Robey (the comedian), Arnold 



Bennett, Commander Locker-Sampson, Pett Ridge, and others 
equally well known. 

Kennedy Jones, member of Parliament for the London 
borough of Hornsey, was the chief spokesman. Everyman 
suggests rather unkindly that he " intends to challenge Mr. 
Bottomley's claim [Bottomley is the editor of John Bull, that 
vigorous " democratic " tory weekly] to be the Spartacus of 
the middle classes." Anyhow, his bid for leadership in the 
organization which he has formed is undisputed and success- 
ful; for, two days after the inaugural meeting was held, he 
printed an advertisement in the Observer to announce that 
" Owing to the quite extraordinary number of applications 
received, it is still not possible to keep pace with all inquiries," 
and that " Letters are being dealt with in rotation." 

The main arguments advanced for the formation of this 
union were the " threat of bureaucratic and industrial 
tyranny"; the passage of laws prejudicial to the middle 
classes; to widen the basis of income taxation in a downward 
direction; to counteract unreasonable strikes by counter- 
organization ; to counter-strike ; to assist in preventing profiteer- 
ing; to "compel cooperative societies to pay income tax" [it 
was the taxation of their assumed " profits " as income which 
has driven these societies into politics] ; to insure recognition 
of the public as a third party in trade disputes; to secure " the 
right to live." Among the methods proposed are propaganda; 
exercise of pressure; watchful scrutiny of all proposed legis- 
lation ; support by legal action of the interests of members 
in cases raising a general principle affecting the middle classes ; 
the formation of local branches in every parliamentary division 
of the kingdom; the formation of expert committees on na- 


This drawing, reprinted from the English magazine. 
Maternity and Child Welfare, represents the war 
veteran as asking that care be given to cradles as well 
as to crutches. " We would appeal again to the 
young women of our nation who possess leisure and 
education not to sink back into the environment of 
careless enjoyment from whence they have emerged. 
We ivould urge them to give their time, their energv 
and their ability to the regeneration of the race." 

tional problems, such as income tax, labor disputes, education, 
alien immigration, housing, election of candidates to public 
bodies, general industrial problems; and, finally, the strike. 
They could, said Mr. Jones, refuse to serve strikers or their 
families or the employers with goods or professional services ; 
they could insist on the enforcement of contracts invalided 
by lightning strikes — in other words, they could, by standing 
together, translate a widespread middle-class sympathy with 
either one or the other side an industrial dispute by taking 
sides with it against the other. 

The union which has taken an office in the aristocratic 
St. James's neighborhood, is indicative less of a new class- 
consciousness than of a new tendency to political sub-division 
in England where the party labels " liberal " and " unionist " 
have, under present conditions and with the present constella- 
tion of party leaders, become well-nigh meaningless. 


DR. JACQUES BERTILLON, in Le Matin for Feb, 
ruary 17, gives a careful estimate of the manpower loss 
of France during the war. To the 1,071,300 fallen 
and 314,000 "disappeared" accounted for by the army, he 
adds 883,160, the excess of deaths over births in the five years 
1913-1917. This last figure, however, refers only to 77 de- 
partments; no one knows what the mortality has been in the 
invaded regions. Estimating the losses for 1918, he comes 
to the conclusion that on a conservative basis the war cannot 
have cost France less than three million lives and potential 
lives. At the end of 1919, he predicts, it will be found that 
the population of France will have shrunk to 39 million, 
some four or five million of these foreigners, indicating a 
war-time loss equalling the total population of the five de- 
partments in Normandy and two more. The worst of it is 
that the birth rate cannot possibly recover rapidly, whatever 
measures are taken to encourage child rearing. Moreover, 
this decline only signifies the increase of a tendency in exist- 
ence before the war and analogous to a similar decline in 
other countries. But even in comparison with these the 
prospect for France is appalling, as the following table shows: 

Births Per 1000 Population 

1911-13 1915-16 

France 19 10 

England and Wales 24 21 

Netherlands 2X 26 

Denmark 26 24 

Norway 29 25 

Sweden 24 21 

Spain 31 29 

German cities with more than 15,000.. 28 17 

The only thing to do, says Dr. Bertillon, quoting a state- 
ment made by the great sociologist, Jules Simon, before his 
death, is " to adopt all the proposed remedies to make sure 
that we do not leave out one that might be efficacious." 




WONDERFUL spirit— fraternal, reverent, for- 
ward-looking — a spirit worthy of America's great 
past and greater future," writes Charles Frederick 
Weller, " animated Chester's League of Nations at the Edg- 
mont Theater on Sunday afternoon and gave to this interna- 
tional assembly spiritual values that elude description." The 
event was announced by the War Camp Community Service 
as an international rally, and the intention, emphasized in 
speeches by Governor Sproul and by the mayor and other 
local leaders, was that of proving that Americanization and 
internationalization were not hostile and mutually exclusive 
but rather parallel aims. Each group — Italians, Poles. 
Greeks, Russians, Belgians, French, Welsh — consisted of 
some thirty or forty men, women and children, dressed most 
of them in their national costume, and as it appeared was 
introduced by its leader to the spirit of Chester with the 
words: " I bring you some of my people, their loyalty, art 
and labor." 


A Department of Practice 


TO every secretary of a charity or- 
ganization society, every commis- 
sioner of public charities, and every other 
person who occupies a strategic position 
among the social agencies of his city, 
we commend most earnestly Dr. Rubin- 
ow's article on A Dependency Index in 
this issue and also his longer exposi- 
tion of the same subject in the Economic 
Review for December. 

The value of having a statistical de- 
vice for expressing both accurately and 
simply the trend in the total amount of 
dependency in a city or in a state or in 
a country needs no argument. Dr. Rubi- 
now's experiment in constructing one 
for New York city deserves the most 
careful consideration. The idea has not 
been patented, and wh'le some of us 
may wonder why it had not occurred 
to us long ago there is nothing to pre- 
vent its being adopted and utilized now 
by anyone to whom it commends itself. 
It is incomprehensible that the New 
York index should have been allowed to 
lapse with a change of administration. 
Pending arrangements for national 
supervision — which would of course be 
desirable — there is no reason why cities 
should not independently begin to build 
up their local indices, wherever there is 
any organization or individual suf- 
ficiently interested to undertake it. Such 
local experimentation would in fact be 
of the greatest value as a preliminary 
stage, as well as being immediately pro- 
ductive of useful results to the localities 
which might be the pioneers. 

While admitting with the humility 
becoming to a "layman " that " statistics 
is an independent discipline, in which 
some deference is due to the opinion of 
the trained man as against that of an 
amateur, " nevertheless it would seem 
that there is room for discussion — by 
the amateurs who must of necessity be 
responsible for collecting the raw mate- 
rial out of which the statistical index is 
fabricated — in regard to the details of 
the plan. Dr. Rubinow tells us that he 
consulted " several " leading statis- 
ticians on the difficult technical problem 
of how to combine into one general in- 
dex the various indices for the separate 
groups of facts, and that " most of 
them " favored one or the other of two 
alternatives. If there is as much dif- 
ference of opinion as that among the 
experts, it may not be presumptuous for 
laymen to put their minds on even the 
technical aspects of the problem. They 

will certainly be competent to advise 
the statisticians as to the relative value 
of the various series of facts which 
should be included in the index; and it 
is essential that they should have an un- 
derstanding interest in the undertaking, 
in order that the basic records may be 
kept in such a way as to give a true pic- 
ture of the conditions they reflect. 

The construction of an index for a 
single organization could not but result 
in an improvement in that organization's 
records, unless the work were done 
mechanically, without inquiring into the 
explanation of discrepancies and the 
meaning of changes in the curve. In the 
same way, a general dependency index 
for a city would be the greatest con- 
ceivable stimulus to the standardization 
and development of statistics of depend- 
ency and relief. Incidentally, such an 
enterprise would promote acquaintance 
among the various agencies of the city 
from a new point of view. Just as Ken- 
neth Grahame's little boy had to ex- 
amine his chance acquaintance on the 
Roman Road all over again, from the 
buttons on his coat to his dusty shoes, 
when he learned that he was an artist, 
and not merely a man, so we might find 
that a society with which we were quite 
familiar as one to call upon for a certain 
kind of service would take on a new in- 
terest when we discovered that its " an- 
nual cycle " had a very different con- 
figuration from that of our own 

We shall be glad to make room in 
these columns for pertinent discussion of 
Dr. Rubinow's device, and for accounts 
of other experiments which may have 
been made for the same purpose. 

E. T. D. 


THE Central Branch of the Y.M.C.A. 
in Philadelphia in January issued 
a program of conferences for leaders of 
information bureaus in associations and 
other civic organizations likely to be 
brought into close contact with return- 
ing soldiers. On thinking out the prob- 
lems these men have to face, it appeared 
that few people would be qualified to 
answer such questions as they would 
raise. Hence the program was arranged, 
primarily, to give information — con- 
cerning war risk insurance, compensa- 
tion, allotments and allowances, con- 
cerning employment in civil service and 
in private occupations, concerning home 
responsibilities, educational opportuni- 

ties, both for normal and disabled men — 
and many other important topics. 

In spite of hearty commendation of 
this enterprise by members of the In- 
struction Draft Board and of leading 
social workers, it has fallen entirely flat. 
William O. Easton, secretary of the 
branch, who himself was largely respon- 
sible for this venture explains the fail- 
ure as follows: 

Leaders do not like to be told — they want 
information but prefer to get it in a different 
way. Giving information is bad modern 
pedagogy. It does not interest or draw out 
the students. Generalities are usually more 
attractive to the modern mind than hard 
facts. Doing a concrete task usually appeals 
more to practised men than the planning of 
a larger program. Conferences have been 
overworked. People now want to settle down 
to their routine tasks. 

Perhaps one might add : The practice 
of disguising lecture courses under the 
name of " conferences " and of getting 
people together under such wrong pre- 
tence has brought its own punishment ; 
it has become more difficult, in conse- 
quence of it, to get attendances even 
at genuine conferences where the inten- 
tion is not merely that of talking at 
people but to draw them out. 


LOUISVILLE has discovered anew 
this winter that it is not necessary 
for a city to have beggars unless it wants 
them, just as New York discovered it 
for a brief period ten or fifteen jears 
ago, when James Forbes and his staff 
in the Charity Organization Society 
had the cooperation of the Police 

About a year ago a new city admin- 
istration came into office in Louisville, 
with a police department that was inter- 
ested in cleaning up the city. The newly 
formed Welfare League saw a favorable 
opportunity for attacking the mendi- 
cancy problem, and at the suggestion of 
E. Douglas Roberts, then superintend- 
ent of the Associated Charities, who has 
since died in the naval service, a com- 
mittee was appointed to study the situa- 
tion. Chief Petty of the Police Depart- 
ment assigned two plain-clothes men to 
round up all the beggars on the down- 
town streets, and the committee then 
made a case-by-case study of them, find- 
ing, as usual, that begging was not the 
ideal way for any of them to get a liv- 
ing. It was estimated that the amount 
contributed to beggars by the charitable 
public was at least $15,000 a year. In 





Two postcards addressed to " Help-Your-City-Suggestion-Box" are 

attached to this drawing sent out widely by the Toronto Bureau 

of Municipal Research in an appeal for the cooperation of citizens with 

city departments by practical suggestions or complaints 

its report to the chief of police the com- 
mittee began by saying that it had been 
" impressed with two ideas," viz. : 

1. That none of these mendicants need 
be on the streets when other resources either 
in the shape of work or of care by accredited 
social agencies are available. 

2. That the solution of the mendicancy 
problem, which is so harmful both to the 
mendicant and to the community, lies very 
largely in the hands of the police. They 
alone can enforce the city ordinance which 
states that it shall be unlawful for any 
person or persons within the limits of the 
city of Louisville, Ky., to beg for alms or 
to solicit charity for himself or others as a 
business; or the other city ordinance which 
states that it shall be " unlawful for any per- 
son or persons without visible means of sup- 
port, or who cannot give a satisfactory ac- 
count of himself, herself, or themselves, to 
loaf, congregate or loiter upon, along, in or 
through the public streets, thoroughfares, or 
highways of the city of Louisville, or for 
such person or persons to beg or solicit alms 
in the streets or on the highways of the 
city of Louisville." 

The committee pledged the help of the 
social agencies of the city in finding work 
for the able-bodied mendicants, provid- 
ing pensions or institutional care for 
those who needed such assistance, and 
otherwise cooperating with the police. 
Notations on all the individuals who had 
been investigated were included in the 
report, with the comment, " You will 
note . . . that in no instance is 
there real need for begging. Community 
resources are . . . sufficient to care 
adequately for all cases which have come 
to hand or are likely to appear." 

Following the publication of this re- 
port, and in consequence of the result- 

ing cooperation of the police, there was 
a great improvement in the situation. 
There were still, however, a number of 
blind beggars whom the police seemed 
unable to dispose of. Accordingly, last 
fall Elwood Street, director of the Wel- 
fare League, took up the question again 
with Chief Petty, promising again that 
care would be provided for all beggars 
who were not capable of self-support, if 
only the police would prevent them from 
plying their illegal but profitable pro- 
fession. Following this, Mr. Street met 
the police of the city in the various dis- 
tricts, explaining to them the reasons for 
enforcing the law in this respect and the 
futility of almsgiving as a method of 
helping these individuals. The gist of 
these talks was embodied in the follow- 
ing departmental order to police captains : 

Observe the following rules in ridding the 
city of beggars, as begging on the streets of 
Louisville is forbidden by ordinance. 

If the offenders are women and men not 
citizens of Louisville, give them notice to 
leave the city. 

If they are able-'nodied men and women 
residents of this city, warn them to go to 
work at once. 

If infirm or crippled in any way, or other- 
wise unable to support themselves, observe 
the following rules: 

(1). It homeless men, send for lodg- 
ing and meals to i he Salvation Industrial 
Home, 330 Easi Chestnut street, or to 
the Hope Rescue Mission, 808 West Jef- 
ferson street. 

(2). If homeless women, send to Sal- 
vation Army, 216 West Chestnut street, 
or to Union Gospel Mission, 114 East 
Jefferson street. 

(3). If man or woman claiming to 
have a family in Louisville, send to As- 

sociated Charities, 215 East Walnut 


If your orders are not obeyed the first 
time, on the second offense make arrest. 

These recommendations apply either to ac- 
tual beggars, or to those using the playing 
of a musical instrument or the fake selling 
of shoe strings or pencils as a blind (does 
not apply to newspaper venders). 

Whenever in doubt as to what action to 
take, get in touch with the Associated Chari- 
ties or call this office and we will make 
report to them. 

Mr. Street writes that at the present 
time most professional mendicants are 
giving Louisville a wide berth, and all 
of Louisville's resident beggars are out 
of sight, either at work or being cared 
for properly. 


AFTER twenty-four years of grind- 
ing out hymn tunes on a battered 
fiddle and collecting contributions from 
the passersby in a tin cup strapped to his 
knee, Louisville's best known blind beg- 
gar is now earning an honest forty dol- 
lars a month in the broom shop of the 
Kentucky Institute for the Blind. This 
is not nearly as much as he "made " on 
the street, for he usually took in from 
fifteen to thirty dollars a week in his 
tin cup; and it may be that he misses the 
society of the streets and the element of 
adventure which colored his former 
mode of securing a livelihood. It will 
be interesting to see whether he keeps 
contented in his enforced reversion to a 
" normal " position in the community. 

Twenty-four years ago this man was 
a laborer in the street-cleaning depart- 
ment. His vision was defective, but he 
was self-supporting. Triplets were born, 
however, who proved to be the begin- 
ning of a life of mendicancy. They 
were named for three local politicians, 
each of whom promptly sent a handsome 
gift in recognition of the attention. The 
story was exploited in the newspapers. 
Well-intentioned citizens showered the 
triplets with gifts. The father retired 
from the street-cleaning department, took 
up the cup and fiddle, and became a pros- 
perous mendicant. 

As a result of the investigations made 
by the committee of the Welfare 
League, the police last fall ordered him 
from the street and sent him to the As- 
sociated Charities, which had theretofore 
been unable to do anything helpful for 
the family because the plentiful alms 
which fell into the cup had made them 
scornful of suggestions of work. It was 
found that there were nine persons liv- 
ing in three unsanitary rooms. One of 
the famous triplets was in the army, 
and forty dollars a month was coming 
in allotments and allowances on his 
count for his two children and depend- 
ent father. A daughter who was living 
at home with her two children con- 
tributed twenty dollars a month. In ad- 
dition, assistance was given occasionally 



by four churches with which different 
members of the family had providently 
established relations. 

The visitor from the Associated Char- 
ities got a job' for the blind beggar in 
the Institute for the Blind and moved 
the family into decent quarters, nearer 
the broom shop and farther away from 
the seductions of the familiar down-town 
streets. The only cost to the community 
has been the time of the visitor. 

Another blind beggar affected by this 
cleaning up of the city was a woman of 
forty-five, whose legal residence was in 
Columbus. Columbus had already 
cleared its streets of beggars, and had 
provided a pension for this woman which 
was enough for her to live on. Her 
scheme of life since this arrangement 
was made has been to collect her pen- 
sion in Columbus, and then pass the rest 
of the year in a begging tour which 
took in Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and 


I T is often thought that it may be wise 
for rural churches to engage in a 
number of social and educational activi- 
ties only indirectly related to the prime 
object of these churches, but that in 
cities there is so great a variety of agen- 
cies for the pursuit of every social pur- 
pose that such intimate participation of 
the churches in the task is not necessary. 
There are, however, many urban com- 
munities in which industrial interests are 
so predominant and in which the pro- 
fessional and educated classes are so 
small in proportion to the working class 
population that the normal nuclei for 
cultural and educational movements are 
almost non-existent. The duty of the 
churches here to participate in, even to 
inaugurate, enterprises that make for the 
widening of the intellectual outlook and 
the raising of aesthetic enjoyments to a 
higher level is more and more recognized. 

An example of what a single church 
in such a community can accomplish 
in this matter is afforded by the Franklin 
Street Church in Johnstown, Pa., where 
the Rev. J. Lane Miller has instituted 
what he calls a " church university 
course " which, according to the local 
papers, is highly successful and appre- 
ciated. Johnstown has a large, cosmo- 
politan working class population. Un- 
til recently there has been no concerted 
or sustained effort to develop civic pa- 
triotism, and the conditions under which 
the majority of the people live are cer- 
tainly not inspiring. 

Mr. Miller started out by providing 
good music and by creating an oppor- 
tunity to discuss and understand some of 
the larger problems of the day, hoping 
in this way to lead on to an interest in 
more fundamental subjects. Classes are 
held on such subjects as Christian democ- 
racy for America, the Christian crusade 


HEALTH propaganda need not inevitably be a matter of medical terms, cheap 
paper and fine print unillustrated. Entertain, no matter how serious and dull 
your purpose, is the working principle of the Commission for the Prevention 
of Tuberculosis in France. An interesting example of their method is a " jeu de santr," 
from which these drawings are taken. Taken merely as a game it is good entertain- 
ment. It consists of sixty-three small pictures — stops — some penalties, some gains, 
across which the players move by the throw of dice. (Who is there who cannot recall 
the early delights of such games?) But there is a great deal of guile to this simple 
amusement. The "good" stops bear such mottoes as: A weekly bath; Sleep with open 
window; Eat at fixed hours; Walk in the fresh air; Brush your clothes. The "bad" 
stops say: No dirty houses; Do not expectorate on the ground; Do not drink alcohol. 
Tuberculosis is the heavy forfeit, the stop at which the player must start the whole 
game afresh- — and pay more attention to the health hints, this time. Thus, instructive, 
but not particularly entertaining homilies become the natural exclamation of children 
over their game. 

for world democracy, war's after- 
thoughts, France, the problems of recon- 
struction, social problems of Johnstown, 
the literary horizon, home nursing, our 
wild neighbors, and others. The classes 
are followed by a general assembly hour 
in which a lecture of general interest is 
given by some authority or good music 
is enjoyed. A small charge of admission 
is made, 25 cents for single attendances, 
and $1 for a whole course of six lectures. 
As a point of method, it is interesting 
to note that Mr. Miller is concentrating 
all his effort upon six weeks during which 
there are, apparently, over twelve dif- 
ferent courses held simultaneously, thus 
ensuring a large and inspiring total at- 
tendance. For a beginning, this short ses- 
sion of the church " university," con- 
sidering the mean< available and the ef- 
fort necessary, is undoubtedly preferable 
to a more ambitious all-the-year-round 
scheme, though this mav result from it 
later. B. L. 


THE Minnesota Public Health As- 
sociation has set July 1 as the time 
limit for the organization of all coun- 
ties in the state. To this end, a special 
financial inducement is held out. This 
complete voluntary organization for pub- 
lic health has for its purpose the plac- 
ing of the responsibility for local con- 
ditions where, in the first instance, it 
belongs — in other words, to get the 
local people to find out what these con- 
ditions are, to direct an educational 
campaign and ; take an interest and 
pride in the results accomplished. The 
following pan ulars of the county as- 
sociation w which should be sugges- 
tive to other states, are contributed at 
the Survey's request by Elizabeth Bray, 

director of the association's County As- 
sociation Division. 

Since 1915, demonstration n^rSeT have 
been sent by the association into eighty-four 
of the eighty-six counties of Minnesota, and 
-ome splendid work has been done. In many- 
instances it was the beginning of the em- 
ployment of permanent nurses. In other 
places the nurse's demonstration work was 
appreciated in the immediate community in 
which she worked, but sometimes the people 
at large would not even know of her pres- 
ence in their county. But now, if public 
health work is done within a county, it will 
be under the supervision of the county public 
health associations and with their full co- 

The county association has the usual ex- 
ecutive committee, with full power to trans- 
act business during the year (by telephone 
when road conditions or other important 
duties prevent a meeting in person). In all 
the associations a board of directors of from 
one to three members is appointed for each 
township. This makes the perfected asso- 
ciation more a rural organization than a city 
affair. Heretofore the cities have been for- 
tunate enough to have some public health 
work done, but the rural districts have been 
more or less neglected; and it is in the rural 
district that work of this kind is more gener- 
ally needed. 

In order to stir up enthusiasm we sent let- 
ters to as many people as possible, including 
most of the school boards, child welfare 
boards, Red Cross chapters, farm bureaus, 
county agents, home demonstration workers, 
public health workers, dentists, physicians, 
etc. These letters, of course, were not the 
same to all. We tried to appeal to each 
through his or her line or profession. As a 
result, we have heard favorably from every 
county in the state since beginning to urge 
organization, about the middle of December. 

We have offered to send a representative 
from this office free of expense to any county 
to talk on public health lines and to assist 
in the organization. About twenty-five coun- 
ties have organized. We have engagements 
for meetings in about twenty others, and mail 
is coming in daily, showing splendid activi- 
ties in the rest of the counties. 

Every association is organized with some 
definite aim in view, according to the need 
of that particular county, for the employ- 



ment of a school nurse, tuberculosis nurse, 
child welfare worker, etc. To start this work 
there has been given to each county a fund 
based on their Red Cross Christmas seal 
sale for 1917. 

The Minnesota Public Health Association 
has been instrumental in getting a very im- 
portant nurse bill passed this year, which 
permits the Board of County Commissioners, 
Village Council, etc., to appropriate the nec- 
essary amount of money for needed public 
health work. Many counties are planning to 
use the fund already appropriated to them 
by this state association to employ a nurse 
who will make a health survey, the object 
of which is to obtain statistics and actual 
facts to place before the county commissioners 
when asking for the necessary appropriation 
to continue the health work permanently. If 
the county association with its large rural 
board of directors backs the request for such 
an appropriation, on what ground could any 
county board of commissioners refuse? 

The greatest problem now is to obtain 
public health nurses. Minnesota is already 
clamoring for more nurses than can be sup- 
plied. The Minnesota Public Health Asso- 
ciation has been successful in making ar- 
rangements with our state university to give 
nurses a four months' course in public health 
work. We also have an expert in public 
health work who devotes most of her time 
to coaching the nurses who are working in 
a new field. There are now about thirty 
towns and six counties employing public 
health nurses. 

The Minnesota Public Health Association 
at the present time has eleven nurses on its 
staff, most of these doing demonstration work 
in the counties where it is necessary to create 
further interest in the value of public health 
work. A six weeks' " refresher " course is 
planned by this association, to be given to 
public health nurses this summer. 


CENTRALIZATION of all public 
health nursing activities; a 50 per 
cent increase in the number of public 
health nurses; a plan of cooperation 
among these forces, the city department 
of health, social agencies, and firms em- 
ploying industrial nurses; an annual 
budget of $50,000 — these are the results 
recently achieved by Pittsburgh in its 
effort to secure " 100 per cent nurs- 
ing service " for that city. This pro- 
gram was adopted at a recent mass meet- 
ing of citizens in Pittsburgh. 

The problem which Pittsburgh has 
solved is faced by many cities. Its so- 
lution is applicable to any other city 
seeking to evolve from many nursing 
agencies an adequate nursing service. 
Cities are as little likely as individuals 
to think of health until they are sick or 
until some alarming symptom shows it- 
self. Pittsburgh first realized that 
something vital was wrong when draft 
figures showed that nearly 50 per cent 
of Pennsylvania's young men were re- 
jected in the first draft because of physi- 
cal defects. The Child Welfare Com- 
mittee of the Woman's Division of the 
Allegheny County Council of National 
Defense took the initiative in seeking 
a solution for the problem indicated in 
these figures as early as last August. 
With the assistance of the superintend- 
ent of the local tuberculosis league the 

committee made a general survey of the 
situation. They concluded that baby 
weeks, infant welfare conferences and 
educational meetings, all of which had 
been and were being held, fell short of 
attaining the result needed because the 
city had no nursing force sufficient to 
back up and to follow up these efforts. 
Therefore it was decided to organ- 
ize a special committee on public health 
nursing, which might make a more in- 
tensive and more authoritative study of 
the situation before positive steps were 
taken. This committee secured one of 
the field workers of the National Organ- 
ization for Public Health Nursing 
whose report confirmed the committee's 
conclusion. The findings were then 
presented in detail to a mass meeting of 
citizens called by the Council of Na- 
tional Defense. At this meeting, a sec- 
ond committee was appointed and 
authorized to make a survey of Pitts- 
burgh's nursing agencies and their func- 
tions and to report back its recom- 
mendations. This committee represented 
not only the council but all other agen- 
cies concerned in the health problem of 
the city — the training school of the 
West Penn hospital, the local league of 
nursing education, the Tuberculosis 
League Hospital, the Civic Club, the 
medical school, the bureau of hygiene of 
the Board of Education, and the Coop- 
erative Welfare Association. Two 
physicians of the Health Department 
were asked to meet with the committee. 
Repeated consultations were held with 
the boards and committees of the vari- 
ous agencies employing public health 
nurses. An experienced organizer from 
the National Organization for Public 
Health Nursing was secured to direct 
the campaign. The report of this sec- 
ond committee stated: 

There are 83 public nurses in Pittsburgh, 
or at least there were last Friday. Under 
our present system it is difficult even to keep 
track of those who come and go. Of these, 
30 are employed by industrial plants or de- 
partment stores, and their work is confined 
chiefly to first aid within the plant. Thirty 
more are in the employ of the city, 12 being 
confined entirely to the Bureau of Infectious 
Diseases, and 18 being in the Bureau of 
Child Welfare — these are the nurses that 
care for the 111,000 children in the Pitts- 
burgh schools. In addition, they make all 
the midwifery inspections and give certain 
hours to the milk stations established through- 
out the city. 

The remaining 23 nurses are controlled by 
11 organizations. 

Other cities have found that a school nurse 
works best with about 1,500 children in a 
poor district, and perhaps twice that number 
in a better class neighborhood. That would 
mean about 50 nurses for our schools. We 
have 18. 

Our national authorities tell us that there 
should be a public health nurse to every 5,000 
of the population. That would mean 140 for 
Pittsburgh (in addition to the school nurses). 
We have 23. 

The war has taught us the necessity and 
the value of unified control, but our 83 
nurses are responsible to different authorities 
and there is no coordination. 

We have, in connection with our Pitts- 
burgh hospitals, some of the very best school* 
for nurses in the country, yet, because we 
have no public health nursing association, 
our local women who wish to enter this pro- 
fession must leave the city to study. 

What the committee proposed to ap- 
ply to the nursing situation in Pitts- 
burgh in order to remedy it was ordi- 
nary " business sense," which, they 
claimed, would show health dividends 
just as business sense in industry shows 
money dividends. Just as important, 
the committee also proposed to combine 
democratic methods with " business 
sense," and to stake the future of their 
program on its endorsement by a pub- 
lic mass meeting at which the facts 
gathered by the special committee might 
be made public and their plan explained. 
A publicity campaign was planned 
which, by news stories, leaflets and 
printed invitations to the meeting, 
aroused the interest of the general pub- 
lic. The meeting was well attended. 
Those who attended were keenly inter- 
ested in the report of the committee and 
approved its recommendations, which 
were : 

1. The establishment of a public health 
nursing organization in Pittsburgh. 

The plan of this organization shall be suffi- 
ciently comprehensive to permit of expansion 
throughout the county if needed, or to do 
emergency work such as involved in the 
recent influenza epidemic. 

2. This organization shall be guided by 
the standards of the National Organization 
for Public Health Nursing. 

3. It shall be governed by an adminis- 
trative board representative of the agencies 
and individuals interested in public health 

4. It shall develop a definite plan of co- 
operation with the Bureau of Child Hygiene 
and of Communicable Diseases of the De- 
partment of Health. It shall further develop 
a definite plan of cooperation with existing 
social agencies in the community. 

5. The director of the organization shall 
be a capable, thoroughly trained and experi- 
enced public health nurse. 

6. The initial organization shall contem- 
plate a division of the city into districts, with 
a central office downtown and a sub-station 
in each district. There shall be employed 
for the initial organization such graduate 
nurses in addition to the director as the work 
may require. 

7. A plan of coordination shall be devel- 
oped with the nurses' training schools of 
the local hospitals whereby their students 
may receive a period of three months' field 
work in public health nursing. 

8. The organization shall maintain a de- 
partment of hourly nursing. 

9. The organization shall initiate in each 
district such general visiting nursing as the 
local situation may necessitate. 

10. Industrial public health nursing shall 
be developed through a plan of operation 
whereby the organization renders home nurs- 
ing service to industrial or insurance com- 
panies on a pay-per-visit basis. 

The committee pointed out that this 
plan would necessitate the employment 
of from 30 to 40 additional nurses. .1 
number to be increased later, and an 
annual budget of approximately fifty 
thousand dollars. As an immediate meth- 



od of organization, the committee sub- 
mitted the following recommendations: 

1. That the general plan outlined 
above be endorsed by this meeting. 

2. That this committee be con- 
tinued as an organizing committee 
and be empowered to add to its mem- 
bership not less than five representa- 
tive citizens of Pittsburgh. 

3. That this enlarged committee 
be empowered to select the nucleus of 
the directorate of the new association. 
These directors are in turn to com- 
plete their own board, it being un- 
derstood that ultimately the entire di- 
rectorate shall be selected in some 
democratic and equitable manner by 
the contributors and members of the 

In this it is understood that we are 
unanimously committed to the policy of 
building up an independent organization, 
which shall maintain a neutral position 
as between any existing social agencies, 
and which shall be independent of the 
control of any one group. 


ON March 20, six weeks after the 
public meeting at which the Phila- 
delphia Society for Organizing Charity, 
with only enough money in sight to go 
on for two weeks more, placed its finan- 
cial situation before the social workers 
and the charitable public of the city 
[see the Survey for February 15], 
another meeting was held to hear the 
report of the committee appointed on 
the earlier occasion. 

The committee of representative citi- 
zens, consisting of John Hampton 
Barnes, chairman, Morris L. Clothier, 
Thomas J. Garland, George L. Harri- 
son, Jr., J. R. McAllister, John S. 
Newbold, Arthur W. Sewall, and Charl- 
ton Yarnall, had held eight meetings 
and had " been informed by statements 
made to it, by communications received 
by it, by an examination of the records 
of the society, and by the consideration 
of the reports made by other organiza- 
tions." Its report included a summary of 
the work of the S.O.C., a table show- 
ing the increase in its budget in the 
last six years and its present require- 
ments, and a brief statement about eight 
other organizations of Philadelphia 
which do work with families, with the 
conclusion that " each of these agencies 
has its separate and defined function, 
there is little overlapping and duplica- 
tion in them, all use the Registration 
Bureau whereby one agency is able to 
learn whether another agency is help- 
ing a family which has been reported to 
it." The movement for financial fed- 
eration of the charities of the city was 
referred to in the following paragraph: 

During the last year there has been a 
movement by the social agencies of the city 
for joint action in the raising of funds and 
in the further development of cooperation 



Adapted from plan for Ridley Park, Pa., by John Nolen 




Toiun and City Planner, Cambridge, Mass. 

1. The new standards of the federal government make the group house a more 
desirable solution of the housing problem for the following reasons: 

a. The required space between houses has been increased to 20 feet. 

b. The higher sanitary standards for public utilities have increased the cost 
per front foot to perhaps $50. 

c. There is an increased use of permanent materials for the exterior walls. 

d. The requirement that row or group houses shall not be more than two 
rooms deep has removed one of the principal objections and has made the 
group house a much more acceptable type. 

e. The skill of architects in design has made the group house fully as at- 
tractive, if not more attractive, from the point of view of appearance than the 
small detached or even semi-detached single family house. 

2. The group house involves a solution of the alley problem. What are the 

a. To lay out a regular alley at the rear of the lot, which under the new 
government standards must be public and at least 12 feet wide. 

b. To ignore the necessity for service arrangements altogether and trust to 
the householder to work out his own salvation somehow. 

c. To provide some suitable passage from the front street through or under 
every house, or between every two houses. This method has been worked 
out skillfully in recent housing developments of the government. 

3. The problem of individual ownership of the group house remains. Consider- 
ation should be given to: 

a. The influence of custom or prejudice in this matter. 

b. The objections on the part of many individuals to the ownership of a 
part of a building. 

c. A widespread American notion that the detached, free standing house is 
the only proper house for an American. 

in social work. In the autumn thirty-one 
different organizations agreed to enter a joint 
drive for funds. The Philadelphia Council 
of National Defense therefore appointed a 
special committee to help bring about feder- 
ation in social work. The movement, how- 
ever, has not advanced beyond that point. 

With reference to the S.O.C. the 
committee expressed the following 
opinion : 

1. The work of the society is essential to 
and should be supported by the community. 

2. The work is done by trained, experi- 
enced, and sympathetic workers. 

3. Its administration is economically con- 
ducted and the funds wisely applied. 

4. The name of the society should be 
changed to one more accurately expressing 
its activities. 

As a result of its investigations 
and deliberations the committee rec- 
ommended that 

1. The work of the Society for Organiz- 
ing Charity be permanently established. 

2. Pending the development and applica- 
tion of a plan directed to this end a fund of 
at least $150,000 be raised to continue the 

3. An organization with a new name 
be established. The Society for Organizing 
Charity should adopt the new name and 
other organizations be merged or allied 
with it or, a new charter having been ob- 
tained, the Society for Organizing Charity 
and other organizations should be taken over 
by the new organization and allied with it. 

4. The Society for Organizing Charity 
or the new agency should have a council and 
an executive committee. The council should 
be composed of representatives of the various 
business and social groups of the community, 
it should deal with the general policies of 
the society, arrange for financing the work, 
and give publicity to its activities. The ex- 
ecutive committee should be composed of 
active workers and should supervise the de- 
tails of the work, visit the central and the 
district offices, and generally direct the work 
through the offices. 

5. Upon the approval of this report, the 
committee be directed to appoint a coun- 
cil, which shall thereupon undertake the 
provision of the fund necessary to continue 
the work of the society, and shall take all 
steps necessary to carry out the other recom- 
mendations of this report, thereupon the com- 
mittee be discharged. 

Two things are clear: that the work 
of the Society for Organizing Charity 



must go on ; and that its name must 
pass into history. Just what is intended 
by paragraph 3 is not so plain. Possibly 
it moans different things, concretely, to 
different members of the committee; 
representing a common feeling that there 
should be closer affiliation among the 
agencies doing similar work, but prob- 
ably varying ideas as to the exact na- 
ture of the affiliation, as to which agen- 
cies should be allied, and as to whether 
the S.O.C. with a new name should 
be the coordinating medium, or a new 
organization which would coordinate 
the S.O.C. together with other agen- 
cies. At any rate, it seems evident that, 
in addition to what one of the news- 
papers calls the " rejuvenation of the 
central depositary," discussion is being 
directed toward more general questions 
of the organization of the charitable 
activities of the citv. 

The committee's report was approved. 
The council therein provided for will 
be organized without delay >and the 
campaign for raising $150,000 will be 
launched. Developments in the plans 
for organization may be expected, and 
they will be followed with interest, not 
only in Philadelphia, but also in other 
cities where the social agencies are feel- 
ing the effects of the reconstruction 
spirit. L. B. 


THE Juvenile Protective Association 
of Chicago, organized to safeguard 
the city's children, publishes a little fold- 
er listing interesting items of each 
month's work. The January bulletin, 
of which eight thousand copies were dis- 
tributed, reads as follows: 

3,500 copies of the annual report printed. 

468 complaints received during January, a 
125^ per cent increase over last January. 

Survev made of 39 police and detention 
stations to learn if children were being de- 
tained. At one station young children and 
notorious women offenders were said to be 
kept in the same room. Situation taken up 
with the chief of police. 

Investigated 30 cases of school children il- 
legally soliciting funds on tag days. Matter 
reported to superintendent of schools, who 
stated that instructions regarding law would 
be sent all school principals. 

Made study of 25 fortune tellers who ope- 
rated in violation of the law, in some of 
whose " parlors " children were found. Re- 
ports rendered chief of police, city prose- 
cutor and state's attorney. Two cases pend- 
ing in court. Campaign against fortune 
tellers instituted by police department. 

Twenty-five cabarets, saloons and ques- 
tionable hotels on North Clark street, where 
children were involved, investigated. Co- 
operation to remedy conditions secured from 
city prosecutor, 2nd deputy of police and 
Committee of Fifteen. 

Scores of street beggars who illegally plied 
their trade and whose actions were detri- 
mental to children, were observed. Accounts 
of these cases were forwarded municipal 

The annual epidemic of dealers selling 
cap pistols to children was taken up and a 

g.neral order to commanding officers was is- 
sued by the chief of Dolice to break up the 

A year-old baby girl needing medical care 
was removed from a house of prostitution 
and taken to a hospital, later to be placed in 
a good home. 

The case of a loop physician who made 
indecent proposals to young girls applying 
for positions was taken before the state 
board and his license revoked. 

The association with the Juvenile Court 
and the Department of Compulsory Educa- 
tion investigated boys' gangs, the members 
of which were alleged to have murdered 
their nine-year-old companion. As a result, 
recommendations were made looking to a 
more adequate recreational program, a more 
effective system of mental examinations,, and 
an improvement in living conditions. 

A disorderly boys' club, sponsored by a 
west side politician, was broken up, and at 
the request of the boys themselves arrange- 
ment were made for a new club which 
would meet at a social settlement. 

An intoxicated man, who annoyed an 11- 
year-old girl, was taken into court and fined 
$5 and costs. The girl's mother was in the 
hospital and her father was employed, leav- 
ing the children unprotected. Suitable care 
was secured for them until the mother was 
able to return. 

A guard on the "L" road who made im- 
proper suggestions to a young girl was re- 
ported to the company and removed from 
his position. 

Two saloonkeepers who sold whiskey and 
beer to 10-year-old boys, were each fined $20 
and costs. Prosecution of another saloon- 
keeper cost the offender $100. Four parents 
who sent girls as young as 7 years to the 
saloon for liquor were convicted and placed 
on adult probation. 

One man was arrested for non-support 
and abuse of his wite and four children and 
was sentenced to a year in the House of 
Correction. Another father with five chil- 
dren was alcoholic and was committed to the 
House of Correction for a year, with the 
recommendation that he be given the drink 

A " star boarder " in a family contributed 
to the delinquency of young children and 
was fined $50 and costs. The mother in the 
family was arrested on a similar charge and 
placed on probation for a year. 

Proceedings were instituted in behalf of 
three unmarried mothers and support for the 
children was ordered by the court to the ex- 
tent of $1,650 — the maximum amount per- 
mitted by the statute. 

One man who neglected his family was 
taken into court and ordered to pay $S.00 
per week towards their support. 

Three children from a home where the 
father was intemperate and the mother in- 
sane, were placed under the supervision of 
a juvenile protective officer. Work was 
found for the man and support secured for 
the children. 

In one family the father was in France 
and the mother was intemperate. The latter 
was committed to the House of Correction 
for the drink cure. Upon her release the 
association reestablished the mother in a 
new neighborhood with her children, and se- 
cured a position for her in which she is 
making good. 

An unmarried couple was reported who 
had lived together for years. The man was 
intemperate and abusive. Two lodgers tn 
the home complicated the situation. A 14- 
year-old girl was out of school and had no 
work certificate. Court action resulted in 
separating the couple and compelling the 
man to help support the family. The lodgers 
were evicted, the girl placed in school and 
the mother found suitable employment. 

A father whose mental condition menaced 
his children was brought to court, placed 
under the supervision of a specialist whosi 
instructions he is following, with the remit 
that the family situation is distinctly im- 

With the approval of the association, a 
wife deserter was released from the House 
of Correction on a $100 bond, and is now 
giving his family adequate support. 

Periodic drinkers in two homes, involving 
8 children, were straightened out by friendly 
contact of the officer, and are now working 
and taking good care of their families. 



Book Reviews 

Workmen's Compensation and Insurance 
By Durand Ilalsev Van Uoren. Moffat, 
Yard & Co. 332 pp. Price $2.00; by mail 
of the Survey $2.15. 

This is one of the most readable of the 
many new volumes on social insurance topics. 
It is a substantial book on an important sub- 
ject which few people understand. Happily 
it is not another noncommittal treatise, and 
the reviewer thereto, c rejoices that it inciden- 
tally won for its W'illams College author the 
David Ames Wells prize of $500. 

The " whirlwind '' adoption of the work- 
men's compensation principle in four-fifths 
of our states within eight years is briefly 
described, but most of the volume is devoted 
to " the judicial attitude," the insurance 
features and the requisites of an adequate 
law. The author concludes that an effective 
and satisfactory act should be compulsory 
because " simpler, more intelligible, less ex- 
pensive to administer, and more just because 
more uniform and certain.'' All employments 
should be covered. The scale of compensa- 
tion should be based on not less than two- 
thirds of wages. The waiting period during 

which no compensation is paid immediately 
following the injury — on the theory that this 
is necessary to discourage malingering as well 
as to relieve the administration of the burden 
and confusion of payments for trifling in- 
juries — should be reduced to three days. Ad- 
ministration should be by a special board 
and not by the courts. 

On these points most careful students of 
American workmen's compensation experience 
will not seriously disagree. But surely it was 
an oversight for the author to omit in this 
connection all mention of necessary medical 
care which is perhaps two-fifths of the total 
value of a workmen's compensation law. It 
would have been interesting also if in ad- 
dition to presenting a special chapter on 
Attitude of Labor the author had in- 
cluded similar treatment of the attitude of 
physicians and employers. 

The most noteworthy characteristic of this 
valuable hook is the critical discussion of the 
method of insurance best adapted to fulfill 
the purposes of accident compensation. Social 
workers and others who read the volume will 
appreciate the author's conclusions regarding 



"the venomous strictures of outraged private 
insurance " because of the refusal to tolerate 
the domination of " the great public field of 
compensation insurance by organizations hav- 
ing a pecuniary interest in the maintenance 
of high premium rates and the disallowance 
of claims." The author concludes that " in 
actual operation state insurance has given the 
lie to those who accused the theory of fatuity, 
and its administrators of corruption and in- 
efficiency." Moreover, " when the obligation 
to insure is compulsory on all employers, there 
is no economic justification whatever for the 
solicitation which is a concomitant of the 
competitive system." The final sentence of 
the book gives the author's firm conviction 
that "the American states, sooner or later, 
will be driven or persuaded to adopt com- 
pulsory state insurance laws as the only satis 
factory solution of the problem of compensa- 
lion to injured workmen." 

John B. Andrews. 

The Mayor's Committee on National 


Hall of Records, City of New York. 327 

pp.; illustrated. Free distribution. 

One picks up this large volume which 
gives an account of the work undertaken by 
the Mayor's Committee on National Defense 
and is impressed with the splendid 
workmanship displayed in the binding and 
bookmaking; an examination of the contents, 
however, shows a different standard within. 

The work of the committee is divided 
among twenty-five committees and ten bu- 
reaus, the committees to investigate condi- 
tions and the bureaus to carry out the work. 
Why it is necessary to have these two di- 
visions and the exact distinction between 
them is not explained. There are such sub- 
divisions as law, civics, labor, commerce, 
etc., but ii would seem as though some of 
them could be advantageously combined to 
simplify the machinery. Apparently there is 
a great deal of overlapping, for one finds the 
same thing described in different places. 

The description of the work is rather a 
theoretical analysis of what should and 
could be done in the future than an actual 
report of concrete results obtained in the past. 
There are a few exceptions, of course, but 
the Independence Day Pageant parade 
stands out as the only big achievement of 
the committee as a whole. There are occa- 
sional gems of wisdom such as this: "The 
attitude of the committee is one of sympathy 
towards every just demand of labor, and 
consequently its aim is to foster a patriotic 
attitude of labor towards the true interests 
of capital." 

G. L. E. 

La Natalite, Ses Lois Economiques et Psy- 


By Gaston Kageot. Ernest Flammarion, 

Paris. 300 pp. Paper bound. Price $1.10 ; 

by mail of the Survey $1.16. 

This is a brief but comprehensive discus- 
sion of the birth-rate based primarily upon 
conditions in Fiance but supplemented by 
many references to other countries, with short 
sketches of similar phenomena in ancient 

The author believes that fluctuations in the 
birth-rate cannot be isolated from the gen- 
eral conditions of the country, for these 
changes are but indications of the level of 
social welfare. The marriage rate is ade- 
quate but the marriages are sterile. The 
causes of this sterility are natural. The fall 
of the birth-rate varies in different parts of 
France. The change has been least in those 
communes least affected by modern indus- 
trial conditions. 

Many of the author's comments are very 
suggestive. He says that wealth has an in- 
direct effect only. " Wealth already ac- 
quired is unfavorable to the birth-rate, but 

wealth which may be acquired is favorable." 
That is, the struggle to acquire is beneficial. 
Capitalized wealth and misery are alike un- 
favorable. Changes in the birth-rate are due 
to changes in social ideals. The problem is, 
therefore, largely psychological. The family 
today is not adapted to its environment and 
does not function as it should, hence the fall 
in number of births. 

Having outlined this general position the 
author proceeds to indicate the effects of de- 
mocracy upon the family and to show the 
various influences which have had harmful 
results. He finds the solution not in sermons 
or resolutions but in the changing of condi- 
tions of life and labor which will make chil- 
dren assets rather than liabilities. He feels 
very hopeful for the future in France, for he 
thinks that the war lias shown the way out 
by the emphasis it put on woman's work. 
Now the movement is started and women are 
getting a vision of a productive life, and 
will desire to share in production, her possi- 
bilities are present. No longer will woman 
be sought for what wealth her dowry offers 
but rather because she brings to her husband 
the promise of cooperation in production. In 
the family thus reconstituted children will 
come again into their own. They will be 
welcomed, and the position of the head of 
the family will again be one of dignity. 
Then the birth-rate will rise again to 

While the author is often rather superfi- 
cial he is always interesting, and his su 
lions are worthy of consideration. 

Carl Kelsey. 

Mexico Today and Tomorrow 

By E. D. Trowbridge. Macmillan Co. 282 

pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey $2.10. 

At last we have a reasonably sane and 
fair book on Mexico. It is probable that 
never in history was so much miscellaneous 
misinformation circulated concerning any 
country as has during the last six years been 
put before the American people in regard 
to our nearest neighbor. The influences that 
in 1913 were in favor of the recognition of 
Huerta, who had betrayed and murdered his 
chief, President Madero, have continued so 
active and so persistent, and the ignorance of 
real conditions in Mexico on the part of the 
public in our country has been so general 
and so dense, that it had begun to look as 
though we should never again see the affairs 
of that country treated in a fair and per- 
spicacious manner. 

Magazine and newspaper articles were 
usually the work of hasty young men who in 
ignorance of the country's language, history 
and traditions had to depend on superficial 
impressions and on the testimony of others, 
usually their own countrymen and often as 
ignorant as themselves or deeply prejudiced. 
Their work has been, as a result, for the 
most part quite beneath notice except as 
serving still further to befog and baffle the 
public mind. 

The author of this book goes about the 
matter in another way. He has spent suffi- 
cient time in Mexico to acquire some knowl- 
edge of the language and to get a personal 
impression of the people. Of the events of 
the last three years, especially, his knowl- 
edge is manifestly intimate. He preserves, 
moreover, a judicial if sympathetic attitude 
and has no axe to grind. 

The book begin- with a rapid summary of 
Mexican history. This is based on good au- 
thorities, notablv on the Historia de Mexico 
of Don L<J'S P< ^ erdia. It is wanting in 
perspective and in analytical grasp of the 
meaning of events, but in the main is at least 
not misleading. Much the same may be said 
of the author's treatment of the years 1911 
to 1916. On the other hand, no' man who 
has written on Mexico has so well analyzed 
the Diaz regime or so clearly set forth the 

conditions to which it led. Another peculiar- 
ly excellent piece of work is his delineation 
of the humbler type of Mexicans, their vir- 
tues and their failings, found in the closing 
chapter of the book. 

Longer residence in the country would 
have kept him from so fully identifying the 
laborer or peon with the Indian. And his 
estimate of over 50 per cent of the total 
population as of pure Indian blood is far 
too high. That is about the correct figure 
for the mestizos or mixed bloods. Except in 
the case of a few isolated ti ibes it should be 
understood that Indians as such are in no 
way segregated or distinguished in Mexican 
life. The country has no race problem. 

The author employs Spanish phrases with 
much restraint. Their use is a favorite de- 
vice of the amateur who, if he dees not him- 
self get them wrong, is ably abetted by the 
American printers and proof readers. He 
cannot avoid a good many proper names, of 
course, and many of these meet the usual 
fate. Why is it that bad French or bad 
Latin would be considered a reflection on a 
reputable printing house, whereas Spanish is 
everybody's victim? Even Macmillan puts 
out a book like this with the Spanish words 
minus their proper accents as well as often 

There are a number of minor historical 
slips that future editions should remedy. One 
very stubborn error is still further propa- 
gated, namely that Porfirio Diaz was "of 
pure Indian blood." As a matter of fact he 
had but a slight infusion, an eighth or less, 
of which however he was quite proud as are 
all Mexicans, lie was not an Indian in type 
but a genuine Spanish conquistador, a rever- 
sion to the days of Ilernan Cortes and Fran- 
cisco Pizarro. 

The book is roughly chronological in its 
order but otherwise rather loosely put to- 
gether. Its temper is fair and sympathetic, 
and it is written in an easy if at times care- 
less style. Its total effect should be to serve 
as a welcome antidote for the newspaper 
slush with which for years now Hearst and 
others have inundated this country. 

G. B. Winton. 

The Young Wage-Earner 

Essays and reports edited by J. J. Findlay 
with the Committee of the Uplands Associ- 
ation. Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd., London. 
211 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $1.60. 

The backbone of this somewhat miscel- 
laneous collection of data and opinions on 
the education of working boys and girls is a 
carefully drawn up statement of the Uplands 
Association on part-time education. The 
whole subject has been made of the greatest 
practical importance by the passage of the 
English education act last year which makes 
attendance at continuation schools compul- 
sory for all young persons under sixteen 
years of age, and for most of those under 

The statement lays emphasis on the 
changed mental outlook of adolescents as 
compared with school children and on the 
need for more than casual interest in the in- 
dividual youth and girl who, they suggest, 
should be put under the care of a super- 
visor or tutor. Professor Findlay brings out 
that, in spite of all the public interest in clubs, 
boy scouts, and various religious organiza- 
tions, only one out of every five of the young 
people under eighteen years of age is in any 
kind of voluntary organization. It is sug- 
gested that officers of juvenile labor ex- 
changes may well become the supervisors 
asked for. 

Other demands are for reorganization of 
the two upper standards of the public school 
to fit in with the part-time instruction scheme 
that is to follow them; for a technical in- 
struction not primarily intended to increase 



the immediate wage-earning capacity of the 
youth, " but to enable him to find in his oc- 
cupation something more than wages;" for a 
suitable choice of teachers. 

Prof. James Shelley contributes an essay 
on the mentality of the young working girl 
and the decreasing influence of the home 
upon her outlook. Another article on the 
working girl is by the women's employment 
manager of a large manufacturing company 
who gives some valuable hints from her own 
experience on the kind of educational in- 
fluence that can and should be provided in 
the factory. 

The contributions of Professor Findlay 
himself are, as always, idealistic, optimistic 
and full of practical wisdom. It is encour- 
aging to gather from this little volume that 
there is in England a growing mutual under- 
standing and cooperation of those interested 
in youth from the angles of education, of the 
job, and of moral guidance. If the task of 
getting the young people of England to 
school under the new act is tackled in the 
spirit of the Uplands Association splendid 
achievements may be expected within a com- 
paratively short time. B. L. 

The Tragedy of Labor 

By William Riley Halstead. Abingdon 

Press. 107 pp. Price $ .50; by mail of the 

Survey $ .56. 

The sub-title, A Monograph in Folk Phil- 
osophy, applied to this book has no meaning 
at all. The philosophy is entirely the au- 
thor's, and his discussion ranges over too 
many subjects to have the definiteness of 
presentation one expects in a monograph. 
However, it is a well-written and in spots 
original and entertaining account of what 
the author thinks about labor's demands, so- 
cialism, community lif^, and a lot of other 

The first chapter is the best. It insists that 
the community has a right in disputes be- 
tween capital and labor and plays havoc 
with current crude variations on the theme 
of the producer's right to the whole product 
of labor. As he goes on, however, the au- 
thor gets hmself drawn into waters that are 
obviously too deep for him and betrays, all 
his good intentions notwithstanding, temper- 
amental learnings which are decidedly anti- 
Social. For instance, when he defends our 
tremendous inequalities in labor remunera- 
tion and standards of life by saying that 
" there can be no social arrangement made 
to relieve incapacity and lack of wit from 
the distress of itself" or expresses his belief 
that " the cry of the honest poor must always 
be heard " and that attempts to eliminate 
that class "will finally eliminate the fit," he 
certainly swims against the stream of current 
social thought. 

He is badly informed if he blames the 
taste of the masses and exonerates capital 
from blame for the depletion of the country- 
side and the congestion of cities; and he is 
altogether medieval in his demand of abso- 
lute and unconditional surrender of indi- 
vidual conscience to state authority — sur- 
render of the minority to the will of the 
majority — as the principal element in good 
citizenship. That there may be any justifi- 
cation for class loyalty he does not allow; 
and the power of coercion in law enforce- 
ment is the only means of maintaining a 
stable social life mown to him. B. L. 

A Bulwark Against Germany 

By Bogumil Vosnjak. Fleming H. Revell 

Co. 283 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the 

Survey $1.65. 

This is a book of the greatest timeliness 
since it presents, as does nothing else in 
print in English, the Jugoslav side of the 
conditions leading to the present disagree- 
ment with Italy in the territory of occupa- 
tion in Austria. For that reason it should 

have the widest reading and publicity. The 
author, lately from the University of Zagreb 
(Agram), introduces to the American public 
a race which has for centuries been the un- 
der-dog in a losing fight with Germany and 
which yet has never ceased to contest every 
inch yielded. This " bulwark against Ger- 
many " is the Slovene race, the most west- 
ern branch of the Jugoslavs. 

Conquered first by Charlemagne, crowded 
little by little from their ancient lands and 
losing bit by bit their guaranteed political 
rights, they have nevertheless continued the 
unequal contest for the preservation of their 
national traditions and political integrity. 
The democratic nature of their traditions is 
well brought out by the author, particularly 
in the charming "chapter from the old 
Slovanian democracy." 

He also shows how the location of the 
Slovenes at the head of the Adriatic has 
given them great strategic importance. They 
have served as a barrier to prevent German 
expansion across Europe from north to 
south, and they hold also a position of first 
importance in serving as a bridge from 
Western to Eastern Europe. It is for this 
reason that, although they number only a 
million and a half, their importance to the 
Jugoslav state is fully realized by Serbs and 

Their history, their political institutions, 
their social conditions and their cultural 
heritage are set forth by Dr. Vosnjak with 
moderation and with an excellent sense of 
proportions and values. 

The makeup of the book is good ; it con- 
tains the Jugoslav Committee's official map 
of Jugoslav territory, and it is enlarged and 
in part rewritten since the London edition. 
Eleanor E. Ledbetter. 

A Methodist Church and Its Work 

By Worth M. Tippy and Paul B. Kern. 

Methodist Book Concern. 157 pp. Price 

$ .60; by mail of the Survey $ .66. 

For readers of the Survey the meat of this 
little volume may be found in two or three 
chapters by Dr. Tippy, formerly of the Ep- 
worth Memorial Church in Cleveland and 
now secretary of the Social Service Com- 
mission of the Federal Council of Churches. 
Calling attention in the first place to the 
fact that Wesley's own inspiration was large- 
ly social — " His preeminence lay in the fact 
that he saw social service as a part of re- 
ligion and made it such in his labors. He 
was easily the greatest social worker of his 
time, not even excepting Wilberforce — " Dr. 
Tippy reinvokes the spirit of the founder of 
Methodism as vital for the congregation of 
his church today, whose object should be 
not only love of God but love of the neigh- 
bor, involving the ultimate redemption of 
society and the adoption of ways and means 
to this end. 

This means immediate cooperation be- 
tween the local congregation and community 
social agencies, in which direction the author 
did some notable work when he was in 
Cleveland. He emphasizes the need of be- 
ginning, as Christ began, with " ministries of 
kindness. By ministries of kindness one 
means such activities as provision for the re- 
lief of suffering and poverty, work for the 
unemployed, the defence and care of 
neglected children, thoughtful ways of con- 
tributing to the happiness of the sick, aged, 
and shut-in." 

He sees the local church also as a com- 
munity center, serving purposes of recrea- 
tion, study, and common work. " Churches 
will be open every day and evening in the 
week and used to capacity. Is it not a waste 
of capital to make imperfect use of church 
buildings? In the future we shall build 
churches that are better adapted for every- 
day purposes." 

But social service which stops short with 

the community cannot meet the challenge of 
the world or of Christianity. The ultimate 
goal of Christian society should be the aboli- 
tion of " ignorance, poverty, national hatred, 
extremes of need and luxury, war and arma- 
ments, alcholism, class struggles, infectious 
diseases, the evil of burdensome toil, what is 
known as industrial slavery," — though he 
does not stress as much as one might wish 
the fundamental need of thoroughgoing 
economic justice and industrial reconstruc- 
tion. The other chapters of the book have 
less interest for the general reader. 

F. M. Crouch. 

The American Municipal Executive 

By Russell McCulloch Story. University 
of Illlinois Studies in Social Sciences, Univ. 
of 111., Urbana. 23.1 pp. Price $1.25 
paper bound; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 
This monograph, apparently a doctor's 
thesis, contains a vast amount of definite, 
comparative information regarding the 
powers and practices of the American mayor 
under these heads: Historical development; 
constitutional and charter powers; adminis- 
tration; legislation; politics; personality; 
the mayor's commissioners and city manager. 
Judged as a doctor's thesis, it is a product 
of high quality. Judged from the standpoint 
of its helpfulness to charter committees, its 
content is far more valuable than its sales- 
manship — i. e., it is too hard to use it in 
answering the questions which a charter re- 
vision commission or an editorial writer 
wishes to answer. The information is there, 
but unfortunately the only one who knows 
exactly what is there and what it is worth 
has not summarized it in comparative shape. 
Readers who know the value of different 
provisions will find it extremely helpful for 
its reminders and its definite references. 
Readers who do not know will obtain too 
little light for interest or for use. For ex- 
ample, the significant " mayor's eye," or com- 
missioner of accounts in New York city, is 
disposed of with five lines in the conclusion: 
" It has proven a most effective instrument 
for aiding the mayor in his efforts to secure 
good government." No specific instance is 
given. Many mayors who have only a secre- 
tary will feel that they have a mayor's eye. 
The reference to a pamphlet does not indi- 
cate where the detailed information might be 
found. Numerous other similar cases occur. 
The comments upon public men and upon 
mayoralties indicate a remoteness from ac- 
tual events which so often characterizes the 
doctor's thesis and which suggests the de- 
sirability of having these dissertations re- 
viewed by men in the thick of the fight before 
they go to press. For example, in speaking 
of the short term of mayors the author at- 
tributes the failure of reform mayors to be 
reelected to " the principle of rotation in 
office." This is qualified by the reminder 
that " municipal executives in this country 
have been drawn from the ranks of busy 
citizenship and quite often feel impelled to 
give up their public duties after a few years 
in order to attend to their own business in- 
terests. ... In other cases men tire of the 
struggle which the mayoralty involves and 
retire to private life at the first opportunitv." 
Had these comments been reviewed hv 
men intimately familiar with the collapse of 
mayoralties, the important further cause 
would have been given that mayor after 
mayor has signally failed to keep his 
pledges, and that the public would rather 
take a gambling chance on a new man who 
has never broken a pledge than on a old man 
who has broken several. 

Similarly, in the chapter on the personalis 
of the mayor the author pays the penalty ten 
trying to estimate public leaders and service 
from a partisan testimony. The practical 
man would have told the author that Mayo 
Blankenberg was not voted out of office he- 



cause he lacked " a keen perception of public 
opinion in all its fluctuations and eccentrici- 
ties," etc., but because inside and outside of 
his administration, Philadelphians failed to 
let the public know little by little all the 
time what was being done. For an estimate 
of Mayor Mitchell the practical man would 
have begged the author to go to someone be- 
sides the mayor's personal friend and cham- 

Nowhere else in such compact form can 
the different provisions of city manager 
charters and commissioner mayor's charters 
be found. William H. Allen. 

L'avenir de la France, Reformes Necessaires 

Edited by Maurice Herbette. Librairie 

Felix Alcan. 56+ pp. Price $2.75; by 

mail of the Survey $2.85. 

Among the best of the composite attempts 
to forecast the course of social reconstruc- 
tion and to outline the reforms requisite to 
future national stability and progress is 
this volume which was published in France 
the year before the close of the war. Its 
editor is Maurice Herbette, whom Ameri- 
cans frequently had occasion to meet during 
the war at the French foreign office. His 
collaborators include many competent author- 
ities, of whom the author of the chapter on 
Social Legislation, Charles Gide, is per- 
haps the best known here. 

The general plan of the volume is inter- 
esting. Part One deals with Organization, 
under three headings: I, The Shield; II, The 
Motor; III, The Instruments. By the 
" shield " the editor means diplomacy, the 
army and the navy. The first of these is 
treated by M. Herbette himself. He advo- 
cates opening the diplomatic career to free 
competition, as has been the practice in 
France during the past forty years, and lays 
it down that in diplomacy the sole measure 
of service is success. Lt.-Col. E. Mayer, 
who discusses army reforms, warns his 
readers that no one can foretell the char- 
acter of future wars, and that it is for ex- 
perts and technicians to decide military 
questions. Let no one think that he knows 
military science because he has worn a uni- 
form and served in a regiment. As well 
imagine that because one has been a passen- 
ger on a railway he has become an authority 
on rolling stock and railway development. 

By the "motor" the editor means the 
moral element in the national life, govern- 
ment and parliament. In the first of these 
two M. Alphand discusses such subjects as 
depopulation, moral renovation and the re- 
ligious question, recalling with apparent ap- 
proval Rousseau's dictum that the best gov- 
ernment is that under which population in- 
creases the most. The Third Republic has 
failed to meet this test. The Fourth Re- 
public, to be born with peace, must do bet- 
ter. To escape suicide this new republic, 
genuinely democratic, must develop ideals 
corresponding to the degree of instruction of 
its citizens. Religious, patriotic and social 
ideals will all lead to those heroic policies 
which will be prompted by the heart of the 
French people and directed by their judg- 

The " instruments " of national reorgani- 
zation considered in the volume are public 
finance, local administration, justice, educa- 
tion, and public relief and social prevention. 
The subject of education is treated com- 
prehensively by Gustave Belot; relief and 
prevention by Hebrard de Villeneuve. The 
latter, in summarizing his chapter, symbol- 
izes the state as a father of a family who 
owns two domains. One is situated in a low 
and unhealthy region, where there happen 
to be old buildings large enough to shelter 
tke whole family. The other is located on 
the heights, where the air is good, the soil 
productive, but there are not enough build- 
ings and the land has not been brought under 

cultivation. You ask why, instead of obsti- 
nately remaining on the unproductive and 
unhealthy farm, the owner does not move 
his family to the hills, where health and 
prosperity await them. It is only tfecause 
he dreads the cost of installation and be- 
cause he is kept down below by inertia and 
the tyranny of routine. He temporizes, he 
hesitates, while poverty and illness become 
more and more menacing. " A lions, Jacques 
Bonhomme, make haste to move." 

Part Two deals with credit, public works, 
merchant marine, customs, labor, agricul- 
ture, industry and commerce; with science, 
literature, and the arts; and with colonial 
policy. e. T D. 


Your Neighbor and You 
By Rev. Edward F. Garesche. Benziger 
Bros. 215 pp. Price $.90; bv mail of 
the Survey $1. 

Russian Revolution Aspects 

By Robert Crozier Long. E. P. Dutton & 
Co. 294 pp. Price $2.50; by mail of the 
Survey $2.65. 

Principles of Government Purchasing. By 
A. G. Thomas. D. Appleton & Co. 275 
pp. Price $2.25; by mail of the Survey 

The Song of the Sirens. By Edward Lucas 
White. E. P. Duttcn & Co. 348 pp. Price 
$1.90; by mail of the Survey $2. 

Keeling Letters and Recollections. Pre- 
face by H. G. Wells. Macmillan Co. 329 
pp. Price $4; by mail of the Survey $4.10. 

Clemenceau, The Man and His Time. By 
H. M. Hyndman. Macmillan Co. 338 pp. 
Price $2; by mail of the Survey $2.10. 

How France is Governed. By Raymond 
Poincare. Robert M. McBride & Co. 336 
pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey $2.08. 

The Instructor, The Man And The Job. 
By Charles R. Allen. J. B. Lippincott Co. 
373 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $1.58. 

Housewifery. By Lydia Ray Balderston, 
J. B. Lippincott Co. 353 pp. Price $2; by 
mail of the Survey $2.10. 

Problems of International Settlement. 
Introduction by G. Lowes Dickinson. Mac- 
millan Co: 205 pp. Price $2.50; by mail 
of the Survey $2.58. 

The Rise of Nationality in the Balkans. 
By R. W. Seton-Watson. E. P. Dutton & 
Co. 308 pp. Price $5; by mail of the 
Survey $5.10. 

Proposed Roads to Freedom. By Bertrand 
Russell. Henry Holt & Co. 218 pp. Price 
$1.50; by mail of the Survey $1.58. 

The Riddle of Nearer Asia. By Basil 
Mathews. George H. Doran Co. 316 pp. 
Price $1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.33. 

The Farmer and the New Day. By Ken- 
yon L. Butterfield. Macmillan Co. 311 
pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey $2.10. 

The Little Town. By Harlan Paul Doug- 
lass. Macmillan Co. 258 pp. Price 
$1.50; by mail of the Survey $1.58. 

Capital Punishment in the United States. 
By Raymond T. Bye. Committee on Phil- 
anthropic Labor of Philadelphia, 154 N. 15 
street. 106 pp. paper bound for distribu- 

Gary Schools a General Account. By 
Abraham Flexner and Frank P. Bachman. 
General Education Board, 61 Broadway, 
New York. 265 pp. Price $ .25; by mail 
of the Survey $ .35. 

Health Education in Rural Schools. By 
J. Mace Andress. Houghton Mifflin Co. 321 
pp. Illustrated. Price $1.60; by mail of 
the Survey $1.68. 

The Law as a Vocation. By Frederick J. 
Allen. Harvard University Press. 83 pp. 
Price $1 ; by mail of the Survey $1.06. 

The Child's Unconscious Mind. By Wil- 
frid Lay. Dodd, Mead & Co. 329 pp. 

Price $2 ; by mail of the Survey $2.10. 

South and Central American Trade Con- 
ditions of Today. By A. Haytt Verrill. 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 212 pp. Price $1.50; by 
mail of the Survey. $1.58 

The Next Step in Religion. By Roy Wood 
Sellars. Macmillan Co. 228 pp. Price 
$1.50; by mail of the Survey $1.58. 

Ivan Speaks. Translated from the Russian 
by Thomas Whittemore. Houghton Mifflin 
Co. 48 pp. Price $ .75; by mail of the 
Survey $ .81. 

The Great Issue. By John Farwell Moors. 
Marshall Jones Co. 47 pp. Price $1 ; by 
mail of the Survey $1.06. 

Adolescence. By Stephen Paget. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. 46 pp. Price $ .50; by 
mail of the Survey $ .55. 

Civilization. By Dr. George Duhamel. The 
Century Co. 288 pp. Price $1.50; by mail 
of the 'Survey $1.58. 

Henry Rosenberg 1824-1893. Memorial vol- 
ume. Issued by Rosenberg Library, Gal- 
veston, Texas. 226 pp. Illustrated. 

The British Revolution and the American 
Democracy. By Norman Angell. B. W. 
Huebsch. 319 pp. Price $1.50; by mail 
of the Survey $1.58. 

A Social History of the American Family 
from Colonial Times to the Present. 
Vol. Ill, Since the Civil War. By Arthur 
W. Calhoun. Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleve- 
land. 411 pp. Price $5; by mail of the 
Survey $5.12. 

Federal Military Pensions in the United 
States. By William H. Glasson. Oxford 
University Press*. 305 pp. Price $2.50; by 
mail of the Survey $2.60. 



To the Editor: The purpose of the 
plan we propose is to guarantee a fixed 
profitable price to the producer, a regular 
and sufficient profit to the distributor, and a 
steady and reasonable price to the consumer. 
Surely all the parties, with the possible ex- 
ception of the distributor, would be pleased 
with such an arrangement, and would not 
the honest distributor welcome steady and 
reasonable profits? 

The plan is to appoint a commission with 
power to fix prices of all the necessities of 
life for the producer, the distributor and the 
consumer. At the same time another com- 
mission will dividt the population of the 
country into four classes, according to in- 
comes; the first class to consist of those 
whose incomes are $10,000 a year and up- 
wards, the second class of those whose in- 
comes are from $5,000 to $10,000 a year, the 
third class of those who have from $1,500 
to $5,000 a year, the fourth class comprising 
those whose incomes are less than $1,500. 

Let it be a part of the duty of the first 
commission to enforce the plan for making 
prices low and steady. In order to make 
the scheme perfectly clear, let us take eggs 
as an example. The commission will estab- 
lish the price of eggs at 30 cents, say, to the 
consumer, which price shall be maintained 
under all circumstances. Whenever, ac- 
cording to the law of supply and demand, 
the price of eggs would naturally rise to 40 
cents, let the price be stabilized at 30 cents, 
but forbid people of the fourth class to eat 
them until the lessened demand would 
naturally lower the price to 30 cents. If, how- 
ever, the price at any time should naturallv 
rise to more than 40 cents, let people of the 
third class also be forbidden to use them, 



maintaining, however, the stabilized price 
of 30 cents. If the natural price would be 
above 50 cents per dozen, still maintain the 
fixed price of 30 cents and let people of the 
fourth, third and second classes be denied 
them and people of the first class only eat 
them, till the normal price would fall within 
the range of some of the lower classes. 

There might be an objection raised to this 
scheme in that, if all prices were so fixed, 
and consumption so regulated, it would work 
a hardship on the less favored classes and 
allow unlimited privileges to people whose 
incomes are over $10,000 a year. This is 
very true, but no gi eater hardship than the 
present arrangement under which people of 
the less prosperous classes cannot afford cer- 
tain commodities when prices are high. The 
plan simply wiites into the common law 
in different form, our present practice of 
making the poor the sufferers when food is 
scarce and prices are high. But, on the other 
hand, it has the advantage of steadying the 
profits of the producer and the distributor, 
and of providing a low price all the time 
to the most prosperous classes and some of 
the time to the middle classes, while it keeps 
the poor from living beyond their means. 
George T. Toi.son. 
[Pacific School of Religion] 

Berkeley, Cal. 


To the Editor : In the review of my book, 
The Dark People, written by Professor 
Hourwich, his statement that Russia is not 
an agricultural but preeminently an indus- 
trial nation is a great surprise to me and 
will be, I think, to many others. In the 
last twelve years I have made two trips to 
Russia and have also known many Russians 
here — men and women of all factions. 1 
have never yet heard the claim that Russia 
is an industrial nation. 

I am writing this to you in the hope and 
belief that you will be interested to go into 
this question further by obtaining the views 
of other men who may also lay claim to 
having accurate information. In view of all 
the discussion about Russia these days, many 
of us will be interested to know the truth 
as to this statement. Ernest Poole. 

New York. 

To the Editor: The definition of " bread- 
winners " and " dependents " in the reports of 
the Russian census differ from the American 
classification in one essential respect: ac- 
cording to the American classification, chil- 
dren of farmers helping on the farm are 
classified as " farm laborers, members of 
family," whereas according to the Russian 
classification they are counted as dependents. 
If all males above the age of IS belonging 
to this class in Russia are added to the class 
of " persons engaged in gainful occupations," 
the percentage of persons engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits will be raised to 62 per 
cent of all " persons engaged in gainful oc- 
cupations." But among those " dependents " 
there were likewise quite a number whose 
" supporters " were engaged partly in non- 
agricultural pursuits, the exact figure is not 
reported. Thus you will see that, making 
all possible allowances for peculiarities in 
census definitions, the fact remains that at 
least 38 per cent of all breadwinners in 
1897 were engaged exclusively in non-agri- 
cultural pursuits. 

According to the census statistics for 1S97 
"70 1-4 per cent of the total population of the 
empire reported themselves as deriving their 
main support from agriculture (Releve Gen- 
eral des Resultats du Degrouillement des 
Donnees du premier recensement de la popu- 
lation en 1897, pp. +5-46). This includes 
women, and children under the working 
age. Even thus 30 per cent of the population 
are supported by non-agricultural occupa- 

tions, not lo per cent as Ernest Poole was 
told. But one must bear in mind that a 
large proportion of factory operatives are 
single men and single women; so the per- 
centage of non-agricultural workers must 
be much larger. 

Mr. Poole lias apparently obtained his in- 
formation from the Social-Revolutionists who 
still hark back to the ideas of the " popu- 
lists " of the 60's and 70's of the past cen- 
tury — their leaders, like Tchaikovsky, be- 
long to that generation. Their theories were 
built upon the assumption that the Russian 
village is still a sort of a communistic or- 
ganization which can be made the nucleus 
for a communistic society in Russia. I have 
dealt with that delusion a generation ago, 
in my book The Economics of the Russian 
Village (New York, 1893). 

The fact is that even before the emanci- 
pation of the peasantry (1861) large num- 
bers of the peasants of Central Russia were 
engaged in non-agricultural pursuits away 
from their villages, upon leave from their 
masters to whom they made money payments 
(analogous to the French iaille in the pre- 
revolutionary days). Since 1S61 there has 
been a tremendous exodus from the rural to 
the urban districts. 

The following is quoted from the present 
Russian dictator's book published in 1899: 
" The cities are growing twice as fast as 
the rest of the population; from 1S63 to 1897, 
the rural population increased 4S.S per cent, 
and the urban 97 per cent." (Vladimir Ilyin 
[Nicholas Lenine- Vladimir Ilyitch Oulian- 
ov] : The Development of Capitalism in Rus- 
sia, pp. 443-444). 

That a large proportion of the so-called 
"rural estates" (Bauerti-Stande) according 
to legal classification, were in reality en- 
gaged in non-agricultural pursuits, was con- 
clusively shown by so many Russian econo- 
mists and statisticians that I should have to 
write a monograph if I were to produce all 
the corroborative evidence of the conclusion 
I quoted in my review. I shall just quote 
one illustration from Lenine's book. In the 
district of Krasnoufimsk, province of Perm, 
according to an enumeration made by the 
zemstvo in 1888-91, the population of the 
mining section of that district was distrib- 
uted as follows: agricultural — 7 per cent, 
semi-agricultural — 27 per cent, non-agricul- 
tural — 66 per cent. But the " urban " popu- 
lation of the whole district, according to the 
census of 1897, was only 4.7 per cent. The 
" peasant estate " in the whole province of 
Perm constituted, according to the census of 
1897, 95 per cent of the population. Mr. 
Poole's informant would quote that figure 
in proof of the fact that at least 90 per cent 
of the population were farm workers! 

There is an abundance of absurdity dished 
out to American readers. We read, e. g., 
that 90 per cent of the Russian people are 
illiterate — I often wonder why not 110 per 
cent — whereas as a matter of fact in that 
part of Russia which had a semblance of 
local self-government (zemstvo) since 1864, 
about 70 per cent of the adult male popula- 
tion under the age of 50 can read and write. 

It has been suggested that there may be 
some omissions in the census. It is, of 
course, possible that a few individuals here 
and there may have escaped the enumerators. 
But those were only exceptional cases. The 
Russian peasants live in villages, not on 
isolated homesteads. In Russia there has 
been in effect since 1718 the most thorough 
system of registration for fiscal and police 
purposes. Failure to produce a registra- 
tion card or passport was a crime punish- 
able by imprisonment, and the law was 
strictly enforced. No one could move from 
one apartment house to another without 
having his passport vised by the police. The 
landlord or janitor of the house was liable 
to fine for failure to report the moving in 
or out of a tenant. In the villages, of 

course, the constabulary knew personally 
every inhabitant. Under such a system the 
census returns for every hamlet had to tally 
with the register of the inhabitants. There 
may have been a few errors, or omissions, 
due to inadvertence, but they could not af- 
fect the result. 

As to occupations, the ignorant or careless 
enumerator in a rural district might on gen- 
eral principles return every inhabitant as an 
agricultural worker, the presumption being 
that a "peasant" teas engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits. This presumption would be 
likely to swell the number of persons en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits rather than 
to underrate it. Isaac A. Hourwich. 

New York. 



SINCE the investigation of Detroit's work- 
house conditions and methods by the Bureau 
of Government Research of that city and 
the appointment of a new prison board to 
improve both (see the Survey for August 
24) the following changes have been made, 
according to Public Business, the organ of 
that bureau: The new board visits the pri- 
son frequently; an unsanitary basement kit- 
chen has been abandoned, medical examina- 
tion and uniforms have been provided for 
those handling food; a woman physician has 
been appointed for women inmates; dental 
care has been arranged for; a "free hour" 
is allowed prisoners each day; the "silence" 
rule has been modified; striking and beating 
have been eliminated. 

CHILD welfare conditions in Kentucky, in- 
cluding education, recreation, dependency, 
delinquency, juvenile courts, child labor 
laws and administration and children's in- 
stitutes are being surveyed under the aus- 
pices of the Kentucky Child Labor Associ- 
ation, a branch of the National Child Labor 
Committee, with the cooperation of the lead- 
ing social agencies of the state. The work- 
ers, all of them experts from the staff of 
the National Child Labor Committee, have 
been appointed sanitary inspectors of the 
Kentucky State Board of Health or labor 
inspectors of the state Department of Labor. 

UNDER the title Searchlights on Civic Prob- 
lems, the Speakers' Bureau of the Minneapo- 
lis Associated Charities publishes a list of 
speakers available for Minneapolis meetings 
on a wide variety of social, health and edu- 
cational topics. It follows the general lines 
of a similar plan which the Brooklyn Bu- 
reau of Charities inaugurated eight or ten 
years ago. A similar publication, but going 
more widely into the fields of government 
and labor is brought out by the Social News 
Bureau of the Cleveland Welfare Federation 
under the title, Social News. 

BOTH houses of the Iowa legislature have 
passed unanimously the housing bill de- 
scribed in the Survey for February 22. Social 
workers in the state are jubilant in the be- 
lief that this measure which gives to the 
stale Board of Health large powers of in- 
terference with neglectful local authorities 
will go far in the eradication of disease and 

THE outstanding figure of Prof. Is.i. 

will be greatly missed from the politi- 
co-economic field of the Middle West. For 
many years from his chair at the state Cni- 
versit) of Iowa and through his local and 
state-wide citizenship, he nas exerted a deep 



and pervasive influence for all that was 
highest and best in scholarship and patriot- 
ism. He had such a rare combination of 
intellect and emotion, scientific method and 
idealistic vision, scholarly standards and 
patriotic sentiment, that he impressed these 
qualities of his own personality alike upon 
a generation of students and upon his fellow 
citizens in Iowa City and throughout the 
state. He was such a whole-souled man 
withal and had such a genius for friendship, 
that he drew and held to him the hearts 
of all who really knew him. His release 
from several years of physical disability 
registered the profound sense of loss widely 
felt at the withdrawal of his steadying, in- 
spiring and unifying influence upon the pro- 
gressive spirit of the Middle West. 

AMELIA SEARS leaves the civic director- 
ship of the Chicago Woman's City Club 
May 1, to return to the service of the United 
Charities of Chicago as assistant superin- 
tendent, having previously served as super- 
tendent of one of its most exacting districts. 
The change is due to her desire to resume 
her professional case-work, for which her 
new position opens the widest opportunity. 
She will continue to serve on the commission 
advisory to the state Department of Public 

years professor in the college of Hawaii and 
a frequent contributor of articles on Hawai- 
ian social and educational questions, has 
been appointed superintendent of public in- 
struction for the territory. 

Here Preached For Over Thirty Years 
Washington Gladden 
THE bronze tablet on which these simple 
words were inscribed was inserted at the 
base of the tower on the brownstone front of 
the First Congregational Church in Colum- 
bus, Ohio, when its people and their fellow 
citizens commemorated Dr. Gladden's birth- 
day, February 11. A neighbor of his has con- 
tributed $35,000, which she hopes others will 
increase until the sum amounts to at least 
$100,000, thus founding a Washington Glad- 
den Memorial Fund the income of which 
will be available for carrying on the social 
application of the common faith which in- 
spired his whole ministry and citizenship. 
Far beyond Columbus, where the last half 
of Dr. Gladden's great ministry was in- 
vested in the service of the whole land and 
the world, there will be many who will want 
to supplement the city-wide effort being 
made there to complete this memorial fund 
for honoring and perpetuating the life work 
of one of America's foremost ministers and 

REVEILLE, the quarterly devoted to the in- 
terests of disabled soldiers and sailors, has 
stopped publication. Under John Galswor- 
thy's editorship it was not only of great lit- 
erary distinction, containing contributions of 
the ablest writers in England; but, according 
to the Daily Express, it was a financial 
success and of great help to the cause it 
served. It was stopped because " Mr. Gals- 
worthy can no longer submit to the censor- 
ship of his work by the officials of the Min- 
istry of Pensions. Bureaucratic interference 
has killed it." 

as a temperance paper since 1865, comments 
as follows on the article by the Rev. Ray- 
mond Calkins in the Survey for January 11 
on Substitutes for the Saloon: "Every good 
feature of the saloon has grown from a de- 
mand. The demand will still exist after the 
saloon has passed, and it will bring about its 
own satisfaction by an entirely natural 

Spring and Summer Catalogue 
Now Ready 

This Catalogue is small but the Garments and Linens 

shown have been selected 
with the greatest care 
from our comprehensive 

Not only is each illus- 
trated article up to the 
usual McCutcheon high 
standard of excellence, but 
there is in each case some 
special reason for its ap- 
pearance — an unusual de- 
sign, exceptional quality 
or novelty, an especially 
moderate price, or per- 
haps it is all of these 

This special Spring and Summer Catalogue illustrates 
a choice selection in the following lines: 

Pure Linen Handkerchiefs 

Fashionable New Neckwear 

Smart Veilings 

Silk and Ribbed Underwear 

Philippine and Domestic Lingerie 

The New Sweaters 

Silk, Lisle and Sports Hosiery 

French and English Val Laces 

Baby Clothes 

Children's Suits, Dresses and 

Children's Underwear 

Art Novelties 

Damask and Fancy Table Linens 

Embroidered Towels and Pillow 


Sheets, Blankets and Comfort- 

Also, a page of selected haberdashery for men 
of discriminating taste 

It is a catalogue that will delight the shopper because 
it illustrates the newest and best of the metropolitan 
stocks at prices that are outstandingly moderate. 

For Easter Wear and Remembrances 

You will find in this McCutcheon Spring Book dainty 
Handkerchiefs, Linens, Hosiery and Lingerie appro- 
priate tor the Easter season, for your personal use or 
for remembrances for your family and friends. 

A copy will be mailed you gladly upon request. 

James McCutcheon & Go. 

Fifth Avenue, 34th and 33d Sts., N. Y. 

A'..,. \l,.l, 



12, 1919 

means. If you stick your ringer into a bucket 
of water, there is no water where the finger 
is, solely because the finger is there. With- 
draw the saloon and the flowing tides of 
human society will fill the place naturally, 
easily and completely." 

CONSCRIPTION of wealth became a pet 
phrase with labor once conscription of men 
to military service had been decided upon. 
The late W. C. Anderson, M. P., unsuccess- 
fully tried to get Parliament to discuss the 
only bill ever framed to embody the prin- 
ciple. Its object was the sequestration of all 
unearned incomes, and it provided machinery 
under which all rents, interest, dividends, 
annuities and annual payments for mortgages 
(with certain exceptions) would cease to be 
payable to their private recipients during 
the period of conscription and payable to 
the public trustee for transfer to the treasruy. 
The public trustee — a permanent office of the 
British government of absolute integrity and 
nonpartisanship — was to provide subsistence 
allowances for persons previously living on 
unearned incomes and unable to obtain work 
at wages; such subsistence allowances to be 
at the same rates (allowing for certain ex- 
ceptions such as existing legal charges and 
continuation of customary subscriptions to 
charities) as the pay of the several ranks 
in the army. A more practical plan, how- 
ever, was officially fathered by the Labor 
Party; this was for a graduated levy on all 
capital wealth on the basis of the existing 
death duties. 

the South Atlantic Quarterly, compare fav- 
orably with those of the white population. 
Fourteen counties which constitute the 
" black belt " of the state subscribed over 80 
per cent of their war savings allotments, or 
4 per cent more than the average for the 
state. While the average Negro population 
of the state is 31.6 per cent of the whole, that 
of the nineteen counties which have oversub- 
scribed their quota is 42 per cent. One ex- 
planation is that the " black belt " comprises 
some of the most fertile agricultural land 
in the state where Negroes as well as whites 
are prosperous; another that "North Caro- 
lina recognized the Negro as an American 
citizen and gave him responsibilities the same 
as white men." 

NEGRO war savings in North Carolina, ac- 
cording to an article by Kate M. Herring in 

BASEBALL costs $0,005 per capita, soccer 
$0.00169, golf $0.0629 (per game) and tennis 
$0,024 (per participant), according to statis- 
tics contained in the annual report of the 
St. Louis Division of Parks and Recreation 
in the Department of Public Welfare. But 
it seems hardly fair to compare the cost to 
the city of a mere onlooker with that of a 
person wearing holes into its carefully tended 
lawns. The attendance at playgrounds in 
St. Louis has gone up from less than a mil- 
lion in the first decade of this country to two 
millions and a half in the second — with a 
slight fall in the war year, a proportional 
increase which is indicative of the spirit of 
the times. The cost estimates given above 
should be placed in proper juxtaposition to 
the cost of treatment for physical neglect and 
that of treatment for juvenile and adult de- 



There can be no remedy 
without a true, search- 
ing study of human re- 

The causes of our vital 
problems of today and 
a feasible, fundamental 
remedy — are clearly and 
forcibly set forth in 


By Hyman Segal 

Cloth, Postpaid— $1.50 


73 Fifth Avenue, New York City 

The New Vision in 


The National League of Women Workers, 
offers a five weeks* course in organization 
and leadership of girls' club work — May 12 
to June 14, 1919, at Columbia University, 
New York City. 

The course is designed to train students 
for all forms of girls' club work. Special 
stress will be placed on recreational activi- 
ties for the reconstruction period. 

Students, successfully completing this 
course, will be listed with various place- 
ment agencies specializing in social service. 

Write for prospectus of the course to 

National League of Women Workers 
35 East 30th Street. - New York 


Established 1914 

Special Courses in 





Will begin May 1st, continuing through- 
out the summer. Pupils may enter at any 
date. Send stamps for prospectus. 

Consolation House, Clifton Springs, N. V. 

" The Most Beautiful Hymnal Ever Produced in the American Church " 


Charles Clayton Morrison and Herbert L. Willett, tditort 

The Hymnal for the New Social Era in Religion 

For Churches of All Denominations 

Contains all the great hymns 
which have become fixed in the 
affections of the Church aud adds 
thereto three distinctive features : 
Hymns of Social Service 
Hymns of Christian Unity 
Hymns of the Inner Life 
This hymr-al Is alive ! It sings 
the same Gospel that is being 
preached In all modern evangeli- 
cal pulpits. 

Send $1.15 ]or single copy 
Fortieth Street, CHICAGO 

THERE are bound to be many complaints 
against municipal services, real and imag- 
ined, in a city that has doubled in popu- 
lation in less than ten years. Detroit, in 
spite of every effort to have the streets 
kept clean and in repair, to prevent con- 
tagious disease, to protect life and prop- 
erty and do all the other things a modern 
city administration is supposed to do, finds 
that there are still many complaints coming 
in — all the more bitter, sometimes, because 
the complainant has had to hunt from one 
department to the other before finding the 
real culprit. In order to do away, at least, 
with this last-named cause for grumbling, 
the city has opened a complaint bureau 
which promises to investigate promptly any 
grievances that may be reported to it. 

" OUR Workers' Councils are working very 
smoothly," a large English employer writes- 
to the Survey. " They take up a good deal 
of time, but they let off a lot of steam. 1 
attended one on Friday afternoon, and the 
shop steward who was present as the definite 
trade union representative brought up one 
complaint after another — not in a disagree- 
able or complaining spirit but merely tell- 
ing us that there was some discussion and 
discontent among the men because of so-and- 
so. Then he explained what the matter was, 
and we were able, in a perfectly reasonable 
and friendly spirit, to put everything right." 

THE United States Department of Labor Li- 
brary has brought out a supplementary list 
of references to reconstruction by Laura A. 
Thompson. A subject index and the com- 
pleteness of each entry make this a most use- 
ful manual for the student of reconstruction 
and for the librarian. 

P. S. RIDSDALE, secretary of the American. 
Forestry Association, in the American City 
pleads for tree planting as an important part 
of city reconstruction. In one sense, this- 
may seem a mere detail. But when we 
think of the depressing aspect of all the in- 
dustrial centers we know, with their deplor- 
able monotony and absence of vegetation, it 
is obvious that civic pride cannot grow in 
them until something is done to redeem the 
community from the appalling ugliness that 
surrounds it. Tree planting, as Mr. Rids- 
dale points out, is the first step. He advo- 
cates it also as a fit means of commemorating 
the return of peace and the patriotic serv- 
ices of the citv's soldier heroes. 

LINDSAY ROGERS, of the University of 
Virginia, has edited for International Concil- 
iation, the monthly organ of the American 
Association for International Conciliation, a 
collection of material on reconstruction for 
the use of polity clubs and study circles. It 
supplements a similar earlier compilation on 
the war aims of the United States and, in 
addition to the discussion of the issues now 
up for decision in Paris, deals with such do- 
mestic topics as demobilization, industry, wo- 
men in industry, taxation, housing, educa- 
tion, regional construction and political re- 
construction. There are ample references to> 
books and articles, and reprints of a few 
of the most important American and English 

GOVERNOR SLEEPER, of Michigan, has 
announced the appointment of a reconstruc- 
tion committee of the Michigan War Pre- 
paredness Board of twenty men and women, 
including anions: its members the Rev. 
Charles B. Williams. Mrs. Caroline Bart- 
lett Crane and Mrs. Clav H. Hollister. The 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are : Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travels, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per agate line; fourteen lines to 
the inch. 

" Want " advertisements under the various 
headings " Situations Wanted," " Workers 
Wanted," etc., 6ve cents each word or initial, 
including the address, for each insertion. Ad- 
dress Advertising Department, The Survey, 
112 East 19th St., New York City. 


WANTED— Trained Social Worker of 
Case Work experience, for position as 
Field Supervisor for National Organization 
entering on comprehensive Social Welfare 
Program in the South. Address 3116, 
Surve\ . 

WANTED — Five young women with 
good educational background and with ex- 
perience in family case work to assist 
Home Service Sections developing family 
work and to act as travelling representa- 
tives of Division Department of Civilian 
Relief. Send full statement of qualifica- 
tions and experience. A. W. Jones, Jr., 
Director Civilian Relief, Southwestern 
Division, American Red Cross, Frisco 
Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 

NURSES WANTED in Cook County at 
once. Beginning salary $100.00 per month. 
1 Includes school, tuberculosis, and child 
welfare work. Apply at once to Miss Har- 
riet Fulmer, Supervisor Cook County 
Rural Nursing Service, 1130 County Build- 
ing, Chicago. 

WANTED— Industrial Nurse— Woman 
with experience to take charge of small but 
completely equipped factory hospital ; to do 
visiting in the homes, and be a friend and 
adviser to the girls in the plant. A splendid 
opportunity for a woman who is wide 
awake to the health and social factors in- 
volved in Industry. Write, stating experi- 
ence and salary expected, to Box 3126, 

WANTED — Capable woman to live in 
Settlement and be employed as stenog- 
rapher and office secretary to Head Resi- 
dent. Address 3128, Survey. 

WANTED — Experienced young man as 
Director of Boys' and Men's Work in a 
large Settlement, not in New York. Ad- 
dress, giving full details, 3127 Survey. 

WANTED— Superintendent Relief De- 
partment, Jewish Aid Society, Chicago. 
Applicant must have had experience in all 
branches of Relief work and must possess 
' capacity to manage department. In reply- 
ing please state experience, age and present 
salary. All communications will be con- 
sidered confidential. Address, Alfred C. 
Meyer, 831 W. Adams Street, Chicago. 

WANTED — Young man or young 
woman as Club and Social Director. Ap- 
plicants state fully age, education, training 
and minimum salary. Apply to Philip L. 
Seman, Supt. Chicago Hebrew Institute, 
1258 W. Taylor St., Chicago, 111. 

WANTED — An experienced Director 
for newly organized Jewish Social Center 
in large mid-western city, man or woman. 
Salary about Two Thousand Dollars per 
year. Address 3129, Survey. 


Girls' Club wishes broader field. Salary 
$2,700 to $3,000. Reply Survey, 3108. 

desires position. Five years' experience in 
social work. Valuable business experience 
previously. Address 3124 Survey 

WILL some individual, or group of in- 
dividuals, interested in social service, be 
willing to advance sufficient means to pay 
for one year's preparation in some school 
of Civics or Philanthropy? The woman 
applicant is a teacher who has a university 
degree and who can furnish best of refer- 
ences as to character and purpose. Ad- 
dress 3130, Survey. 

WANTED — Position as Superintendent 
or Supervisor, in Child-Caring Institution 
or Visitor for Charity Organization. Train- 
ing and experience in institutional work, 
also social service. Address 3110, Survey. 

committee held a meeting in Detroit and has 
among its plans the merging of all men's 
and women's patriotic organizations into one 
and their reorganization so as to put them 
on a peace basis. 

The work is relegated to several commit- 
tees, each to study its special problems and 
report to the general committee which will 
in turn present a state reconstruction pro- 
gram. Emphasis is laid on the necessity of 
preserving local organizations in both city 
and rural districts and of making them true 
community councils for their vicinity. The 
committee on organization is working on a 
practical scheme for state correlation and 
supervision of such work — which, as a rule, 
will have the school district for its unit of 

Atlantic City Welfare Bureau wants 
Trained Visitor. 


AUGUST 24, 1912, of the Survey, published 
weekly at New i'ork, N. I., for April 1, 1919. 

State of New York. County of New York, ss. 
Before me, a commissioner of deeds in and for 
tie State and county aforesaid, personally ap- 
peared Arthur P. Kellogg, who, having been 
duly sworn according to law, deposes and says 
that he is the Secretary of the Survey Asso- 
ciates, Inc., publishers of the Sckvey, and that 
the following is, to the best of his knowledge 
and belief, a true statement of the ownership, 
management (and if a daily paper, the circula- 
tion), etc., of the aforesaid publication for tbe 
date shown in the above caption, required by 
the Act of August 24. 1912, embodied in sec- 
tion 443, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed 
on the reverse of this form, to wit : 

1. That the names and addresses of the 
publisher, editor, managing editor, and business 
managers are : Publisher. Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19th St.. New York citv ; editor, 
Paul U. Kellogg, 112 East 19th St., New York 
city; managing editor, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 
East 19th St., New York city; business man- 
ager, H. K. Carter, 112 East 19th St., New 
York city. 

2. That the owners are (give names and 
addresses of individual owners, or, if a cor- 
poration, give its name and the names and 
addresses of stockholders owning or holding 

1 per cent or more of the total amount of 
stock) : Survey Associates. Inc., a non-commer- 
cial corporation under the laws of the state of 
New York with over 1 000 members. It has no 
stocks or bonds. President, Robert W. de 
Forest, 30 Broad St., New York city ; vice- 
president. John M. Glenn, 130 East 22nd St., 
New York citv ; treasurer, Charles D. Norton, 

2 Wall St., New York city ; secretary, Arthur 
P. Kellogg, 112 East 19th St., New York city. 



Listings fifty cent* a line, four weekly inser- 
tions: copy unchanged throughout the month 
Order pamphlets from publishers 

Transactions op the First National Co- 
operative Convention. 300 pp. $1.00. 
Published by The Cooperative League of 
America, 2 West 13th St., New York. 

Toward tbi New Education. The case against 
autocracy In our public schools. 164 pp. 28 
cents. Teachers' Union of the City of New 
York, 70 Fifth avenue, New York city. 

Workshop Committers. Suggested lines ol 
development. By C. G. Renold. Reprinted 
from the Survey for October 5, 1918. Sur- 
vey Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New 
York City. 5 cts. 

Fob Value Received. A Discussion of Indus- 
trial Pensions. John A. Fitch. Reprinted 
from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey Associ- 
ates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Edwards' Prize Essay for 1919, " Russia's 
Sociai Pb.obt.rm, The Peasant." tree of 
Dean E. R. Groves, New Hampshire College, 
Durham, N. H. 

•'Children's Health Story Number" of 
" The Crusader." Original stories teaching 
health and hygiene. Five cents a copy. 
\Viscons ; n Anti-Tuberculosis Association, 


Industrial Council Plan in Great Britain. 
Reprints of the Reports of the Whitley Com- 
mittee and Related Documents, together with 
Report on Operation of Works Committees. 
First complete and convenient presentation 
of these important documents. 

How the Government Handled Its Labor 
Problem During the War. Handbook of 
Federal War Labor Agencies. Condensed 
account of organization, function and per- 
sonnel, with excerpts from basic documents, 
2.">c. each, postage 4c. additional. 10 copies, 
$2.00. Bureau of Industrial Research, 465 
West 23rd St., New York. 

Capitalism Is in Violation of Constitu- 
tional Law. Its Destruction by Law, the 
Only Hope of Peaceful Reconstruction. 15c. 
postpaid. M. Franklin, 28 Davenport, De- 
troit, Mich. 

You Should Know About Credit Unions. A 
manual furnished gratis upon request. Mas- 
sachusetts Credit Union Association, 78 
Devonshire St., Boston. 


Fifty cents a line per month, four tseekly inser- 
tions ; copy unchanged throughout the month* 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; pub- 
lished by The National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene, 50 Union Square, New York. 
Public Health Nurse; mouthly ; $2 a year ; pub- 
lished bv National Organization for Public 
Health Nursing. 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees,, 
and other security holders owning or holding 
1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities are: (If there 
are none, so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above. 
giving the names of the owners, stockholders, 
and security holders, if any, contain not only 
the list of stockholders and security holders as 
they appear upon the books of the company 
but also, in cases where the stockholder or se- 
curity holder appears upon the books of tbe • 
company as trustee or in any other fiduciary 
relation, the name of the person or corporation 
for whom such trustee is acting, is given; also 
that the said two paragraphs contain state- 
ments embracing affiant's full knowledge and 
belief as to the circumstances and conditions 
under which stockholders and security holders 
who do not appear upon the books of the com- 
pany as trustees, hold stock and securities in , 
a capacity other than that of a bona fide 
owner ; and this affiant has no reason to be- 
lieve that any other person, association, or cor- 
poration has any interest direct or indirect in 
the said stock, bonds, or other securities than - 
as so stated by him. 

5. That the average number of copies of 
each issue of this publication sold or dis- 
tributed, through the mails or otherwise, to . 
paid subscribers during the six months preced- 
ing the date shown above is — . (This in- 
formation is required from daily publications 
only.) [Signed] Arthur P. Kellogg, Sec'y, 
Survey Associates, Inc. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 29th 
day of March, 1919. [Seal] Martha Hoh- 
mann, Commissioner of Deeds, City of New 
York, residing in New York County, register • 
20052. My commission expires April 28, 1920 ... 

How I Improved My Memory 

In One Evening 

The Amazing Experience of Victor Jones 

"Of course I place you! Mr. Ad- 
dison Sims of Seattle. 

"If I remember correctly — and I 
do remember correctly — Mr. Bur- 
roughs, the lumberman, introduced 
me to you at the luncheon of the 
Seattle Rotary Club three years ago 
in May. This is a pleasure indeed! 
I haven't laid eyes on you since that 
day. How is the grain business? 
And how did that amalgamation work 

The assurance of this speaker — in 
the crowded corridor of the Hotel 
McAlpin — compelled me to turn and 
look at him, though I must say it is 
not my usual habit to "listen in" 
even in a hotel lobby. 

"He is David M. Roth, the most 
famous memory expert in the United 
States," said my friend Kennedy, an- 
swering my question before I could 
get it out. "He will show you a lot 
more wonderful things than that, 
before the evening is over." 

And he did. 

As we went into the banquet room the 
toastrnaster was introducing a long line of 
the guests to Mr. Roth. I got in line and 
when it came my turn, Mr. Roth asked, 
"What are your initials, Mr. Jones, and 
your business connection and telephone 
number?" Why he asked this, I learned 
later, when he picked out from the crowd 
the CO nun he had met two hours before 
and called each by name without a mis- 
take. What is more, he named each man's 
business and telephone number, for good 

I won't tell you all the other amazing 
things this man did except to tell how 
he called back, without a minute's hesita- 
tion, long lists of numbers, bank clear- 
ings, prices lot numbers, parcel post rates 
and anyth >g else the guests gave him in 
rapid order. 


When I met Mr. Roth again — which you 
may be yuie I did the first chance I got— 
lie rather bowled me over by saying, in 
his quiet, modest way : 

"There' is nothing miraculous about my 
remembering anything 1 want to remem- 
ber, whether it be names, faces, figures, 
farts or something I have read in a 

"You can do this just as easily as J do. 
Anyom with an average mind can learn 
quickly to do exactly the same things 
which seem so miraculous when I do 

"My own memory," continued Mr. Roth, 
"was originally very faulty. Yes it was — 
a re; lly poor memory. On meeting a 
iiiMii l would h»e his name in thirty eec- 
while now there are probably 10. <IOD 
men and women in the United States, many 
of whom 1 have met but once, whose names 
I can call instantly on meeting them." 

"That is all right for you, Mr. Roth," 
I interrupted, ' you have given years to 
it. But how about me?" 

"Mr. Jones," he replied, "I can teach 
you the secret of a good memory in one 
evening. This is not a guess, because I 
have done it with thousands of pupils. In 
the first of seven simple lessons which I 
have prepared for home study, I show you 
the basic principle of my whole system and 
you will find it — not hard work as you 
might fear — but just like playing a fasci- 
nating game. I will prove it to you." 

He didn't have to prove it. His Course 
did : I got it the very next day from his 
publishers, the Independent Corporation. 

When I tackled the first lesson, I sup- 
pose I was the most surprised man in forty- 
eight states to find that I had learned — in 
about one hour -how to remember a list of 
one hundred words so that I could call them 
off forward and hack without a single mis- 

That first lesson stuck. And so did 
the other six. 

Read this letter from Mr. E. O. Nord, 
Moscow, Idaho : 

"I think tin' itoth Memory Course the 
.Greatest thing of the kind I have ever seen. 
Lesson 3 en remembering names and faces 
is worth the price of the entire seven les- 
sons. By usinv code words I can read 
over a list of 50 words before retiring and 
recall every one the next morning — besides 
carrying in my mind along with the same 
cord words four or five other lists, and I 
find it a simple matter to recall them. 
Before I received the course my memory 
was nothing to ">rag about. Lesson 5 on 
numbers is excellent, I will never regret 
paying out the small sum of $5.00 for such 
a valuable system of memory training. I 
am praising it to all of my friends. 

'"Will you send the course to my brother, 
Collis J. Nord. R. No. 7, Spokane, Wash- 
ington, by retu n mail if he has not already 
ordered it. He will remit for the books 
or return them \t he has no use for them. 
I will stand back oi the order. 

"I thank von tor putting out such a fine 
system of memory training at such a ridic- 
ulously low price." 

The Roth Courie is priceless! T can 

absolutely count on my memory now. I 

can call the n >st any man I have 

met before and 1 cm getting better all 

the time. 1 mber tiny figures I 

wish to I Telephone numbers 

come to mind once I have filed 

them by Mr I : y method. Street 
addresses are 

The old fea 'retting (you know 

what that is > 1 inished. I used to lie 

"scared stiff" >1 —because T wasn't 

sin-r. I ooiilde ,. ember what I wanted 
to say. 

Now I am sun myself, and confident, 
and "easj -hoe" when I get on 

my feet at th. ir at a banquet, or in 

a business mei iUjf, or in any social gath- 

Perhaps the . enjoyable part of it all 
is that T have •■■• a good conversation- 
alist — and I - I to be as silent as a 
sphinx wii to a crowd of people 

who knew t'.. 

Now T can ill i • like a flash of light- 
ning most ■ ant right at the in- 
stant I need 1 used to think 
"hair trigger" belonged only to the 

prodigy and genius. Now I see that every 
man of us has that kind of a memory if he 
only knows how to make it work right. 

I tell you it is a wonderful thing, after 
groping around in the dark for so many 
years to be able to switch the big search- 
light on your mind and see instantly 
everything you want to remember. 

This Roth Course will do wonders in 
your office. 

Since we took it up you never hear any- 
one in our office say "I guess" ^r "I 
think it was about so much" or "I forget 
that right now" or "I can't remember" or 
"I must look up his name." Now they are 
right there with the answer — like a shot. 

Have you ever heard of "Multigraph" 
Smith? Real name H. Q. Smith, Division 
Manager of the Multigraph Sales Company, 
Ltd., in Montreal. Here is just a bit from 
a letter of his that I saw last week : 

"Here is the whole thing in a nutshell: 
Mr. Roth has a most remarkable Memory 
Course. It is simple, and easy as falling 
off a log. Yet with one hour a day of prac- 
tice, anyone — I don't care who he is — can 
improve his Memory 100% in a week and 
1,000% in six months." 

My advice to you is don't wait another 
minute. Send to Independent Corporation 
for Mr. Roth's amazing course and see what 
a wonderful memory you have got. Your 
dividends in increased earning power will 
be enormous. 

Victor Jones 

Send No Money 

So confident is the Independent Corpora- 
tion, the publishers of the Roth Memory 
Course, that once you have an opportunity 

to see in your own home how easy it is to 
double, yes. triple your memory power in a 
few short hours, that they are willing to 
send the course on free examination. 

Don't send any money. Merely mail the 
Coupon or write a letter and the complete 
course will be sent, all charges prepaid, at 
once. If you are not entirely satisfied send 
it back any time within five days after you 
receive it and you will owe nothing. 

On the other '>"nd if vou are as pleased 
as are the tie .. .tnds .. other men nud 
women who have used the course send only 
$0 in full payment You take no risk aud 
you have everything to i mail the 

coupon now before this remarkable offer is 


Independent Corporation 

Publishers of The Independent Weekly 

Division of Business Education. 113 W. 40th St.. Nov.- York 
Please send me the Roth Memory Course of 
ons, I will either reiimil the . 
to you within five days after its receipt er 
you $6. 








THIS, if ever, is a season when spring should 
carry into the whole year the spirit of the 
great Christian Festival of Resurrection — that 
also of the more ancient Jewish Passover, com- 
memorating the Exodus and the release from 
bondage. The wild flowers which these weeks 
are mantling the shell holes and trench lines 
of the battlefields of France are symbols of the 
out-reachings of men's minds everywhere — 
from Versailles to the humblest village — from 
the threats and tyrannies, the shadows and 
sacrifices, the heroism and victories, of the 
great war, towards a noble ordering of peace. 


«s5* «^6 

Survey Associates, with its thousand cooperating members, is en- 
deavoring to serve as a harbinger of these things, through our series of 
special, once-a-month Reconstruction Numbers of The Survey. 

How Survey readers can, through these Reconstruction Numbers, 
spread their Easter Greetings over the twelve months that lie ahead of 
us, is set forth on the back cover of this issue. 

April 19, 1919 

10 Cents a Copy 

$4.00 a Year 

Labor and Reconstruction in Europe. By ELISHA M. FRIEDMAN. 

With an Introduction by the Hon. W. B. WILSON, Secretary of Labor, who, after commending it for bringing together 
vital information not generally accessible, at an opportune time, adds : " It has these great merits : it is compact, brief, 
coherent and clear." Mr. FRIEDMAN has no axe to grind; his aim is to describe impartially the means undertaken 
or proposed in sixteen countries, belligerent and neutral, with special attention to France, England, and Germany, for 
dealing with reconstruction in labor matters. It is of value to employment managers, directors of corporations, and to 
all students of labor problems. Net, $2.50 

American Problems of Reconstruction. Edited by ELISHA M. FRIEDMAN. 

A National Symposium by experts with a Foreword by FRANKLIN K. LANE, Secretary of the Interior. Third 
and Revised Edition with an added chapter by Dr. F. W. Taussig, chairman of the U. S. Tariff Commission on 
" Tariff Problems." " Able and scientific," says the Amer. Pol. Science Quarterly, " as is to be expected when such 
names as Irving Fisher, E. W. Kemmerer, A. D. Noyes, E. R. A. Seligman, Frank A. Vanderlip and Lewis B. Wehle 
are among the contributors." Net, $4.00 

Russia's Agony. By ROBERT WILTON, Correspondent of the Times (London) in Russia. 

The author is beyond question the best qualified of the many writers on the Russian situation. Truth calls it : " In- 
comparably the most opportune, interesting and instructive book of its kind." The New York Tribune says: ''His de- 
tailed and comprehensive narrative of events is of intense interest and inestimable value ; but if possible still more to 
be prized is his keen analysis and judicious estimate of Bolshevism ... of exceptional value." Net, $5.00 

Russian Revolution Aspects. By ROBERT CR0ZIER LONG. 

The author was in Russia in 1917 as Correspondent of the Associated Press. Where Mr. Wilton explains and ana- 
lyzes Mr. Long describes the Revolution as one of the great and terrible episodes of human history. His narrative, 
full of color, speed and fascination, should be read along with Mr. Wilton's invaluable interpretation. Net $2.50 

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The Survey 


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Technique or Method? . . . F. Stuart Chapin 105 

International Labor Legislation . Lewis S. Gannett 107 

The Whitley Councils . . . Arthur Gleason 109 


Women in Industry . . . . . . . .112 

Producers and Consumers . . . . . . 112 

Independent Textile Union 113 

A Tiade Union College 113 

For Returning Soldiers . . . . . . .114 

Against Wage Reduction 114 

Pittsburgh Morals 114 

Democracy in City Zoning 115 

Chicago Italians 115 

Trained Home-Makers 115 

"Home" 115 

Agricultural Legislation 116 

Mayor Schreiber's Maxims .116 

A World without Women 116 

An Appeal for Moral Support 117 

Ireland's Invitation 117 


Baltimore Primaries — A Workshop 118 

Bringing the School to the Home 118 

Volunteer Educators and Schools 120 

The Commission-Manager System ..... 120 

Contests for Accident Prevention 120 

Forty Years of Social Practice 121 

What the Church Survey Can Do 121 



PAMPHLETS RECEIVED . . . . . . 126 


The Survey for May 3 will contain a summary of the results of 

The Children's Year — 
April 1918-19 

By Julia C. Lathrop 

Chief of the Federal Children's Bureau 

This is one of an unusually interesting grist of articles which 
go to make up the May Reconstruction issue. 


ROBERT W. db FOREST, President 


iia East io street, New York 05s Grand avenue, Chicago 

ROBERT W. dx FOREST, Chairman 


SAMUEL S. FELS, Philadelphia 
JOHN M. GLENN, New York 
C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, Calif. 

San Diego 

JULIAN W. MACK, Chicago 
SIMON N. PATTEN, PhiladelpMi 

ALFRED T. WHITE. Brooklya 

Survey Associates, Inc., is incorporated under the laws of the state af 
New York, November, 1012, as a membership organization without shareu 
or stockholders. Membership is open to readers who become contributor! 
of $10 or more a year. It is this widespread, convinced backing and pei 
sonal interest which has made the Suevzy a living thing. 

QUITE out of a clear sky came a recent letter from a social 
worker, an old friend and contributor, who said: "For some 
time I had been reading the Survey as a pure matter of profes- 
sional necessity. Of late I have been finding it interesting and 
stimulating and I congratulate you on the change." A request for 
specifications brought the following reply: 

To the Editor: In answer to your request that I elaborate on 
my statement that the Survey is " looking up," I do not believe 
that 1 have analyzed the change sufficiently to be able to help 
much, but I am glad to pass on the few thoughts that come tp 
me at this time. 

The improvement is, I think, due both to mechanics and subject 
matter. From the mechanics' side, it is a case for rejoicing to 
have a contents again. The blocking off of special features re- 
lieves monotony and invites reading. The multiplication of short, 
timely items has interested me. I have liked the Social Work- 
shop section and I find myself preferring the short articles and 
weekly issues to the larger monthly. However, that is a symptom 
of a busy life and not an argument against the monthly. 

It has been refreshing to have you take an occasional shot at 
the established order within the field of social work itself. Social 
work has been so busy taking it out on business and the public 
that it is disposed to spend too little time in self-examination. It 
is good for all of us to have such things said as, for example, 
Dr. Devine has said in The Future of Home Service with refer- 
ence to learning from the non-professional worker, or, to give an- 
other illustration, the comment made recently in connection with 
the item on C. O. S. salary standardization. We need more prod- 
ding all along the line from case workers to trustees. 

I should like to see the Survey live up more courageously to its 
role as a journal of social interpretation by developing a live 
editorial section and leadership in initiating and carrying on dis- 
cussion of important issues. You bring out many good articles 
whose value is transitory because there is no provision for keeping 
up the campaign. The article, Who is the Father? in the issue 
for March 29 is a case in point. The subject calls for continuity 
of discussion unless we propose to let the slow process of social 
evolution do its work unaided. 

A good many of us feel the need of an organ which is ready 
to cut deep even at the cost of some pain to itself and others, and 
I should like to see the Survey function as a vigorous and fearless 
leader of thought in the social field as well as a purveyor of news. 

Sincerely yours, 


THE Long Table: Survey Associates and readers are cordially 
invited to draw up a chair Friday afternoons at 4 o'clock in 
the Survey library, 112 East 19 street, for a visit and a cup of tea. 




ISLATION— J ohn B. Andrews, sec'y ; 131 B 23 
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— Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y, Teachers College, 
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CHRIST IN AMERICA — Constituted by 30 
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Commission on Church and Country Life ; 
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Committee for Christian Relief in France and 
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CHURCHES— Constituted by the Federal Coun- 
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sec'y ; Gaylord S. White, asso. sec'y. Coordi- 
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provides for cooperative enterprises during 
war and reconstruction. 105 East 22 St., New 

IIAMTTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, princi- 
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Gram. ""* 


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— Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y ; 70 Fifth Ave., 
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GIENE — Clifford W. Beers, sec'y ; 50 Union Sq., 
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TION OF BLINDNESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director ; Gordon L. Berry, field sec'y ; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y ; 130 East 22 
St., New York. Objects : To furnish informa- 
tion, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement — samples free, quanti- 
ties at cost. Includes New York State Commit- 


— Julia C. Lathrop, pres., Washington, D. C. ; 
William T. Cross, gen. sec'y ; 315 Plymouth 
Court, Chicago. General organization to discuss 
principles of humanitarian effort and increase 
efficiency of agencies. Publishes proceedings 
annual meetings. Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, 
etc. Information bureau. Membership, $3. 46th 
annual meeting June 1-8, 1919. Atlantic City. 

Main divisions and chairmen : 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Cyrus B. Adams. 

Health, Dr. C.-E. A. Winslow. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Robert W. 

The Family, Joanna C. Colcord. 

Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. Flor- 
ence Kelley. 

The Local Community, Frances Ingram. 

Mental Hygiene. Maj. Frankwood E. Wil- 
liams, M. O. R. C. 

Organization of Social Forces, . William I J. 

Uniting Native and Foreign Born in Amer- 
ica, Graham Taylor. 


— Robert A. Woods, sec'y ; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state and 
nation for meeting the fundamental problems 
disclosed by settlement work ; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighbor- 
hood life. 

TIONS AMONG NEGROES— L. Hollingsworth 
Wood, pres. ; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y ; 
200 Fifth Ave., New York. Investigates condi- 
tions of city life as a basis for practical work ; 
trains Negro social workers. 


— Miss Maude Wetmore, eh'n, 257 Madison 
Ave., New York. To mobilize and train the 
volunteer woman power of the country for 
specific service along social and economic lines ; 
cooperating with government agencies. 


— Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y ; 35 E. 30th St., 
New York. Evening clubs for girls ; recreation 
and instruction in self-governing and support- 
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The Club Worker, monthly, 75 cents a year. 

HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y ; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects : To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing ; to develop standards of tech- 
nique ; to maintain a central bureau of in- 
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Nurse, subscription included in membership. 
Dues, $2.00 and upward. 


—Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22 St.. 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations 
with trained workers. 

bert Colgate, pres. ; Rush Taggart, treus. ; Orin 
C. Baker, sec'y ; rooms 20-21, 465 Lexington 
Ave., New York. Composed of non-commercial 
agencies interested in the guidance and protec- 
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LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703), Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the workshop through organiza- 
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Life and Labor. 

AMERICA — H. S. Braucher, sec'y ; 1 Madison 
Ave., N. Y. C. Playground, neighborhood and 
community center activities and administra- 
tion ; cooperating with War Dept Commission 
on Training Camp Activities. 


Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causes 
of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ment. Its chief activities are the Race Better- 
ment Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and 
lecture courses and various allied activities. 
J. H. Kellogg, pres. ; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir., 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Conducts research in re-edu- 
cation for disabled soldiers and industrial 
cripples. Publishes reports on reconstruction 
work here and abroad, and endeavors to estab- 
lish an enlightened public attitude towards the 
physically handicapped. 

provement of Living Conditions— John M. 
Glenn, dir. ; 130 E. 22 St, New York. Depart- 
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Forest pres. : Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y ; publish- 
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Bruno Lasker, 112 East 19th St, New York. 

TUSBEGEE INSTITUTE — An institution for 
the training of Negro Youth ; an experiment in 
race adjustment in the Black Bolt of the South ; 
furnishes information on all phases of the race 
problem and on the Tuskegee Idea and meth- 
ods. Robert R. Moton, pnn. ; Warren Logan, 
treas. ; Emmett J. Scott sec'y ; Tuskegee, Ala. 

son Ave.. New York. Conducted by the Play- 
ground and Recreation Association of America 
under the War Department and Navy Depart- 
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to mobilize all the resources of the communities 
near the camps for the benefit of the officers 
and men. The War Camp Community Serrlcs 
stimulates, coordinates and supplements the 
social and recreational activities of the ramp 
cities and towns. Joseph Lee, pres. ; H. m. 
Braucher, sec'y. • 


>» s 

Technique or Method? 

Some Principles that Should Govern Training for Social Work 

By F. Stuart Chapin 

THE fundamental principle of modern social work 
is the differential treatment of the human being 
in distress, the individualization of the human per- 
sonality. Insofar as social case-work aims at the 
development of character and self-reliance, it is an educational 
process. The technique of this kind of social work is a real 
contribution to educational procedure because institutionalized 
education has heretofore concerned itself too much with secur- 
ing conformity to prevailing conventions and with the stand- 
ardization of human beings, and not enough with differential 
treatment. Yet the rich experience of institutional education 
of the schools and colleges should point a few lessons to the 
new training for social work. 

Training for social work is a form of vocational education. 
The great evil of vocational education is emphasis on learning 
technique rather than method. Technique is simply crystallized 
method. It is the way of dealing with past situations. It 
knows little of novel situations. Hence vocational education 
tends to emphasize memory work. A retentive memory is 
more useful to the technician than ability to cope with new 
situations. But it is the latter capacity that education should 
aim to develop. Our end is character, not mere skill. 

If one were to classify studies into three groups, ( i ) sub- 
jects involving skill of performance, (2) disciplinary subjects, 
and (3) informational subjects, social work would fall more 
largely in the first group than in any other. For social work 
is an art requiring great skill of performance. Now the 
special danger of subjects requiring skill of performance is 
that they tend to become mechanically performed. Thus they 
restrict independence of thinking. The performance becomes 
an end in its.elf. Moreover, insofar as training for social 
work involves acquainting new students with social resources, 
it is an informational subject. Here again the danger is 
that the acquisition of information may become the end, rather 
than the means to the end of wisdom. The temptation is 
to rely on memory work; to emphasize structure, rather than 

Training for social work should also be judged from the 

standpoint of its external results as contrasted with that of 
the development of personal attitudes and habits. Training 
for social work must bring external results, knowledge of sub- 
ject, familiarity with social resources, facility in technique, 
tc be sure. But is this enough? Since our aim is to make 
each client self-dependent as far as possible, is it not, after 
all, more important to produce social workers capable of 
resourceful, courageous and independent thinking about their 
problems than to turn out mechanically efficient technicians? 
If education for social work is dogmatic inculcation of mere 
technique, it is repressive of originality and not educative. 
The effect upon behavior of education for social work is 
vastly different if habits of independent thought and careful 
deliberation are insisted on. Encourage the student who 
differs from you. He may possibly be nearer the truth than 
you are. I encourage my students to be sceptical of every- 
thing their instructor tells them. Systematized doubt and 
scepticism are very wholesome mental habits. 

Training for social work, although it fits for a profession 
that relies on educational method for the rehabilitation of 
its clients and hence on the practice of self-discipline, is not it- 
self a disciplinary subject but, as I have suggested, an informa- 
tional study and one requiring skill of performance. But I con- 
tend that training for social work should be made a disciplinary 
study in the highest sense of the word and not a trade study. 
There is no danger that it shall ever fall into the error of 
formal disciplinary studies which make their students aloof, 
detached from the world of everyday events. Training for 
social work needs to be made more of an intellectual dis- 
cipline, both as the means of securing efficient graduates as 
well as to act as a safeguard against the narrowing, the dead- 
ening tendency of too much emphasis on the side of informa- 
tion and practice in mere technique. Promising students 
should become more thoughtful and deliberate, more inde- 
pendent and fearless in their thinking, because of training 
for social work, and not in spite of that training. 

In our effort to make training for social work productive 
of careful, alert, and thorough habits of thinking, we will 

The Survey, April 19, 1919, Volume 42, No. 3. 112 East 19 Street, New York city 




do well to consider the lessons taught by two opposing schools 
of intellectual discipline — the natural and the formal. 

The formal, the more ancient of the two, puts great stress 
on the logical, and conceives of the natural tendencies of the 
individual as averse. It thinks of the mind as naturally reluc- 
tant and rebellious and holds that method in education has 
to do with devices by which logical characteristics may be 
imported into the mind. Hence it emphasizes drill and the 
memorizing of systematized material. It is held that, in the 
process of accommodating itself to ready-made logical defi- 
nitions, do's and don'ts, generalizations, and classifications, 
the mind gradually acquires logical habits and, incidentally, 
important information. 

The Drill Master's Failure 

From time immemorial the reaction against the formal 
method of a drill master is lack of interest in the study, habits 
of inattention, and intellectual hypocrisy on the part of the 
unfortunate students. Of course, the error of this method is 
not far to find. The formally logical represents the logical 
capacity of the adult mind at its best point reached after 
thorough training. " It is absurd," says Dewey, " to suppose 
that a mind which needs training because it cannot perform 
these operations can begin where the expert mind stops. The 
logical from the standpoint of subject-matter represents the 
goal, the last term of training, not the point of departure." 

The natural school, voicing a reaction against the poor 
results of the formal school, like all reactions tends to go 
too far and undervalues the importance of the logical. It 
emphasizes freedom of expression, spontaneity, naturalness, 
play, natural unfolding, etc. Educational method consists 
of devices which stimulate or evoke these natural potentiali- 
ties of the individual. But it is an error to identify the 
natural expression of thought, freedom of mind, and mental 
power, with the casual discharge of transitory impulses. 
Direct expression of impulse is fatal to thinking. Emphasis 
placed here inevitably results in the formation of positive 
habits, which are those of heedlessness, " habits of haphazard, 
grasshopper-like guessing," or " habits of credulity alternating 
with flippant incredulity," all alike disastrous to mental 
discipline. This school grasps the idea of self-expression but 
falls short of discovering the great truth of self-discipline. 
Students must discipline themselves by constant exercise of 

Now training for social work, training for disciplined 
thinking about problems of the present social order, would 
naturally emphasize concrete thought rather than abstract 
thought. But for educational purposes, for purposes of men- 
tal discipline, the practical ranks no higher than the theo- 
retical. Just as college education runs the risk of over- 
emphasizing abstract thinking, and undervaluing concrete 
thinking, so training for social work runs the risk of over- 
emphasizing concrete thinking and undervaluing abstract 
thinking. The dynamic factor in education is to go from 
the concrete to the abstract. 

Social work is too often content with the concrete and 
does not lift its eyes to the scientific promise of the abstract. 
Says Dewey, " The conception that we have only to put 
before the senses particular physical objects in order to im- 
press certain ideas upon the mind amounts almost to a super- 
stition." Development comes from putting things to use 
" in a way that compels thinking as to what they mean and 
how they are related to one another and to the realization 
of ends; while the more isolated presentation of things is 

barren and dead." No method of instruction is more preg- 
nant with possibility of developing the student than class 
discussion skilfully guided and unfolded under the hand of 
the experienced teacher. This problem method of teaching, as 
it is sometimes called, is gradually taking the place of the dry 
lecture method. The only justification for the latter is a 
synthetic function. Discussion methods of teaching are exem- 
plified by the case method of the law school, adopted and 
now successfully applied in case discussion for training social 

To make training for social work dynamic education, 
greater store should be set on scientific thinking and less 
on empirical thinking. It is true that the laws of sociology 
and the principles of social work are still largely empirical, 
but this by no means excuses us from the obligation of trying 
to make them scientific. 

When one event is usually followed by another, and we 
know of no connection between the two yet predict the second 
when we obscure the first, we are thinking empirically. Whiie 
these empirical conclusions are usually correct, the empirical 
method affords no way of discriminating between right and 
wrong conclusions. Hence fallacies are heaped up, and a 
multitude of false beliefs result. Empirical inference follows 
the grooves and ruts worn by technique and has no track to 
follow when the groove disappears. Empirical methods are 
discouraged by the new, the unforeseen. But more harmful 
even than the false conclusion of empirical method, is the 
demoralization that its use causes in habits of thought. Its 
effect on mental attitude is more disastrous than its wrong 
conclusion. Failure to agree with the usual are slurred over, 
and cases of successful confirmation are exaggerated — the 
result is mental inertia, laziness and unjustifiable conserva- 

The empirical method says, " Wait until there is a suf- 
ficient number of cases," the experimental method says, 
" Produce the cases." 

The scientific habit of thought is therefore open, free, 
experimental. It will not admit the impossible; it is open to 
conviction by experimentation; it seeks to discover connec- 
tions between successive events. These relationships are found 
by carrying to completion the act of scientific thinking. Scien- 
tific thought starts off with observations, unbiased observa- 
tions of fact, it proceeds from this point to an orderly group- 
ing of the facts of observation. It classifies them into se- 
quences and series. The fulfilment of scientific thinking is 
achieved when the facts so classified are discovered to con- 
form to some principle or law. In this way, thinking be- 
comes dynamic; you go from the concrete (observation of 
facts) to the abstract (the principles). Scientific men never 
make the accumulation of observations an end in itself, but 
always a means to an end — a general intellectual conclusion. 
Until this is known, says Dewey, " observation will be largely 
a matter of uninteresting and dead work, or of acquiring 
forms of technical skill that are not available as intellectual re- 

Two Cardinal Sins of Teaching 
Let us save education for social work from repeating ancient 
errors. Out of its vast experience, institutionalized educa- 
tion may contribute to the new process of training for social 
work warnings against two cardinal sins of teaching — the 
fallacy of fixity, and errors of ends. To produce graduates 
who think for themselves, independently, resourcefully, cour- 
ageously, fearlessly, the system of training them must be 
plastic, adaptable, experimental, not given to rigid methods 



of instruction, or to the teaching of fixed doctrine. It is a 
fallacy to regard subject matter or methods as fixed. Nothing 
is absolutely proven. All things are relative. Teaching 
methods and subjects of instruction fall into the fallacy of 

fixity when they regard knowledge of subject matter and 
methods of drill as ends in themselves. Let us be on our 
guard to keep our methods and our material, means to the 
great end of developing self-reliant personality. 

International Labor Legislation 

By Lewis S. Gannett 

Paris, March 25. 

THREE questions stood upon 
the agenda of the first 
plenary session of the Peace 
Conference in the middle of 
January: responsibility of the authors 
of the war; responsibility for crimes 
committed in the war; international 
labor legislation. The league of na- 
tions did not come into the order of 
business until the second meeting, a 
week later; international labor legis- 
lation preceded it. 

International labor legislation was 
regarded in part as an antidote, to 
bolshevism. If labor were to continue 
discontented and inflamed against the 
governments, if the old economic competition between nations, 
tending to destroy the safeguards of labor, were to be re- 
stored, peace would become an impossibility. Some measure 
of concession to labor's demands was felt necessary to stem 
the growing uneasiness. 

A commission on international labor legislation was named 
on which France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Belgium and the 
United States were represented with two members each ; Cuba, 
Poland and Czechoslovakia with one each. France named 
MM. Colliard and Loucheur, her ministers of labor and of 
industrial reconstruction, but M. Fontaine, a tried official of 
the Ministry of Labor, and Leon Jouhaux, the veteran secre- 
tary of the Confederation of Labor, usually sat in their places. 
England named George Barnes, minister without portfolio and 
ex-member of the Labor Party, and Sir Malcolm E>elevigne, 
a Home Office official with long experience in labor legisla- 
tion. The United States named Samuel Gompers and E. N. 
Hurley of the Shipping Board. Robinson, also of the Ship- 
ping Board, frequently sat for Hurley, and later Prof. James 
T. Shotwell of Columbia University took his place. £mile 
Vandervelde, Socialist minister of justice, was one of the 
Belgian delegates. 

The members of this commission were charged " to inquire 
into the conditions of employment from the international as- 
pect, and to consider the international means necessary to se- 
cure common action on matters affecting conditions of em- 
ployment, and to recommend the form of a permanent agency 
to continue such inquiry and consideration in cooperation with 
and under the direction of the League of Nations." They 
started out with the conviction that the bare constitution of 
a league of nations would not go far toward avoiding inter- 
national difficulties in the future unless it provided a remedy 
for the industrial evils and injustices which mar our present 
state of society. They did not so much attempt to do away 
with injustice at one stroke as to provide machinery for con- 
tinuous cooperative international endeavor for its elimination. 
It was their belief that the world is not lacking in dynamic 
energy and in revolt against industrial injustice but that it 


of the 


has lacked the machinery to generalize 
progress at first locally achieved. 
Hitherto, employers in progressive na- 
tions always have protested that condi- 
tions in more backward competing 
nations prevented them from advancing 
still further. The commission named 
by the Inter-Allied Council drew up a 
convention which at least may bring 
backward nations forward, although 
certain groups doubtless will be disap- 
pointed because it will do little to shove 
the progressive nations into still greater 

The English delegates came to the 
first of the commission's meetings with 
a draft proposal already drawn, and 
with modifications it was adopted. It provided for a general 
conference representing governments, employers and employes, 
meeting periodically to discuss and recommend labor legisla- 
tion, and for a permanent international labor office to collect 
and distribute information on labor matters and to investigate 
subjects of proposed international conventions. These organi- 
zations would be integral parts of the structure of the league 
of nations. The Peace Conference would be called upon to 
ratify the convention establishing them; later — perhaps next 
October and probably at Washington — the first meeting of 
the conference would be held and first steps taken toward in- 
ternational labor legislation. The proposed convention was 
not labor legislation ; but it creates the machinery for subse- 
quent legislation and provides for continuous international co- 
operation and interchange of information in labor matters. 

Certain fundamental principles were so obviously necessary 
for social progress, and there was such urgent need of seeming 
to do something at once that the commission went further: 
it proposed clauses for insertion in the peace treaty. The high 
contracting parties were asked to accept certain principles and 
to " agree to take every possible step to assure their realization." 
These principles, all accepted by at least two-thirds of the 
members of the commission are as follows: 

1. Labor is not a commodity; 

2. The right of association "for all lawful purposes;" 

3. Prohibition of labor for children under 14 and continuation 
school for those from 14 to 18; 

4. The right to a decent living wage; 

5. Equal pay for equal work without distinction of sex; 

6. A weekly rest — Sundays when possible; 

7. The eight-hour day and forty-eight hour week, with exceptions; 

8. Equal rights for foreign and native workers ; 

9. A service of labor inspection in which women shall take part. 

All the provisions have been platforms of labor conferences 
for a decade. The whole has been presented to the Peace 
Conference for insertion in the peace treaty, and after adoption 
will be left to the individual nations to be carried out. 




The high contracting parties declare their acceptance of the 
following principles and engage to take all necessary steps 
to secure their realization in accordance with the recom- 
mendation to be made by the International Labor Conference 
as to their practical application: 

1. In right and in fact the labor of a human being should 
not be treated as merchandise or an article of commerce. 

2. Employers and workers should be allowed the right 
of association for all lawful purposes. 

3. No child should be permitted to be employed in in- 
dustry or commerce before the age of fourteen years, in 
order that every child may be ensured reasonable oppor- 
tunities for mental and physical education. 

Between the years of fourteen and eighteen, young per- 
sons of either sex may only be employed on work which 
is not harmful to their physical development and on condi- 
tion that the continuation of their technical or general 
education is ensured. 

4. Every worker has a right to a wage adequate to 
maintain a reasonable standard of life having regard to 
the civilization of his time and country. 

5. Equal pay should be given to women and to men 
for work of equal value in quantity and quality. 

6. A weekly rest, including Sunday or its equivalent, 
for all workers. 

7. Limitation of the hours of work in industry on the 
basis of eight hours a day or forty-eight hours a week, 
subject to an exception for countries in which climatic 
conditions, the imperfect development of industrial de- 
velopment or industrial organization or other special cir- 
cumstances render the industrial efficiency of the workers 
substantially different. 

The International Labor Conference will recommend a 
basis approximately equivalent to the above for adoption 
in such countries. 

8. In all matters concerning their status as workers 
and social insurance foreign workmen lawfully admitted 
to any country and their families should be ensured the 
same treatment as the nationals of that country. 

9. All states should institute a system of inspection in 
which women should take part, in order to ensure the 
enforcement of the laws and regulations for the protection 
of the workers. 

Italian workers recently secured by economic pressure a 
drop in the working week from 72 hours to 48 ; the Frencli 
workers threaten a general strike May 1 if the eight-hour day 
is not granted them before, and are generally demanding the 
Saturday half-holiday as well; British workers already are 
striking for a 47- and 44-hour week. General eight-hour day 
laws may catch some of the back eddies of industry, but it 
will not be strange if the more advanced labor movements 
feel that the Commission on International Labor Legislation 
of the Peace Conference has done little for them. 

Whether or not these proposals will be inserted in the peace 
treaty is another matter and one that concerns the Council 
of Ten to which all matters go for final decision. Yet such 
insertion after all would be only a pious wish and a good 
resolution. The commission, therefore, went further and 
drew up the agenda for the first meeting of the general con- 
ference next October. On that agenda stand : 

The extension of the Berne convention of 1906, which condemned 
the employment of yellow phosphorus in the match industry — a pro- 
vision since carried out by all the great nations except Japan — 
and urged an eleven-hour nightly rest for women in industry — 
likewise since generally accepted; 

The eight-hour day and forty-eight hour week ; 

Provision against unemployment; 

Protection of women in industry — prohibition of night work 
and work in unhealthful industries; and protection of maternity; 

Protection of children — prohibition of night work, unhealthful 
work, or 'work undertaken below a certain age. 

How to enact such international labor legislation was the 

most knotty problem which the commission had to meet. The 
General Conference, the legislative body, is to consist of four 
representatives of each nation, of which two shall represent 
the government, one the employers and one the employes 
(these last also named by the governments, but " in agree- 
ment with the industrial organization, if such exist, most 
representative of the employers or the workpeople, as the 
case may be "). These representatives vote individually rather 
than as national units, a method which facilitates the forma- 
tion of international industrial opinion on lines of genuine 
economic rather than fictitious national interest and makes 
possible a frank and free expression of individual opinion. 
Labor men object that in the present-day world it means a 
three to one or at best a tie vote against forward labor pro- 
posals. The French, American, Italian and Cuban delegates 
urged equal representation for the three groups; but the Brit- 
ish, Belgian and other delegations felt it essential that the 
governments have at least half the voice in a conference 
which was to draw up conventions which the states would 
have to present to their legislatures. Otherwise proposals 
might be adopted to which the majority of the governments 
were opposed, the convention might be rejected and the pres- 
tige of the conference thereby diminished. 

The Governing Board of the permanent International 
Labor Office is similarly constituted. Subjects to come before 
the legislative body, which is to meet at least annually, are 
determined by the Governing Board, but any government may 
object formally to the inclusion of any subject for discussion. 
In such cases a two-thirds vote of the conference is required 
to put it back on the agenda. A simple majority is sufficient 
for the first passage of a convention ; it then is embodied in a 
draft international convention, and a two-thirds vote is re- 
quired for final adoption. The convention then is deposited 
with the secretary-general of the League of Nations, and 
each state undertakes within one year to bring it before the 
competent bodies for enacting legislation. If the legislature 
fails to take effective action, no further obligation rests upon 
the state in question, and only such states as do ratify are 
bound by the convention. 

Obviously states which have federal constitutions may be 
incapable of ratifying such constitutions. The United States 
Senate, for instance, might ratify a child labor treaty, but 
it would have no power to force the state of North Carolina 
to carry it into effect. The United States, in fact, is con- 
stitutionally incapable of carrying out most of the proposed 
legislation. An alternative, therefore, was provided by which 
such "legislation " may take the form either of conventions 
or recommendations. 

There may be cases where a recommendation affirming a 
principle would be more suitable than a detailed draft con- 
vention. Some subjects may be incapable of reduction to a 
uniform mode of procedure in widely differing countries. 
Such recommendations would not be binding but would have 
behind them the moral force of a world-opinion and eventually 
of a world-example. 

Some conventions, which would have to do with interstate 
commerce, could be ratified by the United States as well as 
by centralized states. But others could not. Hence the pro- 
vision was inserted by which a federal state whose power to 
enter into conventions on labor is limited, may treat a draft 
convention to which such limitations apply as a recommenda- 
tion only. That puts the United States in a privileged posi- 
tion. The acceptance of the American position by France 
and England — Japan and Italy did not vote on the proposi- 
tion — was extraordinarily generous. 



The method of enforcement provided is as follows: Any 
association of employers or workpeople may represent to the 
permanent International Labor Office that one of the con- 
tracting parties has failed effectively to observe a convention. 
The Governing Board of the labor office then communicates 
the complaint to the supposed offender and invites it to report. 
If no reply is received, or if the reply is deemed not satisfac- 
tory, the Governing Board may ask the secretary-general of 
the League of Nations to name a commission of enquiry con- 
sisting of one employer, one worker, and one person of inde- 
pendent standing chosen from a panel formed of three such 
persons of industrial experience nominated by each of the con- 
tracting parties. The commission of enquiry will report on 
questions of fact and recommend steps to meet the complaint; 
it may suggest appropriate measures of an economic character 
against a defaulting state. This report shall be published; 
and the states concerned shall inform the secretary-general 
if they accept the recommendations and if not whether they 
propose to refer the complaint to the Permanent Court of 
International Justice of the League of Nations which, like the 
commission, may propose methods of penalizing failure to 
abide by its decision. Penalties thus are imposed only in case 
of flagrant and persistent refusal to carry out obligations, and 
the occasion for them possibly may never arise. 

How much the whole project amounts to in the eyes of 
French labor is indicated by Leon Jouhaux, of the French 
Confederation of Labor, in an article published in l'Europe 
Nouvelle of March 22, before the project had been submitted 
to the Council of Ten. Jouhaux sat on the commission himself, 
but did not vote. He says: 

The project is far from corresponding to the desires of the masses 
of workingrnen. ... It constitutes only a fragment, and how 
small a fragment, of the International Parliament of Labor which 
the organized workers asked at Berne. . . . National sover- 
eignty remains untouched. . . . The text adopted gives so large 
an autonomy to federal states that the effective participation of 
the United States remains problematical. . . . What the work- 
ers want is not an organization to protect them — they have their 
unions for that; it is not a mechanism too narrowly inspired by 
the legal protection of the workers. . . . It is above all an inter- 
national parliament provided with precise and determined powers, 
having the right to supervise and inquire, consequently an institu- 
tion created to attack and solve all the international labor prob- 
lems which will be posed on the morrow of the war. . . . 

If, in diplomatic circles, people would open their eyes to reality, 
listen to the demands which come up to them from below, and 
enter sturdily the path of positive realizations, grave disillusion- 
ments might be avoided. ... It is because we know that the 
International Conference of Labor might be a solid basis for a 
regime of pacification and of intensified production that we demand 
that this organization be not merely a fagade built to throw powder 

in the eyes and by virtue of its incomplete character and ineffective 
powers nothing more. 

Perhaps Jouhaux blames the Labor Commission for faults 
which are faults of the whole League of Nations and of ex- 
isting constitutions. 

When the work was all but done, the commission heard a 
delegation of women. A group of Allied suffragists had been 
interviewing the premiers and presidents for weeks, urging 
them to name women on some of the commissions of the 
Peace Conference. The Germans named a woman delegate 
to the Peace Conference. But the Allied premiers and presi- 
dents, while very polite, waited until too late and finally 
granted the Allied women the privilege of being heard by 
the Commission on International Labor Legislation. 

Unfortunately the women who had been interviewing the 
premiers and presidents for the most part were well-known 
society women and suffragists who knew very little of the 
actual problems of woman labor. There is a chapter of 
skirmishings that shall never be written ; finally the suffragists 
invited two or three French trade union women to join them. 

Mrs. J. Borden Harriman spoke in the name of American 
labor, chatting familiarly with Gompers rather than address- 
ing the commission. The French society suffragists, after 
seeking suggestions from a pacifist labor woman to whom 
they had not spoken since the outbreak of the war, made their 
speeches. A Belgian, an Italian and an Englishwoman also 
spoke. Then came the real labor representatives. One of 
them, representative of a Catholic union, asked that the pro- 
vision regarding consultation with the " most representative 
industrial organizations " be enlarged to include smaller 
groups. "What breed does she represent?" asked Samuel 
Gompers. Another, about to read certain suggested amend- 
ments, was interrupted by Mr. Gompers' announcement that 
it was time for lunch. 

The women said they did not want protection of women as 
such, but of maternity. They asked not to be excluded from 
unhealthful industries but that industries be made healthful. 
In any case, they said, only processes not entire industries 
were unhealthful. They asked a 44-hour instead of a 48-hour 
week, and a minimum age limit of fifteen years instead of four- 
teen. But the only amendment granted them was the men- 
tion of women in the proposed clause regarding inspection of 
labor. The commission already had finished its work when 
it heard them, though it held a perfunctory session next day 
to discuss their demands. But it is still a man's world — in 
the Peace Conference. 

The Whitley Councils 

[The Final in a Series of Three Articles.] 

By Arthur Gleason 

INTERIM industrial reconstruction committees have 
been formed by the Ministry of Reconstruction, in asso- 
ciation with the Board of Trade and the Ministry of 
Labor, in certain industries where owing to various 
reasons progress towards the formation of joint standing in- 
dustrial councils has been slow. Like joint standing indus- 
trial councils, they consist of equal numbers of representatives 
of associations of employers and trade unions. What form 
they should take must depend on the circumstances of each 
industry. What functions they should assume and what they 
should leave or delegate to existing organizations or to 

specially created bodies, are also questions which must be 
determined by those concerned. But it is not intended that 
these committees, any more than the permanent joint standing 
industrial councils to which it is hoped they will lead, should 
confine themselves to the consideration of subjects specially 
referred to them by a government department. It is hoped 
that they will exercise a large initiative in devising means by 
which the transition from war to peace conditions may be most 
smoothly effected, and the way opened to the rapid restora- 
tion of industrial enterprise. An industrial council, for 
instance, engaged a physician to investigate the problem of 



industrial fatigue in the particular field. Costing systems 
should be universally introduced, and several councils have 
this as an object. The whole area of their industry is open to 
them for intensive study, organization and charter-making. It 
is up to the Whitleys to substitute a constitution for the 
anarchy, exploitation, waste and suffering of the last one 
hundred years. 

The Thirty -five "Interims" 

The Ministry of Reconstruction has set up thirty-five of 
these interim industrial reconstruction committees, which in- 
clude the following industries: basket making; artificial stone; 
the blacksmiths and farriers' industry; brush making; cocoa, 
chocolate, sugar confectionery and jam; cooperage; catering; 
clay; cutlery; envelopes and manufactured stationery; fertil- 
izer; furniture warehousing and removing; glove; lead; music 
trades; non-ferreous mines; packing case; patent fuel; quarry- 
ing ; railway carriage and wagon building ; safe, lock and latch ; 
sugar refining; wholesale clothing — ladies' and children's light 
section; wire-drawing; zinc and spelter. They are giving help 
to the government on demobilization, reinstatement, provision 
of raw materials, priority, employment, efficient regulation of 
production. The government regards these " interims " in 
the less organized trades as the apprenticeship of labor to busi- 
ness control, leading to joint management. The critics of the 
interims have pointed and detailed objections on the ground 
that the interims weaken trade unionism in the very trades 
where the unions need strengthening — a point of view which 
will be considered in a later article. Turning from this ques- 
tion of policy to the facts of accomplishment, we find that the 
organization of an interim in the basket-making trade has 
resulted in long discussions between the employers and the 
workers as to how labor conditions can be improved, the best 
place for obtaining raw supplies and similar questions. Each 
side contributes what it knows for the sake of bringing what 
was an imperfectly organized trade into greater unity of pro- 
ductive conditions. One immediate result has been to make a 
close study of the supply of raw materials in order to obtain 
a better supply of willows. One of the difficulties in this trade 
has been that it consisted of tiny branches of workers scattered 
all over Great Britain. Today the trade is better organized 
than at any period in its past history. 

Discussions of the interim committee for the blacksmiths and 
farriers industry show that the workpeoples' organization 
known as the Amalgamated Society of Farriers believes that 
better conditions are more easily obtainable when the employers 
are well organized. The employers have accepted the princi- 
ple that only trade-unionists shall be employed ; and the corre- 
sponding principle follows that the employing farriers must be 
registered for the sake of protecting the consuming public 
against bad farriering. 

In the brush-making trades it was found that the supply of 
bristles had been coming from Siberia from what are known 
as North Russian hogs. Masters and men agreed to approach 
the Canadian government through its trade commissioner and 
ask it to go into the business of producing these Siberian hogs 
in order to obtain a regular supply of bristles for the British 
trade. Another fact which this interim committee discovered 
was that unstamped brushes from abroad were being passed 
off as British brushes, whereas with a proper system of regula- 
tion the foreign-made brush would have carried its stamp of ' 
origin. In matters such as this the men's representatives are 
quite as keen as the employers on regularizing raw materials 
and production. A committee appointed by the brush-makers 
is now considering the problem of home-manufacture. It has 

been discovered that in many cases the home worker is an 
underpaid woman working at all hours and employing even 
her little children in the job. This is, of course, an instance 
of sweated labor and of child labor of the most flagrant sort. 
Other committees are discussing how to obtain financial help 
for the training of apprentices for unemployment and for 
the proper employment of women in this industry. 

In the clay industry it was found that the employers' side 
was badly organized. The workmen, therefore, told the 
masters to get themselves properly organized in order that 
higher production and better working conditions could be 

The furniture removers found that the workers had to 
cover wide geographical areas and, as a result, were often 
sleeping in their wagons under all conditions of weather. 
Accordingly a scheme is now being worked out for building 
night hostels for furniture removal men. Also the two sides 
have agreed on a twenty-five shillings' weekly wage. 

The glass men and employers wish their industry recognized 
as a key industry so that it should be protected with a tariff. 
Of course, this illustrates one of the dangers of the Whitley 
scheme, which is that the employers and the trade-unionists 
in a given industry may come to an agreement among them- 
selves that will work to the disadvantage of the consuming 
public or of another trade whose raw material may be their 
finished product. An important instance of this has already 
come to light in the annual report of Bovril, the meat extract 
concern. The owners of Bovril state that the supply of bottles 
in Great Britain is inadequate for their output and beseech 
the government to throw off all restriction against the impor- 
tation of glassware. In other words, bottles are their raw 
material, whereas bottles are the finished product of the glass- 
making trade. It is clear that no final agreement on a funda- 
mental matter such as this can be arrived at by the employers 
and trade-unionists in any one industry. The Whitley scheme, 
therefore, calls for some more complete method of joint action 
between industries and for adequate representation of the 
consuming public. What is needed is a " super- Whitley." 
Perhaps the recent industrial conference will in time become 
this super-Whitley. But to do so, it will have to devise a far 
wider basis of representation from the working people. Today 
for labor it is composed of trade-union leaders, and these 
leaders are in many instances quite as conservative, short- 
sighted and out of touch with the rank and file as government 
officials or big employers. A " parliament " must be a parlia- 
ment of people and not of officials. 

German Trade Methods 

In the past, the glass-making trade has been confronted 
with severe German competition in bottles, dishes and 
tumblers. The German method has been either to dump a 
product at a lower figure than the British trader until it had 
conquered the market, or else to get a monopoly grip on the 
chief ingredient in the product so that all manufacturers had 
to come to the German makers in control of that ingredient. 
The Germans had carried out this scheme with great success 
also in copper goods, chemicals, dyes, lead pencils. 

In made-up leather goods, several problems were immedi- 
ately encountered. The leather tanners, for instance, refused 
to go on a committee with the merchants. This is due to an 
immemorial warfare between the maker and the seller. The 
Amalgamated Society of Leather Workers refused to work 
side by side on a committee with semi-skilled general workers. 
As the result, the present leather council, whose work was 
described in the Survey for April 12, has been devised as a 



compromise. In this trade, as in others, the " interims " are 
dealing with apprenticeship, vocational training, discussion of 
processes and designs. 

In the pottery trades a better method of remuneration for 
those employes who suggest new designs is being dealt with. 
In the past there have been instances where a worker has sug- 
gested a design which resulted in a large increase of sales but 
where his reward was almost nothing, even when the returns 
of the trade could be figured in terms of thousands of pounds. 
The non-ferreous mines, which include the tin mines of Corn- 
wall, have been maintained as a war precaution since if one 
mine was abandoned other mines might be flooded by the large 
demand for the product in munition work. As the margin of 
profit has been small, a new problem has been introduced by 
the ending of the war, and the interim committee has 
approached the government for financial aid in order to con- 
tinue the industry. 

Many of these interims are considering the problem of how 
to bring munition-making women back into the trades of peace. 
The wholesale clothing interim has appointed a subcommittee 
to draw up a working plan for training women. In the 
stationery trade there is need to increase the output of envel- 
opes and other stationery greatly. So the interim has 
petitioned the Ministry of Labor to divert the munition- 
making women into this trade. 

These interims are being used generally as one of the central 
authorities in demobilization. The War Office presents this 
sort of task to them: Here are ten thousand demobilized 
soldiers and munition workers. How many can you employers 
and trade unionists deal with in the industry as a whole, and 
how will you spread them out over the various industrial 
districts? (It is clear that this implies a district council as 
part of the organization of the interim. Of the district coun- 
cils we shall speak in a moment.) 

In the music trades, organization is going on rapidly. The 
brass instrument makers found one section of the music trade, 

that of piano making, with no union. Accordingly negotia- 
tions were entered into with another union for the absorption 
of these " scabs." A polytechnic is being taken over at Finch- 
ley for training disabled soldiers. This corresponds to the 
plan carried out by the basket-makers in creating a union for 
blind basket-makers. 

The purpose of the creators of the interims is that, as the 
different trades come together in the interim reconstruction 
committees, these shall swiftly become sufficiently well organ- 
ized to be transformed into permanent joint standing industrial 
councils. This is taking place in the instances of packing-case 
makers, safe lock and latch makers and others. Other trades 
began as temporary bodies and found that they were already 
at a pitch of organization which justified them in going directly 
into the status of the permanent industrial council without the 
interim form of organization. This was true of china, cement, 
leather goods and belting. 

In the quarrying trades, the interim has composed itself into 
five industrial district committees. The stone and the geo- 
graphical locality being co-terminous thus form a natural basis 
of division. We have chalk (in the neighborhood of the 
Thames), granite (in Scotland), limestone, slate and building 
stone, as the five district committees. The interim has de- 
manded that shipping facilities to and from the Channel 
Islands be provided, the Channel Islands being the home of 
granite and other building material. In the slate district 
subcommittees have been formed for this particular stone. 

Such is a brief resume of the progress made by these interim 
reconstruction committees in the less well-organized trades. 
This resume I have made on the basis of facts given to me by 
the Ministry of Reconstruction. The purpose of the com- 
mittees is to meet an emergency situation and to bring weak 
trades up into better organization. The danger of these 
committees is that the interests of the employers may be more 
powerful than the articulated desires and demands of the 


A charming example of the reformed country inn. 
When the English Garden City Company bought 
its Letchworth estate, it found on it this typical 
country " pub " and, since it adopted prohibition 
into the constitution of the new city, devoted it, 
without materially changing the building, to less 
intoxicating yet no less convivial uses. The 
drawing by Ratcliffe is from the April sheet of a 
calendar published by the Garden City Association 



THAT women have made good and are on their new 
jobs to stay is the general conclusion of the Bureau of 
Women in Industry of the New York State Indus- 
trial Commission, based on its report issued last week on 
the Industrial Replacement of Men by Women in the State 
of New York. The study covered 117 plants in 26 com- 
munities and 13,643 women replacing men. Seventeen in- 
dustries were represented; more than one-third of the plants 
were engaged in the manufacture of metals and their pro- 
ducts. Processes were exceedingly varied, and included about 
an equal proportion of power and non-power operations. In 
almost all cases women took the places of men without rear- 
rangement of process or addition of new machinery. As 
machinists women have not attained enough skill to be called 
" all round machinists " but have been in the class of "special- 
ists." Seven large plants had schools for training women 
and six others were planning to establish schools with a view 
to training them for the more skilled operations. 

Although some 6,000 — nearly half of the women em- 
ployed in men's places in the plants studied — have been dis- 
charged, the reduction or cancellation of government con- 
tracts is given by employers as the reason for the discharge of 
more than 4,000 of them, so that only about 2,000 were 
dropped owing to their own shortcomings. Of all discharges 
23 per cent were on account of administrative difficulties, 
such as friction with the foreman, failure in discipline, or the 
shop's being too small to warrant the expense of new sani- 
tary equipment called for by the labor law when women are 
employed. In 6.5 per cent of the discharges the work was 
too heavy; in 2.3 per cent production was unsatisfactory; 
in I.i per cent mechanical ability was lacking; and in .2 
per cent women were dismissed to take back returning sol- 
diers. More than half of the plants employing women to 
replace men are going to retain every woman so employed, 
while 82 per cent are going to retain all or some of them. 

But that women have proved their ability to do men's jobs 
is only half the story. The primary reason why employers 
are planning to retain their women workers is declared to 
be " because they permit manufacture at less cost per unit of 
production, and with less friction between management and 
workers." Employers frequently made statements such as 
" Fifty-cent [an hour] men can be replaced by twenty-five- 
cent women," and " They produce more and demand less." 
Only 9 per cent of the women received equal pay with the 
men they replaced. Furthermore, it was noted that " the 
higher the pay of the man replaced, the smaller the chance 
of the woman replacing him to receive it." Only 190 of the 
women received more than $20 a week, while 7,933 received 
less than $14. The bureau reached the conclusion that 
women's wages were determined arbitrarily by the custom 
of paying low wages to women, rather than being related to 
productive efficiency, and based the conclusion on the follow- 
ing facts: 

1. In 16 plants where women receive equal pay for presumably 
equal work, 10 report that their production is satisfactory, 6 that 
it is unsatisfactory. 


2. In 11 plants where women produce more than men, not one 
woman receives as much as a man doing the same work in the 
same plant, and most women receive less than 75 per cent of the 
men's wage. 

3. In 13 plants where women are reported to produce less than 
men, the difference between the men's rate and women's ra*e is 
neither greater nor less than where they produce more. 

Several employers admitted that they were retaining 
women " to fight the union," and one employment manager 
said, " We are keeping women in B Department, although 
their production is most unsatisfactory, in order to keep the 
men from getting too cocky." The great majority of women 
workers were found to be unorganized. The only union 
organization is among the machinists; ten locals of machinists 
throughout the state have admitted women, and there is a 
Brooklyn local composed entirely of women. The report says, 
" It is encouraging to note that now most of them [labor 
men] are realizing that in a great many cases women are 
in the trade to stay and it is necessary therefore to deal with 
them as fellow workers, to organize them in their trades 
unions, then there will be no sex competition and men and 
women in the trade will work hand in hand for the better- 
ment of the conditions under which they work." 


THE first national joint conference of trade unionists 
and cooperators was held in London on March 6. 
For over fifty years, the two movements had been go- 
ing along parallel tracks toward the same goal. The co- 
operators have three and three-fourths million members. The 
trade unions have five and one-third million members. Of 
course, the memberships are largely made up of the same 
industrial group. The trade unions sent to this conference 
140 delegates, representing 62 unions. The cooperators sent 
537 delegates, representing 231 local societies. The seven 
hundred delegates were conservative, slow-moving, careful 
men in the main. They made an impression of caution and 
solidity. The conference passed the following resolution 

That this joint conferenpe, in view of the enormous increase in 
the cost of living during the war, the profiteering that has taken 
place, and the development and exercise of monopoly power by 
trading and financial interests during the period of the war, de- 
clares its uncompromising opposition to the recommendations of the 
government committee on commercial and industrial policy after the 
war so far as they propose. 

1. State encouragement of industrial and commercial combin- 
ations undertaking productive and trading activities for private 

2. The granting of powers to such combinations for the com- 
pulsory acquisition of land and factories for industrial purposes 
in the interests of the combination; 

3. State subsidies for profit-seeking undertaking; 

4. The adoption of protectionist measures which would inter- 
fere with the free exchange of commodities between nation and 

And further the conference condemns the handing over to privatr 
firms of munition, aircraft, and other factories, ships and other 
property acquired for national purposes during the war, and de- 
mands that all property so acquired on behalf of the communis 
shall be retained in public ownership in order that it may be 
for the development of productive and distributive undertakin] 



the interests of the community and under state, municipal, or cooper- 
ative control. 

G. H. Stuart Bunning, chairman of the Parliamentary 
Committee of the Trades Union Congress, said : 

This is a reconstructive conference. I have been attending con- 
ferences recently in four or five countries, to establish pre-war 
prosperity. But this conference demands an entirely new prosperity. 
The cooperative movement is a systematic protest against the rob- 
bing of the working class. The purpose is to make the cooperative 
society the banker for the whole of the working class. My experi- 
ence on the Consumers' Council of the Ministry of Food has con- 
vinced me that the only way you can prevent the working classes 
of this country being shamelessly robbed in regard to food and 
other things is by the cooperative movement. Time after time 
evidence has been brought before us of the way in which the con- 
sumer simply had to be robbed, and we, on the council, have time 
after time had to agree to things which we believed and knew to be 

Llewellyn Davies of the Women's Cooperative Guild 
argued that the new industrial councils which were being set 
up would produce no permanent solution of industrial troubles. 
The only solution lay in the alliance which that conference 
marked — an alliance of producers and consumers which would 
change the industrial system, set up industrial democracy in 
which profits would be abolished, the workers control the 
conditions of life, and the interests of the consumer be 

T. Killon, chairman of the Cooperative Wholesale So- 
ciety, through whose hands pass many million dollars of busi- 
ness a year, radiates geniality, and is immensely popular. He 
is a representative leader of the cooperative group in the 
way that James Thomas is a representative leader of trade 
unionists. Killon said that the war had revealed the failure 
of private trade to meet requirements. The doing away with 
the system of private profits was not to be accomplished " in 
a wild revolutionary spirit." Fred Bramley, assistant sec- 
retary of the Parliamentary Committee, was glad that trade- 
unionists were at last " controlling the price of things on 
which wages are spent. . . . We lived in ignorance of 
the real value of wages, although we were always discussing 
wages. The employers controlled the article, and so they 
controlled the price." 

C. W. Bowerman, secretary of the Parliamentary Commit- 
tee told how the shipping controller had asked the cooperatives 
and trade unions to take over the national shipyards at Chep- 
stow and elsewhere. A boiler maker testified that their re- 
cent strike cost them five thousand dollars in dispute pay, 
and the cooperative society was the only banking account on 
short notice. One speaker referred to the Royal Commis- 
sion on Mining: " In the King's Robing Room more history 
is being made this week than in the last fifty years. They 
are tearing the veil from profits." 

Mr. Bartlett of Penzance said that everything he had on 
from boot laces to collar buttons was cooperative, and that 
everything which went inside him was cooperative. He is 
a missionary of the movement. He and others had begun ten 
years ago with 250 members, and a business of $325 weekly. 
In 191 8, they had 2,450 members, and were doing a busi- 
ness of $4,500 weekly. Cooperation, he said, had lowered his 
family's living expenses by 20 per cent. 

The hall was gay with mottoes hung from the galleries 
which read: Make Capital the Servant of Labor; Interna- 
tional Cooperation is an Economic League of Nations; Pro- 
duce for Use and Abolish Profits; Don't Forget the Women; 
Cooperators, Stand by Trade Unionists; Trade Unionists, 
Trade with Cooperators. 

The Cooperators publish a weekly paper, the Co-opera- 
tive News, with a circulation of 100,000, and the Scottish 
Cooperator. The tables at the rear of the hall were stacked 
with pamphlets, papers, booklets, books and circulars. At 
these meetings the propagandists sow literature by the ream. 
The main impression of an American correspondent at the 
conference was that these men, representing perhaps two- 
fifths of Great Britain, meant to create a new social, indus- 
trial and economic order, and that they meant to do it, not 

by hasty temporary changes, but by sound step-by-step pro- 
gression. To the old-time taunt, " Are you going to make a 
new heaven and earth through the sale of tea and bread?" 
their answer is brief: "That way or not at all." 


DELEGATES from the Lawrence strikers, from the inde- 
pendent organizations that have conducted strikes in 
Paterson, Passaic and West Hoboken, and from an inde- 
pendent union of sweater makers in Brooklyn met in conven- 
tion in New York on April 12-13 and with the advice of 
representatives of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
formed an independent union in the textile industry, to be 
known as the Amalgamated Textile Workers of America. 
It is to be organized on " one big union " lines, to include not 
only textile workers but all employes in textile mills. A. J. 
Muste, one of the preacher leaders of the Lawrence strike, 
was elected general secretary and Matthew Pluhar, who has 
been conducting the strike in Passaic, treasurer. Five mem- 
bers of the executive board were elected, representing the 
five cities which sent delegates. Headquarters are to be in 
New York. The Amalgamated Clothing Workers pledged 
financial backing to the organization. Resolutions were passed 
calling for the 44-hour week in the textile industry, pledging 
support to the Lawrence strikers, asking the recall of Amer- 
ican troops from Russia and extending greetings to the soviet 
governments of Russia, Hungary and Bavaria. A tremen- 
dous field of opportunity lies before the new organization, 
for there are nearly 900,000 wage-earners employed in the 
textile industry, according to the 1910 census, and of these 
only about 40,000 are organized in the United Textile 
Workers, affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. 
Joseph Schlossberg, general secretary of the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers, speaking before the convention, recounted 
how success in organizing the men's clothing trade had come 
only with separation from the " official " labor movement, and 
concluded by saying: " With us the membership rules, not the 
officials. That is why we win. And that is why you will 


WITH professors from Harvard University and other 
educational institutions cooperating, the Trade Union 
College of Boston was formally launched. Regis- 
tration of students began two weeks ago at the headquarters 
of the Boston Central Labor Union, and classes are now in 
full swing. 

Courses of ten lectures each are to be given in the fol- 
lowing subject fields: English, labor organization, govern- 
ment, economics and science. A course in physics is the only 
course offered in the field of science, but there are two courses 
in economics, two in government, three in English and five 
in labor organization. The English courses include com- 
position and literature, and the courses in labor organization 
are divided between historical discussions of trade unionism 
and the status of labor, and present day employment methods. 
The idea of establishing an educational institution to be 
maintained by the wage-earners of Boston originated with 
George W. Nasmyth and H. W. L. Dana. These men, 
both of whom have been university teachers, the one in polit- 
ical economy at Cornell and the other in literature at Co- 
lumbia, went before the Boston Central Labor Union early 
last winter and proposed a plan that resulted in the appoint- 
ment of a committee to develop the plan and have charge of 
the college. This committee is as follows: 

Michael A. Murphy, Stablemen's Union; 

Arthur M. Huddell, Hoisting and Portable Engineers' Union; 

P. Harry Jennings, Teamsters' Union ; 

Fred J. Kneeland, Painters' Union; 

George E. Curran, Theatrical Stage Employers' Union ; 

Dennis D. Driscoll, Horseshoers' Union; 

Anna T. Bowen, Cigar Factory Tobacco Strippers' Union; 

John O'Hare, Newspaper Web Pressmen's Union; 

John F. Stevens, Free-Stone Cutters' Union ; 



Jeremiah Driscoll, Milk Wagon Drivers' Union; 

Mabel Gillespie, Stenographers' Union, secretary of the committee; 

Henry W. L. Dana ; 

Harold J. Laski; 

George Nasmyth. 

The ten weeks' courses now offered are the result of this 
committee's work. Plans are now being made to offer more 
extended courses beginning next October. 

In announcing the organization of the college the com- 
mittee says: 

The Trade Union College has been established by the Boston 
Central Labor Union in order to make directly accessible to work- 
ingmen and workingwomen the study of subjects essential to the 
progress of the organized labor movement. The aim of the Trade 
Union College is in accord with the following statement in the re- 
construction program of the American Federation of Labor: "Edu- 
cation must not stifle thoughts and inquiry, but must awaken the 
mind to the application of natural laws and to a conception of in- 
dependence and progress." 

The lectures are being given in the evening, from eight 
to ten, in the High School of Practical Arts. The fee for 
each course is $2.50. Registration is limited to members of 
unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, and 
to members of their immediate families. 

A list of the teaching staff of the new college is as follows: 
Roscoe Pound, dean of the Harvard Law School; Irving 
Fisher, professor of economics, Yale University; William Z. 
Ripley, professor of economics, Harvard University; Alfred 
Dwight Sheffield, assistant professor of rhetoric and com- 
position, Wellesley College ; Sara Stiles, professor of eco- 
nomics, Simmons College; Charles C. Ramsay, lecturer; 
Daniel Foley, teacher of economics, Boston English High 
School; James MacKaye, formerly lecturer on political en- 
gineering, Harvard University; Horace M. Kallen, professor 
of philosophy, New School of Social Research, New York 
city ; Henry W. L. Dana, formerly assistant professor of com- 
paratively literature, Columbia University; Roy Kenneth 
Hack, assistant professor of classics, Harvard University; 
Zacheriah Chafee, assistant professor of law, Harvard Univer- 
sity; R. F. A. Hoernle, assistant professor of philosophy, Har- 
vard University; George Nasmyth, formerly lecturer on po- 
litical economy, Cornell University; Felix Frankfurter, form- 
erly chairman War Labor Policies Board ; Horace Taylor, 
lecturer; Francis B. Sayre, instructor in constitutional law, 
Harvard University; Amy Hewes, professor of economics, 
Mount Holyoke College; Harold J. Laski, lecturer on Gov- 
ernment, Harvard University; Samuel Eliot Morrison, in- 
structor in history, Harvard University; William Leavitt 
Stoddard, administrator for National War Labor Board; A. 
Gerhard Dehly; Lucien Price; Herbert Feis, instructor in 
economics, Harvard University; Arthur Fisher, formerly with 
the Industrial Relations Division, Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion; Maurice J. Lacey, teacher of business English, High 
School of Commerce, Boston. 


COL. ARTHUR WOODS, in charge of the War De- 
partment's commission of reemployment, held in Chicago 
a conference of officers assigned as directors of the de- 
partment's efforts to supplement, extend and support the 
bureaus for returning soldiers, sailors and marines. The con- 
ference was held at the local bureau's headquarters in order 
that the officers from other cities might observe its operation 
as an object lesson and introduce its methods in other cities of 
the Middle West. Colonel Woods urged these officers to do 
all they can to secure elsewhere the community's full co- 
operation with the United States Employment Service, the 
bureaus for returning soldiers, sailors and marines, and the 
army officers, such as has enabled Chicago to put in operation 
its central headquarters building and its effective clearing- 
house work of the social agencies and commercial and labor 
groups who supplement the employment offices. He also 
urged the attempt everywhere to induce the discharged men 
to return to their home towns to start again in civilian life 

and not crowd into big cities or remain in the ports of arrival. 
Maj.-Gen. Leonard Wood, commanding the central military 
division with headquarters at Chicago, has assigned a force of 
100 military police to be stationed at the railway terminals 
and to patrol the central streets as a provost detail. He pub- 
licly explained that this is done "as a protection rather than a 
police check for the returning men." While this military 
police detail will see that men in the service follow service 
regulations, its chief function will be to protect them and 
discharged men in uniform from being imposed upon either 
by civilian exploiters or fakirs pretending to be soldiers, who 
are beginning to prey upon the public also. 


THE street car men's union of Chicago has taken a 
significant action in view of the fact that the scale of 
wages awarded last August by the National War 
Labor Board automatically ceases when peace is officially de- 
clared. Protesting against the reduction of wages thereby, 
of 23 per cent of the maximum rate and over 43 per cent of the 
minimum rate, which with the increasing cost of living 
" would mean that our wives and little ones would suffer for 
the necessities of life," they appeal to the governor of the 
state, the mayor of the city, the State Utilities Commission 
and the Chicago Surface Lines company to prevent such a 
reduction and the consequences which they intimate might 
follow. The men's appeal, which is very respectful and not 
at all threatening, significantly closes with this reference to 
the public service they render : " As workers in a great pub- 
lic service and as citizens having the interests of Chicago at 
heart, we respectfully address this appeal to you to consider 
carefully the situation and to use your best efforts to protect the 
electric railway workers in their wage rights." 


THE annual report of the Pittsburgh Council of the 
Churches of Christ, recently issued, contains an interest- 
ing and suggestive account of the work done during the 
year by the Commission on Social Service of that body. It is 
interesting more particularly as illustrating the large amount 
of useful work that the churches can perform for the social 
welfare without going at all far from the immediate purposes 
to which they are consecrated. Social service, as interpreted by 
the commission, means primarily moral uplift and includes a 
fight with vice in every form, police court reform, protective 
work for young people, and for races and classes needing 
special protection. 

From this report we learn that there is no longer a red light 
district in Pittsburgh but that other forms of vice, particularly 
those developing around soldiers' quarters, have become serious 
at times in spite of the watchfulness of the government. 
Largely through the influence of the churches, the city has 
during the year established a Morals Court which has revo- 
lutionized the procedure of dealing with victims of vice, with 
juvenile cases and with first offenders. " Up-to-date con- 
structive policies have been substituted for the arrogant snap 
judgments familiar under the old regime." Closely connected 
with this interest in the protection of the young is the interest 
of the Pittsburgh churches in the Room Registry of the city, 
established in 1917 which, during the war, has been affiliated 
with the homes registration service of the federal government. 
Another constructive effort that has arisen from the reform 
of the court system is the organization of a strong Big Brother 
movement. While the Y.M.C.A. supplies a special boys' sec- 
retary at the Morals Court, the Council of Churches has made 
itself responsible for finding suitable Big Brothers ; and in this 
way many boys who previously were not reached by any so- 
cial agency have come under good influences. The action of 
the commission on Sunday recreation may, of course, be open 
to controversy; but it is interesting as showing consistency 
where in other communities the influence of the churches, not 
so closely banded together for common action, is often spas- 



modic and contradictory. Action was taken to suppress pro- 
fessional baseball playing on Sundays and — unsuccessfully — to 
prevent the Sunday opening, with a charge for entrance, of a 
war exposition which it was feared might set a precedent to 
the opening of other, less patriotic and less educational enter- 
tainments for commercial motives. In some cases, the in- 
fluence of the commission was sufficient to secure abatement 
of Sunday law infringements without a public protest. 


ONE frequent objection to the "zoning " of cities for 
building and use regulations is that it represents an- 
other and very serious interference with the liberties 
of individual owners and users of property. To Alameda, 
Cal., however, belongs the credit of having conducted the 
operation of zoning with a regard to the wishes of the people 
in each neighborhood which makes the plan finally adopted 
" democratic " beyond criticism. Charles H. Cheney, the 
city's consultant in city planning, held some forty confer- 
ences in all parts of the city to obtain first-hand knowledge 
of the wishes of property owners and others interested. These 
recommendations were then combined in a general zoning 
plan, and the whole put up for public hearing. The pre- 
liminary work had been done so thoroughly that there were 
practically no objections to the ordinance when presented at 
that hearing or later when it was introduced before the city 
council. The zone plan itself is on the lines of others recently 
introduced in Californian cities and combines some of the fea- 
tures of the well-known pioneer plans of Los Angeles, St. 
Louis and New York Eight varieties of " use districts " are 
established. Superimposed on these are four classes of " height 
districts, " designed to prevent the depreciation of property 
values and overcrowding by the introduction of over-high 
structures. The general effect of the ordinance cannot but 
be protective, especially to residence districts, and make for 
greater efficiency by concentrating business and industrial 
properties. By increasing the general economy and conveni- 
ence of the city's physical lay-out it will eventually make for 
increased attractiveness and building activity. 


FRANK ORMAN BECK, whose study on the Italians 
of Chicago has recently been published by the Bureau of 
Surveys of the Department of Public Welfare of that 
city, evidently was more concerned with the truth than with 
saying pleasant and complimentary things — as is so often the 
case with studies of foreign-born groups. His description of 
the family life, for instance, shows that many antiquated ideas 
and customs survive which, undoubtedly, have had their value 
in a different environment but distinctly hinder the process of 
Americanization and emancipation. The woman, too often, 
is yet unrecognized as the equal of husband and sons in her 
claim to freedom and a full life of her own. The marriages 
still are largely arranged by relatives and " cold, commercial 

In spite of an unusual degree of social organization — there 
are listed 50 Italian societies and 70 lodges in Chicago — 
there is little " team-play " in outdoor recreation. Again, 
Mr. Beck's inquiries do not bear out, though he repeats him- 
self, the popular statement that Italians in America have a 
superior appreciation of beauty. Though many of them are 
engaged in supposedly artistic crafts, there is really no evi- 
dence that they produce anything indicative of original taste; 
on the other hand, their homes are said to be lacking in taste- 
ful furniture and decoration. Mr. Beck's statements on this 
point are borne out by the experience of Greenwich House, 
New York, which in its art classes has found no corrobora- 
tion for the popular assumption that Italian neighbors are 
more artistic than Irish or Polish ones. 

These matters, however, only occupy a small part of the 
survey under review which deals fairly exhaustively with the 

economic, health and housing conditions of the Chicago Ital- 
ians, with their educational interests and the peculiar difficul- 
ties attending efforts to heighten these, and with the moral 
conditions which compare very favorably with those of other 
nationalities. Some very interesting cases are given of the 
relation of delinquency to ignorance and exploitation. 

Among the recommendations, too numerous to recite here 
in detail, we note a special emphasis on a vocational educa- 
tion and placement based upon the particular abilities of Ital- 
ians; protection from irresponsible banks and unreliable in- 
vestments; a clean-up campaign; vigorous enforcement of 
housing regulations; an experiment to settle Italians in a 
garden city; city planning and zoning; educational programs 
of emphasis in the public school, community center, settle- 
ment, church, etc., on matters in which Italians as a race are 
especially ignorant — such as diets, value of education, etc. 
Further we note emphasis on the need for more playgrounds 
and better use of outdoor recreation facilities to capitalize 
the Italians' love of outdoor pleasures ; Americanization of 
adults to increase the respect of children for their parents; 
art education ; better information among them concerning 
public services; provision of more and better interpreters 
in and out of law-courts; Italian lawyers as public defenders; 
more intensive interpretation of America to Italian immi- 
grants; a more widespread study of their Italian neighbors by 


THE number of home economics specialists in charity 
organizations is constantly increasing. Some of them 
are trained in social work and, therefore, fulfill their 
special tasks with an intimate knowledge of the larger family 
problems which often have to be studied carefully and met 
wisely before adjustments in the domestic economy can have 
their full effect. Many others, however, graduate from home 
economics schools and enter upon their vocational work with 
insufficient preparation for the wider considerations which it 
involves. To bring these, both students and teachers, into 
closer contact with home living conditions in industrial neigh- 
borhoods and with the methods by which various social agen- 
ces are endeavoring to raise home standards and to prevent 
personal and family breakdowns, the Committee on Home 
Economics of the New York Charity Organization Society 
will conduct a one month's special field work course (begin- 
ning June 9). 

As at present planned, four days a week will be spent in 
supervised field work with one of a group of selected social 
agencies, one day will be devoted to lectures, discussions and 
visits to institutions and social agencies doing work of im- 
mediate interest in connection with home economics, and half 
a day to round table discussions of field work experiences. 
Certain academic qualifications of admission are required, and 
credit for the course will be given by Teachers' College of 
Columbia University, and possibly by other institutions. The 
subcommittee in charge of the course are : Cora M. Winchell, 
of Teachers' College, chairman; Mary Swarg Rose, Isabel 
Ely Lord, Jessie Long, Porter R. Lee, Joanna C. Colcord 
and Emma A. Winslow, secretary. 

" HOME " 

LAST June the Board of Visitors of Lehigh county, 
Pennsylvania, found a home for children, operating 
in one of the most prosperous communities of the 
United States, which they described as follows: 

Mrs. , living at avenue, Bethlehem, maintains 

a so-called home for children. At the time of the board's investi- 
gation, she had six children at her hom«, the youngest of whom was 
six months, the oldest eleven years of age. For the keeping of these 
children she receives somewhere between $1.75 and $2.50 per week 
per child. To this home the county authorities have placed out 
children from the county home at various times. At the time of 
the investigation two children were being maintained here at the 
county's expense. 



The board cannot report favorably upon this place. The house 

in which Mrs. lives is an old, dilapidated frame house, with 

six small rooms. These rooms were dirty, some of them positively 
filthy; they were crowded with furniture of various kinds; they 
were dark and gloomy looking, despite the fact that it was a bright, 

clear June day. Mrs. is a woman obviously past fifty-five 

years of age, and even with the help of a sickly daughter is hardly 
able to give six growing children the necessary care and attention. 
On the day in question she had her hands entirely occupied with her 
six-months-old charge, and the other children ran around the neigh- 
borhood unrestricted. One of the boys maintained at the expense 
of the county was in the hospital with a broken arm at the time, 
sustained through a fall while playing in a house that was building. 

In conversation with Mrs. it developed that she has at 

times received children from the county homes ; had them insured ; 
and, it would seem, collected policies upon their death. 

Evidently the county authorities do not intend that de- 
pendent children shall be subjected to such conditions as these, 
for a letter from the president judge of the county courts 
brings the information that since the report was made all 
county charges have been removed, and children are no longer 
placed in this " home." 


PROBLEMS of land settlement, education and improve- 
ment of rural life as well as more directly vocational mat- 
ters, such as markets, rural credits, roads, seed laws, pub- 
lic grazing land and agricultural labor, form the interests of 
a newly organized American Association for Agricultural Leg- 
islation. Liberty H. Bailey, of Ithaca, N. Y., is president; 
T. F. Hunt, of Berkeley, Cal., vice-president; Richard T. 
Ely, University of Wisconsin, secretary; H. C. Taylor, United 
States Department of Agriculture, treasurer. So many bills 
to influence land settlement are before the state legislatures 
just now, that watchfulness in the true interests of the public 
welfare is most necessary. This the association endeavors to 
supply. On the matter of rural life in general, Professor Ely 

Maladjustments in rural local government, restricting education 
and social development, keeping in the hands of the farmer inade- 
quate instruments of social progress, all the while retard his move- 
ments whether economic or humanistic. A thorough-going analysis 
of rural life conditions and a readjustment of the farmer's legal 
human relations to accord with agricultural hope will, it may be 
expected, take the farmer out of the class of social proteges and put 
him into the class of those who take care of themselves by their 
own ability to think and act. 

The new organization, it should be added, though in nature 
political, is not "in politics." The officers and members of 
the executive council are all practical farmers or have grad- 
uated from their ranks and represent many shades of political 
opinion. The purpose may, in general terms, be stated to be 
that of doing for farmers by scientific investigation, by rep- 
resentation before legislative bodies and by publication what 
the American Association for Labor Legislation has accom- 
plished in the standardization of labor laws and the scientific 
development of labor legislation. 


ALMOST on the heels of the appearance in print of the 
statement of Mayor Schreiber of Toledo concerning the 
principles that should govern the letting of public halls for 
public meetings and the comment in the Survey for March 29, 
came news that when it was put to the test a stand exactly op- 
posite to that advocated had been adopted by the mayor. Many 
newspapers brought the story of a riot alleged to have taken 
place in a public park when the Socialists of Toledo, after 
renting Memorial Hall, were at the Mayor's order prevented 
from holding a meeting there and attempted to hold an open- 
air meeting of protest. The details are uninteresting. An 
account of the happenings in the Philadelphia North Ameri- 
can adds the statement: "Mayor Cornell Schreiber, who is- 
sued the order preventing the Debs meeting, in a statement this 
afternoon said that hereafter no meeting would be permitted 

anywhere in the city where it is suspected a man of radical 
tendencies would speak." 

In reply to an inquiry, Mayor Schreiber writes to the 
Survey that the Associated Press reports of the meeting of 
March 30 were grossly exaggerated. " There were no riots 
and no property damage. The meeting, in fact, was fairly 
orderly." He still adheres in every respect to the order quoted 
in the Survey to the effect that, however much he personally 
might disapprove of the objects of any meetings or the views 
of any speakers, the public meeting rooms of the city, more 
particularly Memorial Hall, were there for the use of any 
body of citizens. From a communication addressed by the 
mayor to the director of public safety of the city on April 
5 it appears that he disapproves the action taken by the police 
in breaking up the open-air meeting while, so far as the letting 
of the hall is concerned, he explains the apparent contrast be- 
tween his action and his statement of principles as follows: 

I have already clearly stated my views on the subject of free 
speech. This right of free speech is a fundamental right, clearly 
guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States, and one to be 
jealously guarded. It prevails everywhere, both in public and in 
private places. 

The order issued from the Executive Department closed Memorial 
Hall to Eugene V. Debs, but that was the full extent of the order. 
This order was issued because Memorial Hall is essentially of 
patriotic origin and because Mr. Debs had been convicted of treason- 
able speech by a jury of his peers and the conviction sustained by 
the highest court in the land. In Ohio conviction is a felony by law, 
deprives the person convicted of the right to either vote or hold 

I write this letter at this time because future meetings will no 
doubt be held, and for that reason the Police Department should 
receive from you definite instructions to safeguard the right of each 
citizen to freely speak his mind. 

Another Toledo correspondent also says that the press ac- 
counts were garbled, that the demonstration staged by the 
Socialists was in no sense a riot, that the hall was not stormed 
or damaged, and that the men arrested were released as soon 
as the excitement had subsided. He adds that the mayor is 
still being criticized in the city for being so liberal in the letting 
of the hall. In fact, the G. A. R., according to the Toledo 
Times, proposes to take legal action to prevent the city admin- 
istration from renting the building to anyone. 


DURING the Peace Conference Paris has been a Mecca 
not only of diplomats but of idealists and visionaries — 
representatives of thwarted nations and races and classes, 
and prophets who hoped to plant the leaven of their special 
ideal in the new order which might be under discussion be- 
hind the council doors. With them came representatives of 
various women's groups, organized early in February as the 
Women's Inter-Allied Suffrage Congress. They included suf- 
fragists from many of the Allied countries: Mme. Jules 
Siegfried, president of the organization in France that corre- 
sponds to our National Federation of Women's Clubs, and 
Mme. De Witt Schlumberger, president of the French na- 
tional suffrage association; Juliet Barrett Rublee, Mrs. J. 
Borden Harriman, and Dr. Katherine B. Davis, of the United 
States; Mrs. Henry Fawcett and Mrs. Oliver Strachey of 
England; Signora Ancona of Italy; Miss Atkinson of New 
Zealand; Rosamond Smith and Nina Boyle of South Africa; 
Mme. Brigode and Marie Parent of Belgium, the former 
president of the national suffrage association, the latter a bril- 
liant woman lawyer, president of the League for the Rights 
of Women. They met and discussed their wants. They felt 
that as a group they represented no special nationality or race 
or economic class, but a section of the world's peoples hitherto 
unrepresented in the deliberations of the conference and its 
committees, since not one place on any one of the innumerable 
committees and sub-committees named by the conference or 
the Superior Inter-Allied Council of War or the Council 
of Ten is held by a woman. They pointed out that not only 
are women part of the peoples by and for whom the peace 
was to be made, but that their special interests — such as labor 



legislation concerning women, international control of the 
white slave traffic, certain phases of the discussions on repara- 
tions and responsibilities — should not be considered without 
consultation with the persons most interested. They suggested, 
for example, that while every effort was being made to re- 
cover the last soldier-prisoner in Austria-Hungary, Germany, 
Bulgaria, or Turkey, there were still some tens and possibly 
hundreds of thousands of Armenian women in the Turkish 
harems to which they had been deported ; and there are the 
deported women of Lille, whose fate, they said, had not re- 
ceived the concern it should. They adopted a series of reso- 
lutions urging action in all countries to obtain equal suffrage, 
equal pay for equal work, equal opportunities for women and 
men in all offices and employments, equal moral standards for 
both sexes, and representation of women on those conference 
commissions which would consider their special problems. 

The formal resolutions adopted by the Congress included, 
among others: 

The League of Nations should not be an alliance of governments 
only, but an agreement between the people of the world to work to- 
gether to change the conditions and laws which lead to war; it 
should not be composed exclusively of representatives named by 
the executive branches of the governments, but should include also 
representatives of the people, selected in such a way as to repre- 
sent the views of the different parties in their respective parlia- 

A League of Nations cannot develop effectively and successfully, 
for the good of all, if the working people, and the women do not 
stand behind it and feel that they are a part of it. 

With this platform, and with special emphasis on woman 
representation on commissions, the diplomats were visited : 
President Wilson, who assured the women that he would do 
all he could for them ; Lord Robert Cecil, who was extremely 
sympathetic; Sonnino, Benes, Venizelos, Sir Robert Borden, 
M. Hymans, of Belgium, M. Politis, of Greece, M. Bratiano, 
of Rumania, M. Vesnitch, of Serbia, M. Montes, of Bolivia, 
M. de Busatamento of Cuba — all very friendly; and Clemen- 
ceau, who quite won their hearts and left the impression that 
the cause was successful. 

Weeks passed; the revised draft of the League of Nations 
neared completion. Then came the announcement that the 
Supreme Council had decided that women's organizations 
should be heard by committees touching their interests. Since 
what they had asked was to have women put on commissions 
that concerned them, these women organizations can only 
look upon this concession as a formality. 



MERICA must be interested in India," writes Cap- 
tain J. W. Petavel who, after several strenuous years 
as principal of the Maharajah Cossimbazar's Polytech- 
nic Institute in Calcutta, has come to the conclusion, first, that 
education is the only possible salvation of that country and, 
second, that without strong backing from the United States 
the feeble efforts to create a really promising system of edu- 
cation will either collapse or progress far too slowly to keep 
up with political reform. That reform has his full sympathy, 
but he sees in it a danger to the internal security of India if 
it comes about merely as a result of minority agitation — 95 
per cent of the population looking on indifferently. He be- 
lieves that as things are at present, a majority of the people 
will actually curse self-government: 

To give a concrete instance: the police in this country despite the 
honest efforts of the administration and its European officers who' 
are honest on the whole, is a terrible instrument of oppression. 
Put the Oriental in power of any kind, if only as a police con- 
stable, and at once he starts in tyrannizing. Every Indian will tell 
you that they do dreadful things, especially in the villages, using 
the power they have to extort money in all sorts of barbarous ways. 

Now, this has always been the curse of India. British rule, what- 
ever its faults, is at all events vigilant and conscientious and mini- 
mizes this evil to the utmost; but put the power in the hands of the 

Indian middle classes and, with their careless, indolent ways, things 
like police oppression will flourish as of old. . . . 

The villagers are nice people on the whole, honest, truly religious, 
law-abiding — but accepting everything that comes as being from God 
and thinking, no doubt rightly, that of all the masters God has 
sent them the English are the least hard. 

The whole Indian question resolves itself thus into a question of 
education. It is impossible for anyone knowing the country to have 
much sympathy with any plans of reform unless we first educate 
the masses. India is poor; therefore it is self-supporting education 
she must have. I very earnestly ask American friends of progress 
to study very carefully the prints I am sending on that subject. One 
of my greatest hopes is that I may soon receive substantial support 
from America — moral support is all I ask for. Now that the war 
is, we hope, finally done with, I shall look the more in that direction. 

The pamphlets mentioned by Captain Petavel, explaining 
his system of self-supporting education may be obtained from 
the Survey office. The British government has been very sym- 
pathetic to the idea, and the first self-supporting school (self- 
supporting, of course, only insofar as the maintenance of the 
pupils is concerned) receives substantial money grants from 
the education department of the government and from the 
city of Calcutta. There is, however, the usual opposition to 
new educational ideas — especially since they imply the obliter- 
ation of caste and since prominence is given to manual training 
in a country that has always looked upon handwork with more 
or less contempt. Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, who has given Cap- 
tain Petavel the opportunity of working out this experiment, 
is an eminent educationalist ; among other well known Indians 
who support it may be mentioned the economist, Sir Dinshaw 


THE National Board of Farm Organizations at a recent 
conference in Washington, D. C, cordially responded to 
an invitation of Sir Horace Plunkett, chairman of the 
Irish Agricultural Organization Society, to take part in an 
international agricultural conference to be held in Europe as 
soon as circumstances permit. Sir Horace, who is recuperating 
from recent sickness at the Battle Creek sanatorium, wrote: 

If in the near future it be decided that an international con- 
ference of agricultural organizations is demanded in the highest 
interest of food producers and consumers, as I believe it to be, there 
are two initial questions on which, could I have been present, I 
should have sought the opinion of the assembled agricultural leaders. 
First, should the meeting be in Europe or America, and, secondly, 
what nations should be included? 

On the first question I hope it will not be considered a selfish 
view if I suggest that the first meeting should be in Europe, and 
that in order that the farmers of the Old World may do their best to 
meet their brethren of the New World half way, as well as for 
some other reasons, which modesty forbids me to mention, the capital 
of Ireland should have the honor of being the host of the con- 
ference. While the repatriation of the American troops continues, 
it will be easier for Americans to come to Europe than for Europeans 
to visit America. I may mention, incidentally, that no political 
or other troubles would affect the Irish welcome that would be 
given to the supporters of an idea to which the Irish people are 
increasingly devoted because it appeals to the Irish mind as the 
natural line of social and economic progress. 

On the question of representation at the International Conference 
(if one be called in the near future), I am not at all sure that 
bigger results would not be obtained by beginning with the English 
speaking peoples. This would not preclude having representatives 
of Allied countries present as guests, and some Russian cooperators 
should certainly be asked. But you will easily see the immensely 
greater task it would be to prepare for a conference of all European 
countries and the consequently longer period of preparation which 
would be required. I feel that the American organized farmers 
need a very early interchange of views with their old world fellow 
cooperators and that the problems in which they are most interested 
would be best discussed with those who have approached agricultural 
organization under more or less similar conditions and from a 
similar point of view. If the meeting were in Dublin you will be 
able to assure our American friends that they will find their Irish 
friends pretty closely informed upon what is going on in Europe. 


A Department of Practice 


THE workshop in which social prac- 
tice is exemplified need not be a re- 
lief agency. It may equally well en- 
large its walls to include a municipal- 
ity. The worker whose social practice 
interests this department is not neces- 
sarily dealing with dependent families, 
but may quite as well be dealing with a 
municipal election. If he is in fact en- 
gaged in social practice and if his tech- 
nique is that of a social workshop, his 
experience is entitled to sympathetic 

That the Democratic primaries in the 
city of Baltimore were to be trans- 
formed into a workshop and to give a 
very pretty exhibition of social practice 
was evident early in March when a 
young Baltimorean, previously un- 
known to the editorial staff and bear- 
ing no letters of introduction, came 
to the Survey office, demanding assist- 
ance in securing for a fortnight the ser- 
vices of the most competent surveyor of 
social facts that the country might af- 
ford. No untried or second-rate man or 
woman — for sex was immaterial — 
would serve the purpose. The caller, 
and the small group with whom he was 
working in Baltimore, knew what the 
facts were, or at least where to get 
them. What they needed was someone 
to get them quickly, to marshal them 
effectively and put them in graphic and 
legible form. William Hard or John 
Fitch or Julia Lathrop were cited as 
illustrations of people who might con- 
ceivably satisfy the demand. 

Fortunately, as it turns out, neither 
the Survey office nor the Russell Sage 
Foundation nor any of the other pos- 
sible sources of supply could produce 
out of hand a spare surveyor-publicist, 
such as the Baltimore Democratic pri- 
mary campaign seemed to require. 
Whereupon, Mr. Walter Hollander 
with undampened ardor and enthusiasm 
seems to have undertaken the task him- 

At that time the prospects for the re- 
nomination of Mayor Preston seemed 
not only good but certain. He had been 
mayor of Baltimore for eight years and 
his virtues were generally acknowl- 
edged. The Baltimore Sun, which in 
the end was converted to the views of 
Mr. Hollander and his associates, says 
of Mayor Preston that he is aggressive; 
that he has driving power; that he has 
been his o"wn boss since he has been in 
the City Hall-; that the material de- 

velopment of the city is a matter of 
pride with him, and that he possesses 
an instinct for pushing forward certain 
classes of public works. What was not 
understood at the beginning of the cam- 
paign, and what was — thanks to a strict- 
ly social campaign of advertising pub- 
licity — abundantly understood when 
the voters appeared at the primaries, is 
that education and public health had 
been not only neglected but outrageous- 
ly debased during the eight years. 

At the beginning there was no news- 
paper support; one of the city's news- 
papers being Republican, one a supporter 
of Mayor Preston, and one neutral — 
or perhaps one should say, open-minded. 
It is true that newspaper support is often 
of doubtful value, sometimes being, as 


F. P. A. remarks, centrifugal rather 
than centripetal. Through paid adver- 
tisements, however, of which some speci- 
mens are reproduced herewith, the facts 
in regard to the schools and the public 
health were brought before the people. 
In a long editorial the Sun was brought 
to say: 

Men are more important than materials. 
Character is more vital than contracts. In 
the next generation Baltimore's progress and 
prosperity will depend comparatively little 
upon such things as smoothly paved streets, 
broad water-fronts and ornamental gardens, 
but very much upon the quality of the men 
and women who compose its citizenship, 
upon their education, their health, their 
moral outlook. 

It became evident to the voters, as it 

became evident to the editorial writer, 
that in laying stress upon these things 
the opposition candidate, Mr. Williams, 
was not merely making political capital 
for himself as against his opponent; he 
was striking at the heart of things upon 
which Baltimore's progress depends. 

At the end of the campaign, when 
Mayor Preston challenged his opponent 
as to the sources of his information 
about the evils in the schools, Walter 
Hollander, giving his exact home ad- 
dress, stated frankly that all the data 
which had been presented on this sub- 
ject had been directly furnished by him- 
self. The facts which he had discov- 
ered were as easily accessible to any citi- 
zen who would devote a similar amount 
of time to such an investigation as they 
were to him. Mr. Hollander goes on 
to say: 

I am in no sense a trained investigator, or 
a professional politician. My deep interest 
in public education is easily explained. My 
late wife was, before her marriage, a 
trained teacher in our public schools and 
through her I came to realize fully the vital 
importance to our community of a modern 
system of schools and to deplore the many 
instances in which our local schools fell far 
below the standards easily maintained else- 

Mr. Hollander may be well satisfied 
with the memorial which he has given 
to his wife and the example which he 
has set of the way in which a municipal 
election may be decisively influenced by 
the faith and persistence of a single citi- 
zen who is not a candidate for political 
office and who will perhaps be surprised 
to learn that he has been engaged in 
what the Workshop considers the best 
sort of social practice. E. T. D. 


COMMENTING on various refer- 
ences in these columns to illiter- 
acy among native Americans and success- 
ful methods of removing it, A. F. Cor- 
bin, an old friend of the Survey, writes 
to say that we should not forget the per- 
ambulant teacher, a class to which he be- 
longs himself. He is conducting in North 
Carolina what he describes as a traveling 
correspondence school for illiterates, 
teaching not only reading but also 
hygiene, music, arithmetic, world geog- 
raphy, home economics, agriculture and 

I spend one month in a community, give 
three lessons a week in each family desiring 
help. My salary is paid by state and county. 
Of thirty to forty pupils about one-third to 
one-half make creditable progress. 

The farmers' wives are urged to give their 



To The Foreign-Born Citizens 
Of Greater Baltimore 

There is a more important issue to be decided 
at the coming election than whether Mr. Preston 
or I shall win the contest. Your future and the 
future of your children are at stake. 

"Why did you come to America? Because it 
is the land of hope and of opportunity for 
YOUR CHILDREN! And opportunity means 

Mr. Preston puts that in the background. His 
interest is in a Bigg er City. I want that, too. But 
I want a BETTER BIGGER CITY. And you 
want a city that will give your children a 
SQUARE DEAL. Rich and poor, native and 
naturalized — all are entitled as of right to the 
very best in School Buildings, in equipment, in 
teaching, and in OPPORTUNITY. 

The child of today is the man of tomorrow. 
Your child wants to be a well-educated 
AMERICAN! Help ME to help YOU to make 
him one. 

Bring out the vote On April I st. 

George Weems Williams 

Candidate for Mayor, Democratic Primvier 



See Tonight 's "Evening Sun ' ' 

husbands two meals of corn bread and one 
of wheat biscuits each day to save wheat 
for Belgium. With the illustrations in far- 
mers' bulletins we compare notes as to the 
best terraces for cotton and the best legumes 
for building up sod which will require no 

These are instances of an apparently 
extraordinarily varied " curriculum." 
From his own experience, Mr. Corbin 
has come to the conclusion that in outly- 
ing rural districts the activities and meth- 
ods of the Home Service visitor, the ex- 
tension worker in agriculture and the or- 
ganizer for the various patriotic services, 
such as Red Cross, Liberty loans, War 
Saving stamps, may well be combined. 
It is particularly helpful, he contends, to 
deal with the family as a whole where 
family life is so constant and intimate; 
especially since the hard-working farmer 
and his wife who find it difficult to get 
to a school are always eager for the visit- 
or to " eat a snack " and " stay all night 
and talk." 

The average grade of the young people 
of the foothills is about the fourth or 
fifth. The older ones who studied only 
the " blue-back " speller he classes as sec- 
ond or third grade. These more particu- 
larly want to learn writing. Many girls 
of fourteen to seventeen " run away to 
marry the young men who rent ground to 
put in corn or cotton and work with one 
mule." These young couples live in 
cabins that cost no rent ; the girl mothers 
appreciate simple literature and instruc- 
tion in the care of the baby. The text- 
book of the Food Administration on Food 
Saving and Sharing, says Mr. Corbin, 
was prepared for the eighth grade, and 
is too advanced for most of his pupils. 

Some of the booklets of the Metropolitan 
Life are excellent, but refer to city conditions 
of shopping. They do not tell the need of 
raising vegetables and eating less pork. 

It is almost pathetic to note the eagerness 
with which every member of a large fam- 
ily will listen while the youngest reads from 
the Country Life Readers Nos. 1 and 2 by 
Cora Wilson Stewart (Johnson Publishing 
Richmond), whose large type, short 

Mistaken Economy! 

School No. US— 249 Pupils 

Merryman's Lane, Near York Road 

Rub your eyes and look at this picture! This shack is one of 
Baltimore's schools which Mayor Preston says are "IN ADMIRABLE 

Within ft stone's throw of the magnificent Thirty-Third Street Boulevard stands 


on Baltimore's fair name. That, kind of economy is most wasteful extravxaaoce. 

Our "efficient" Mayor has slimied up again. 
Four Years Ago a delegation waited I 

fair promises, but the BLOT ie still there. 

No. lO^-Fremont Ave. and Lemmon SL 
No. 93— Baltimore' and Aisqulth SI*. 
No. 38 — Kenwood Ave. and Hudson St. 
No. 43— High St, Near Fayette. 
No. 116— Druid trill Ave. 
No. 65— Poplar Grove SL 


1 Msyor Preston ind protected. They gw. 




'PimVuW by nvjisWrU*/ of 0urg4 A. Soiler. TtfKr' 


'Build A LivingWall Against Bolshevism!" 

See Today's Evening Sun 


Mayor Preston, says: "Our schools are in 

admirable condition." 

The Evening Newt, h ie chief apologist, admits 
that they are not, but intimates that Baltimore is 
too Poor to make them better; it challenges Mr. 
Williams to tell the people how he will do so. 

The answer is simple. The use of the city's 
available funds must be more wisely distributed. 
The Administration must really care about public 

Latest U. S. Census Figures Show 
How Baltimore Skimps on Education 

219 American Cities spend on education 
out of their total departmental disburse- 
ments #. Sl<$ 

Baltimore spends on education out of its 
total departmental disbursements 22. S' , 

Mayor Preston is too busy with Sunken Gardens and 
other showy improvements to worry about the children 

In the United Slate. Cenaua lUt of 219 Amencin title* 
Baltimore rank, (too hundred and tenth to perCeataf* of 
School Expenditure* to toial Department DUbnj-M 

Help Us to Help Your Children! 
Vote for Williams and Better Schools 


See Tonight's Evening Sun 

Paid advertisements, including the 
cartoon on the preceding page, which 
formed the chief publicity features in 
the Baltimore primary, with its em- 
phasis on the public schools. 

sentences, roman and script type make an 
attractive page: 

I will spray my fruit trees and raise fine 

I will keep my money in the bank. 

This is my son John in his field of corn. 

Rotate your crops and build up your soil. 

A clean baby makes people think well of 
the mother. 

No woman ought to marry who cannot 
cook all kinds of food. 

The best educational work is, of 
course, done during the cool, wet 
months when the farmers stay at home 
and only the teacher is prepared to brave 
rain and snow. When a man works 
from sunrise to sunset and his wife from 
4 a. M. to 10 p. M., during crop time, it 
is hard to interest them. " We have 
several soldier pupils," Mr. Corbin 

Making the Children 
Fit the Desks! 


All the Children in a Room Are Not the Same Size 
Why Should all the Desks Be? 



adds. " All are glad to get home and 
get to work." The present, he consid- 
ers, is an excellent opportunity to use 
the cooperative spirit that has been 
aroused during the war for more educa- 
tional effort along these lines. There is 
a strong movement in North Carolina 
for large increases in state and county 
appropriations for work among the 
state's 300,000 adult illiterates; but 
Mr. Cerbin is not sanguine that any- 
thing adequate to the actual need can be 
done without federal aid. 


THE recent action of the Chicago 
Board of Education in establishing 
an advisory commission to its Commun- 
ity Center Committee is producing a 
splendid venture in city-wide coopera- 
tion. The commission has thirty-six 
members, representing nearly every type 
of organization, public and private, in- 
terested in the extended use of the 
school plant. At its first meeting a 
tentative program for community centers 
was presented, prepared by the chairman 
of the committee, Max Loeb. The ad- 
visory commission was organized into 
sixteen subcommittees to survey special 
aspects of the program and make rec- 
ommendations. These recommenda- 
tions are now being considered by board 
members and the school officials con- 
cerned, who participate in the discus- 
sions and help to shape conclusions. 
Through these committees, all the tre- 
mendous educational resources of the 
city are catalogued, listed, and made 
available for use by the school plant, in 
most cases without a cent of additional 
expense. A means is thus afforded by 
which private agencies can work with 
public agencies in an immediate and 
practical way. 

Thus, leading specialists in their 
fields are working as official volunteer 
cooperators with the educational offi- 
cials of the school staff at the board's 
request, in extending the usefulness of 
the school plant. The endeavor has 
been to get practical people with their 
feet on the ground to make practical 
suggestions. The directors of the vari- 
ous park and playground systems of the 
city, under the chairmanship of the sec- 
retary of the municipal Bureau of Play- 
grounds, have recommended that many 
school gymnasiums, not now used in the 
evenings by adults, be literally " brought 
into play," the schools and the city 
jointly bearing the expense. This plan 
is now being successfully carried out in 
some schools. The librarian of the Pub- 
lic Library has been able to devise, 
through this kind of conference, new 
ways of having library branches in 
schools reach more people. The director 
of the Art Institute has organized a 
committee to make art exhibit extension 
practical through the school centers, im- 
proving industrial art skill and increas- 

ing democratic art expression. The 
former commissioner of health, Dr. 
Williams A. Evans, last year's presi- 
dent of the American Public Health 
Association, advocates educational pub- 
licity as the basis for public health ; and 
the subcommittee of which he is chair- 
man is inventorying the public health 
exhibit and lecture assets of the city with 
a view to their more extended use by the 
school centers. The president of the 
Civic Music Association has developed 
a practical clearing-house for musical 
talent; and the lecturers of the speak- 
ers' bureau of the Women's Committee 
of the Council of Defense and also of 
the Liberty Loan Committee have been 
made available for school center use. 
The president of the Chicago Motion 
Picture Exhibitors' League is working 
out the possibilities of cataloguing educa- 
tional films looking toward the increased 
use of the movies in education. A com- 
mittee on classes in English, led by 
Prof. Nathaniel Butler, of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, and Mr. William A. 
Bond, of the Chicago Association of 
Commerce, is bringing out closer work- 
ing relations between the Board of Ed- 
ucation and the private agencies, of which 
the Association of Commerce is a con- 
spicuous example, in conducting classes 
in factories. The president of the Cen- 
tral Council of Social Agencies is chair- 
man of the Committee on Community 
Civics, which is listing the organizations 
in each school neighborhood and rec- 
ommending means of cooperation be- 
tween them and the schools. The head 
of the Chicago War Camp Community 
Service is chairman of the committee 
on paid workers and secretaries; and a 
representative of the Park Civil Service 
Board is chairman of the Committee on 
Training of Community Center Work- 
ers. One of the most important com- 
mittees is just forming — that led by the 
president of the Chicago Plan Commis- 
sion, which will consider the proper 
placing of the community center with 
relation to the structure of the Chicago 
plan. Other committees will serve as 
needed, one on industrial aspects having 
already been created with a leading mem- 
ber of the labor group in charge. 

Nearly thirty meetings of these com- 
mittees have already been held. Rec- 
ommendations have thus far been made 
by six, some of which have already been 
put into action. The women leaders of 
Chicago are notably represented on this 
advisory commission and comprise one- 
third of its members. Edward L. 
Burchard, editor of the Community 
Center Magazine, is serving as acting 
secretary of the commission, and Alice 
H. Thompson, formerly in charge 
of neighborhood organizations of the 
Women's Committee of the Illinois 
State Council of Defense, as assistant 

Chicago has already eighty community 
centers and separate evening schools. 

Some day she will realize the ideal of a 
center in every one of her 325 school 
buildings, an educational clubhouse for 
every neighborhood. The present ap- 
propriation of the Board of Education 
of $100,000 for the current year's work 
in community centers will help greatly 
in carrying the movement forward. 


\ FTER a year's operation on April 1, 
**■ the commission-manager form of 
government in Kalamazoo, Mich., claims 
the following achievements to its credit: 
$16,000 has been saved in nine months 
in the ordinary operating expenses of the 
city, without any diminution of services. 
The police and fire departments have 
been brought up to their full quota of 
men, and the equipment has been added 
to. The city's financial records and ac- 
counting system has been revised and 
simplified. A central purchasing bureau 
and storehouse have been established. 
An accumulation of city ordinances for 
twenty years has been revised and com- 

Citizens are too apt to estimate the worth 
of the new form of government by some 
trivial act or policy. Rather it should be 
judged as a whole. Is the city commission 
a progressive, able body of men? Is the 
city manager an expensive experiment? 
Times almost without number during the 
past nine months has the commission met ia 
special session to transact the city's many- 
sided business more efficiently. Questions of 
public health, street car fares, budget work, 
war measures — all have received earnest 
and prompt attention. 

The term of the commission expires 
in November. In the intervening period 
the manager expects to have completed 
a survey of the milk situation of the city, 
extension of the municipal lighting plant, 
establishment of a free legal aid bureau, 
appointment of a full-time city physi- 
cian, a municipal exhibit, and other items 
in a progressive, modern program of ad- 


CONTESTS of various sorts be- 
tween individuals, gangs, shops and 
departments have become the stock-in- • 
trade of " scientific " managers, especi- 
ally the more unintelligent members of 
that profession who conceive as the one 
aim and object of their services the con- 
tinual invention of new psychological 
devices to stimulate exertion and output 
on the part of the workers. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that the whole idea 
of contests is not exactly popular with 
wage-earners and that new proposals of 
that nature are apt to be received with 
scepticism if not hostility. 

There is, however, a legitimate field 
for that incentive in the factory as in 
many other institutions. Appeal to the 
sporting instinct in grown-up people as 
well as in children may suitably be used 



to create an interest in matters that in 
themselves are boring and, though im- 
portant for their welfare, have no en- 
gaging quality to hold their attention. 
Thus we have not only personal appear- 
ance contests among school children but 
contests among consumptives to acceler- 
ate their treatment and among mothers 
to stimulate the proper feeding of in- 
fants. There is no reason why, properly 
applied and devised in the interest of the 
employes rather than for the profit of 
the employer, contests should be ruled 
eut of industry. 

An example of such successful appli- 
cation is offered by the safety contests be- 
tween departments held in the Fisk Rub- 
ber Company's plant at Chicopee Falls, 
Mass. Such a contest in February re- 
sulted in a reduction of accidents by ap- 
proximately 50 per cent. For April con- 
tests are under way in some other de- 
partments with the expectation of simi- 
lar, pleasing results. In reply to an in- 
quiry about this method off teaching 
carefulness, H. I. Martin, manager of 
the firm's health and safety department, 
writes : 

" The chief idea in fathering contests 
of this sort is to get the safety gospel 
down to the man on the job, making it 
of personal interest to him in some way 
or other. For example, in one of the 
contests this month the winners are to 
be supplied with candy and cigars by the 
losers, who will each donate 25 cents. 
This in itself is not very much money; 
but it is enough to give the contest a 
personal touch that we would not be 
able to get in any other way. 

" The other two departments con- 
testing will attend one of the local 
theaters in a body, the losing department 
paying 60 cents individually for tickets, 
one for themselves and one for their 
guest from the winning department. 

" Another valuable feature is the pub- 
licity you are able to give a contest of 
this sort which naturally affects em- 
ployes in other departments and does a 
thing that all safety men have found 
very difficult, that is, reaching the man 
©n the job for a period of sufficient 
length to make it worth while." 

^ U *EAUOp c 




'"pHE Brooklyn Bureau of Charities — 
•*■ possibly the very worst named of 
all the social agencies in the land — com- 
pleted last November its fortieth year. 
Only three charity organizations preceded 
it, all of them by less than a year. The 
Brooklyn society was a natural, almost 
inevitable growth from local needs and a 
local reform. The reform was the aboli- 
tion of public outdoor relief. The favor- 
able condition was that for two years 
several hundred volunteer visitors had 
been cooperating with the commissioner 
of charities in introducing a better meth- 
od of caring for the poor. 

The seventies were a decade of transi- 

15.027 PATIEHTS 

$ 54,000 /C( 


^OR K and YT S 

tion. For a quarter of a century prob- 
lems which involved the permanency of 
the republic had been paramount, but 
their happy solution now allowed atten- 
tion to be given to what Alfred T. 
White, in his address on the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the establishment of the 
bureau, calls " the nearer problems of so- 
cial, charitable and municipal reform." 

Charity organization societies, state 
boards of charities, state and local boards 
of health, sprang from the awakened in- 
terest in disease and poverty, or perhaps 
it is better to say — in sanitation and char- 
ity. The Brooklyn Bureau of Charities, 
under the leadership of Seth Low, Alfred 
T. White and their associates, quickly be- 
came one of the most influential and it 
has remained one of the most representa- 
tive of the social agencies which teach 
and practise friendly visiting, relief by 
work through industrial agencies rather 
than by doles, cultivation to the utmost of 
the capacity for self-support, the " case 
method " in social work. 

In pursuance of these ideas laundries 
and wood-yards have been utilized for 
temporary aid more than in most other 
societies. District nursing has been de- 
veloped in Brooklyn by the Bureau of 
Charities, but yielding to the sentiment of 
such bodies as the Red Cross and the na- 

tional public health associations, which 
are averse to such connection between dis- 
trict nursing and a charitable society, the 
District Nursing Committee is about to 
be separately incorporated and will man- 
age its own affairs after May 1 of this 
year. The various activities in which the 
bureau engaged last year, and the distri- 
bution of its budget of nearly $400,000 
among them, is shown in the accompany- 
ing diagram which was mailed with its 
annual report. 

At the last annual meeting of the bu- 
reau, the general secretary, Thomas J. 
Riley, suggested that it take a new name, 
" to free it from a certain handicap and 
to make it express the spirit and scope of 
our enlarged work." E. T. D. 


*"p HE proposal of the Inter-Church 
■■■ World Movement of North Amer- 
ica to institute a world-wide survey of 
conditions and the handling of them in 
all fields of the church's efforts has 
moved Prof. Albion W. Small of the 
University of Chicago to write an open 
letter to the proponents' committee in 
the American Journal of Sociology for 
March. His criticism is as construc- 
tive as his suggestions are practical. 



The intensifying class conflicts fol- 
lowing the war he considers to be the 
justification for such a formidable un- 
dertaking as the proposed survey. Pro- 
fessor Small recommends that the co- 
operating churches should organize and 
support a permanent commission to in- 
vestigate and report upon near and re- 
mote causes and details of any economic 
class conflicts which may develop in 
this country. Its studies should be con- 
ducted on the ground, not in an attempt 
to arbitrate, but to exhaust all material 
facts, especially those having any ap- 
preciable bearing upon the principles of 
justice. To command the respect of 
any congressional committee, court of 
justice, board of directors or trade union 
council, such a commission should be 
made up of men and women who have 
had experience that fits them for the job 
and who cannot be bribed, wheedled, or 
frightened into findings not in the evi- 
dence to please either party. As un- 
certainty about the tenure of their posi- 
tion might lessen the independence of the 
commissioners, they should be appointed 
for a term of years at salaries, and with 
such appropriation for expenses as would 
secure the grade of service and the facili- 
ties requisite to the largest range of use- 

Widest publicity should be assured 
the reports of the commission not only 
within church circles, but as first page 
news for every daily paper in the coun- 
try, just as the summaries of the Pitts- 
burgh Survey were. Papers not publish- 
ing these findings would thereby auto- 
matically condemn themselves as either 
incompetent or uncandid. The commis- 
sion could serve the churches also by re- 
porting upon books, pamphlets and 
magazine articles purporting to repre- 
sent Christian principles at issue in eco- 
nomic conflicts, passing judgment upon 
their accuracy, fairness and the compe- 
tence of their authors. The commission 
should cover all the ground, in the way 
of taking and sifting evidence, on which 
the responsible master in chancery bases 
his advice to the court. The churches 
would then no longer be at the mercy of 
hearsay or ex parte representation after 
receiving the findings any more than the 
judge is after receiving those of the 

Let it be known that the work is the 
work of the associated churches, and of 
representatives whose intelligence, com- 
petence and integrity cannot be im- 
peached, whose findings go to the bot- 
tom and are published as frankly as 
Charles E. Hughes' reports on the insur- 
ance situation ; let it be known that such 
findings represent the determination of 
the churches to do everything in their 
power in the service of social justice — 
do this, and it will be the most silencing 
answer ever given to the many varia- 
tions of the charge that the church is 

" owned ;" it will do more than any 
other influence in sight to narrow the 
no-man's-land between the unchurched 
and the churches. 

These recommendations and predic- 
tions of Professor Small are based upon 
a trenchant review of current tendencies 
toward class conflicts which create a set- 
ting for his conclusion that " a church 
which has no positive attitude, no defin- 
ite policy toward the group of prob- 
lems thus indicated, can scarcely hope 
to impress men whose lives pivot upon 
these problems as dealing with any- 
thing very close to reality." And he 
adds that " next to fundamentally up- 
right purpose, the most essential pre- 
requisite to judicial conclusions is ade- 

quate information." The existence of 
such a common source of information 
which could be trusted would soon pro- 
duce these results: the formation of a 
habit of depending upon the church com- 
mission for the fairest treatment of class 
conflicts; the tendency to produce homo- 
geneous and influential public opinion 
within the churches, in place of cross- 
currents of irresponsibly advised church 
opinion which largely neutralize one 
another and consequently limit the influ- 
ence of religion; and, most fundamental 
of all, the discovery of ways to make re- 
ligion a continuous and pervasive force 
in men's lives, not merely the occupant 
of a secluded section of their experience. 

G. T. 

Book Reviews 

Gary Schools. A General Account 

By Abraham Flexner and Frank P. Bach- 
man. General Education Board. 265 pp. 
Price $.25; by mail of the Survey $.35. 

This is the first of eight volumes reporting 
the results of a survey of the schools of 
Gary, Ind., conducted under the direction 
of the General Education Board. The pres- 
ent volume is a convenient and excellent 
summary of the entire survey. 

The significance of the " Gary experiment " 
has long been hotly discussed among edu- 
cators. The survey was undertaken largely 
to settle a variety of debated questions re- 
garding both actual practices in Gary and 
also the alleged results of these practices. 

The findings published in the present vol- 
ume must speak for themselves. Clearly 
there has been no attempt to whitewash the 
Gary system ; but one is also gratified to find 
little evidence of that sophomoric magnifying 
of inadequacies which is not infrequently the 
delight of the cool critic who stands aloof 
while experimental drives for progress are 
being conducted. 

No progressive educator can afford to be 
without at least this volume of the Gary sur- 
vey. Because of the uniqueness of Gary as a 
social and industrial problem, social workers 
also will find the book helpful. 

David Snedden. 

Man to Man: The Story of Industrial De- 

By John Leitch. B. C. Forbes Co. 249 pp. 
Price $2; by mail of the Survey $2.10. 
This book is a rather discursive account of 
the author's experience in the installation into 
some twenty good-sized industrial plants in 
different cities of the United States of a sys- 
tem of factory organization which he speaks 
of as " industrial democracy." 

Mr. Leitch seems to have had a consider- 
able amount of experience both as a worker, 
a manager and as an industrial engineer. 
Seeking a solution for industrial unrest which 
would improve the relationship between em- 
ployer and employe, reduce labor turnover 
and promote efficiency, he has worked out a 
type of organization consisting of a combina- 
tion of collective bargaining with a bonus 
or gain-sharing system to which he states 
that there must be added, as an essential ele- 
ment, a spirit of cooperation and fair deal- 
ing by both employer and employe. 

His machinery for collective bargaining 
is modeled on the government of the United 
States, having a cabinet, consisting of the 
executive officers of the firm ; a senate, com- 
posed of foremen, superintendents, etc.; and 
a house of representatives, elected by the 
secret ballot of all employes. Neither cab- 
inet nor senate are elected, and any measure 
to become effective must be passed by both 
houses and be approved by the cabinet. 

It is quite apparent that " industrial de- 
mocracy " is not a proper description for 
this arrangement, and it is unfortunate that 
the author has chosen a name which, because 
of its lack of appropriateness, has a tendency 
to prejudice the reader against the whole 
scheme. It will be seen, however, that by 
whatever name we wish to label Mr. Leitch's 
plan of organization, he has gotten some 
very interesting results. He tells of his ex- 
periences in the introduction of his method 
of shop organization into factories of different 
kinds in different industrial centers. He 
points out, frequently by quoting from the 
minutes of the senate or house of one of these 
factories, that hours of work have been re- 
duced, production and compensation for 
workers increased (apparently without speed- 
ing up) and the quality of the product im- 
proved ; and that side by side with these 
material signs of well-being there has sprung 
up a better feeling between the workers 
and the management. He lays great empha- 
sis upon the development of this spirit and 
on the necessity of both sides substituting co- 
operation and fairness for the feeling of hos- 
tility and antagonism which usually prevails. 

The author fails to discuss adequately the 
relationship between his system and the 
larger labor movements of the day. The 
title of one of the last chapters of the book 
leads the reader to hope that this important 
and interesting part of the problem is not 
going to be neglected. But the chapter in 
question talks about almost everything else 
and devotes only a few pages to the bearing 
of the plan, as it worked out in one city, 
to the union movement in that city, and to 
the rejection in one factory of the closed 

He also fails to give proper credit to the 
development of self-government among the 
workers by other systems of collective bar- 
gaining, nor does he do justice to the activi- 
ties of government war mediating agencies. 
These bodies have not only adjusted wages 
and hours but have established systems of 



collective bargaining for the very purpose 
of promoting better relations between em- 
ployer and employe, omitting, however, the 
system of gain-sharing, upon the necessity 
for which Mr. Leitch insists. 

The book would have been of greater 
value if the author had devoted himself more 
consistently to a discussion of the subject in 
hand and less to a general consideration of 
various phases of the industrial question. 

For the average business man who has 
given the problem of his relationship with 
his employes all too little study and whose 
business is still conducted along the old lines 
of absolute industrial despotism — and we are 
apt to forget that this is the manner in which 
almost all factories in unorganized trades 
are run — for such a business man the book 
is interesting and stimulating; it is also not 
without value to the student. 

Alexander M. Bing. 

The War Garden Victorious 
By Charles Lathrop Pack. National War 
Garden Commission. 179 pp. illustrated 
and appendices. For limited distribution. 
This book serves a twofold object: it gives 
a history of the war garden movement 
which, under the inspiration of Mr. Pack 
and Mr. Ridsdale, produced splendid fruits 
last fall in more than one sense; and it is 
useful as a handy guide to community or- 
ganizers of gardening, food conservation 
and cooperative effort generally. The post- 
ers, photographs, drawings and pamphlets 
of the National War Garden Commission 
are effectively used to illustrate the text 
and incidentally are of value as samples of 
successful publicity. 

A chapter on War Gardens as City As- 
sets gives an important setting to the whole 
of this effort which is much more than one 
merely for the economic benefit of the in- 
dividual gardener. No other war activity, 
perhaps, has had so immediate an effect upon 
community relationships or pointed so for- 
cibly to some of the fundamental failings of 
our urban life. Mr. Pack, being still in 
the midst of the movement and a diplomat, 
does not point all the morals he might and 
could, and is content with stimulating an 
interest in war gardening which will carry 
it over into peace times as a recognized, full- 
fledged object of public endeavor. He points 
to our remaining responsibility to the world 
at large in the matter of food conservation 
and to the likelihood of continued high prices. 
The reviewer, however, may perhaps be 
permitted to point out that the greatest edu- 
cational importance of this movement lies 
in the fact that it is making more and more 
Americans dissatisfied with the intolerable 
conditions under which the congestion, the 
noise, the ugliness of our cities compels them 
to live and they will be influenced by it to 
think a little about the causes of their 
discomfort and of means to get rid of them. 
Surely, the youngsters, thousands and thou- 
sands of them, who have been led to take a 
keen pleasure in raising vegetables and fruit 
on waste and derelict lands and odd city 
lots, will one day rise up against the ex- 
ploiters of the people and move out on the 
hillsides where there is room to live, to 
build themselves fairer towns. B. L. 

The Food Crisis and Americanism 
By William Stull. Macmillan Co. 135 pp. 
Price $1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.33. 

This book is a general summary of the 
condition of agriculture. The author has 
succinctly stated its outstanding problems and 
essayed a solution for many of the economic 
ills to which it is a prey. 

Mr. Stull speaks from long experience as 
a representative of large banking interests 
loaning on farms, and it is unfortunate that 
his experience, which gives him authority 
to speak on farm questions, seems to have 
prejudiced him slightly against the govern- 

ment effort to improve the credit available 
to the farmers through the establishment 
of federal land banks. While there is un- 
doubtedly some waste in the administration 
of the federal land banks, the general de- 
mand of farmers for their establishment is 
ample proof that farmers were not satisfied 
with the existing mortgage agencies. These 
agencies were in many parts of the country 
charging 8 per cent on safe loans, which is 
considerably more than the 5J^ per cent at 
which the government is now loaning to 
farmers. As the volume of business of the 
federal land banks increases it is more than 
probable that the rate of interest can be re- 

His criticism of the federal Department of 
Agriculture for its lack of touch with the 
actual farm situation is entirely justified. 
The farmers of the country are demanding 
a thorough investigation of that department 
in order that it may be made of practical help 
to those for whose assistance it was estab- 

Mr. StulPs analysis of the wastefulness 
of our present system of distribution and 
marketing is keen and accurate. He empha- 
sizes the fact too often ignored by those who 
are legislating for " the betterment of agri- 
culture " that the " increased selling price 
of land is of no value from either the stand- 
point of national economics or that of the 
real farmer." 

Perhaps the author's chief contribution is 
his trenchant presentation of the question 
why the farmers of the country have so little 
standing in Washington and have been so 
unfairly discriminated against in legislation. 

No reconstruction will be lasting unless it 
recognizes that agriculture must be put upon 
a paying basis. Mr. Stull rightly says of 
this problem: "The fate of our nation may 
depend upon its early solution." By his dis- 
cussion of the factors involved in the solu- 
tion, he has rendered a very distinct and 
valuable service toward its solution. Were 
the solution of this problem entirely easy and 
obvious, no books need be written about it. 
It is because of its great complexity that 
such analysis as this author has made is es- 
sential. Farmers realize that good wages 
are their best assurance of profitable agricul- 
ture because it assures them a large and 
steady home market. Farmers and city labor 
are trying to work out a system of coopera- 
tion so that each class may be sure of a 
fair living and return for its work. Through 
such cooperation only can their mutual prob- 
lems be solved. 

Mr. Stull in pointing out the discrimina- 
tion against the farmer has touched the key 
note in his plans for improving marketing 
conditions. Benjamin C. Marsh. 

What We Eat and What Happens to It 
By Philip B. Hawk. Harper & Bros. 232 
pp. Price $1.35; by mail of the Survey 

The author claims to possess " inside " 
information as to the mysterious processes of 
food digestion. He mentions investigations 
made on the subject of digestion at the Jef- 
ferson Medical College and hints at the dis- 
covery of new methods of analysis which 
have enabled him to learn "what the human 
stomach actually thinks of all the common 
foods which enter into the diet of man." 
Inasmuch, however, as the learned profes- 
sor does not give the details of his important 
investigations and shrouds in mystery his abil- 
ity to know what the stomach thinks of com- 
mon foods, his speculations as to the value 
of foods are specious and his conclusions 
rather too dogmatic and at times doubtful. 

The author endeavors to give definite an- 
swers to many moot questions propounded by 
everyone desiring to know the value and 
importance of various foods. Unfortunately, 
as already indicated, his definite ex cathedra 
pronouncements detract much from the value 
of his otherwise sane answers. 

There is a fundamental fallacy in the at- 
tempt to determine the value of foods solely 
by their so-called " evacuation time." Hence 
the profound experiments of the author have 
led him to the conclusion that the stomach 
practically digests everything but itself, and 
that the ordinary conceptions of what foods 
are more or less digestible are mostly erro- 

Some of the author's conclusions are al- 
most unpatriotic. Thus he dares to assert 
that the digestive interment of the French- 
fried potatoes is at least 40 per cent longer 
than that of the German-fried potatoes. 
Much, however, was freely forgiven by the 
reviewer, who is very fond of pastry, after 
he perused one of the last chapters where 
it is asserted that the stomach likes cakes, 
pies and puddings and digests them equally 
as well as other foods. G. M. P. 

By Francis Hackett. B. W. Huebsch. 404 
pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey $2.15. 

The Unbroken Tradition 

By Nora Connolly. Boni & Liveright. 202 
pp. Price $1.25; by mail of the Survey 

L'Irlande Dans La Crise Universelle 
By Louis Treguiz. Felix Alcan, Paris. 275 
pp. Price $1.65 paper bound; by mail of 
the Survey $1.75. 

Francis Hackett has written one of the best 
books on Ireland that this generation has 
produced. It is, in consequence perhaps, a 
book that will irritate all Irishmen without 
distinction of class or of creed. Except for 
an occasional atavistic parenthesis, the book 
is an almost perfect example of the suc- 
cessful sublimation of the mystical complexes 
of the Celt. Mr. Hackett spent his youth in 
Ireland. He came to America, survived a 
rapid passage through the lower literary 
havens of the Middle West and is now en- 
throned among the Olympians of New York. 
They look benignly down upon the small 
free German nations; their spheres of jus- 
tice stretch from the Vosges to the Urals ; 
but towards Ireland they are no more im- 
partial than other gods are wont to be. 
They have their solution of the Irish ques- 
tion. It is based on the Olympian substitute 
for principle — expediency. 

Mr. Hackett who delivers their judgment 
is therefore divinely plain-spoken, inspired, 
informed and practical. Pauperism, para- 
sitism, prostitution, lunacy, ignorance, big- 
otry, and other social and economic defects 
in Ireland are brilliantly and ruthlessly ex- 
posed by his dissecting phrases. Like an an- 
cient anatomist he has explored the body 
of Ireland; he has found a brain of a sort, 
and brawn; arteries filled with air; an enor- 
mous digestive tract — but no soul. Hence, 
the Irish need to be fattened, not freed. 
The material world of Ireland upon which 
he looks down from his present altitude, he 
measures with a dinner pail. And he, there- 
fore, concerns himself logically and mainly 
with the age-long question of loaves and 
fishes in Ireland. 

It is legendary in Ireland that the un- 
named Hoover of biblical fame was St. An- 
drew. To none but the patron of Scotsmen 
could be credited either the faculty to feed 
the multitude with little, or the genius for 
frugality that under such circumstances 
could conceive both the gathering of the 
fragments in baskets and the canniness to 
count and to note the number of the baskets. 
Mr. Hackett speaks in parables of fishes 
only. He strives to show that under the pre- 
vailing economic system neither St. Andrew, 
nor St. George, nor even St. Patrick himself 
could achieve the miracle of feeding the 
Irish. A mere change of masters will still 
leave hungry the artless, exploited, Irish 
fisherman. The system by which fish are 



caught and distributed, the faulty economic 
system of Ireland, must be suitably and ade- 
quately amended. His delightful parable 
might fittingly be included in school books as 
an introductory lesson in economics for 
school children. 

In his treatment of the Ulster question he 
magnifies the claim to special consideration 
of the industrial magnates of Belfast. In 
this he does great service, for these mag- 
nates lay down the barrage that defeats 
every effort to reach an Irish settlement. In- 
deed, so effective is this barrage that a lead- 
ing authority on Ireland has soberly affirmed 
that the Irish question would be speedily 
solved, and time, money, misery and blood- 
shed saved if the industries of Ulster were 
moved to England and the magnates were 
indemnified in full for such losses as they 
might incur in the transplanting. 

Mr. Hackett's conclusion in favor of Do- 
minion Home Rule is strictly a non sequitur. 
He offers it doubtless as an immediate and 
practicable remedy for the present intoler- 
able state of affairs. His desire for a hap- 
pier and more prosperous Ireland is unques- 
tioned and unquestionable. Mr. Hackett sug- 
gests that the Irish republican be moved up 
from the lower regions of crown colonies to 
the purgatory of dominions; perhaps an un- 
avoidable step on the way to the heaven of 
Republican dreams. 

# * * 

Why the Irish decided to omit this step, 
Miss Connolly reveals. For her — as for many 
— the firing squad that executed the poets and 
seers of the 1916 rebellion shot the British 
Empire to pieces. Her father, James Con- 
nolly, was an apostle of abstract freedom 
who, after a life spent in the service of the 
workingmen in Scotland, America, and Ire- 
land, died for the concrete cause of Irish 
freedom. His book, Labor in Ireland, is the 
bible of labor's colporteurs. Miss Connolly, 
owing perhaps to her youth and her suffer- 
ing, has a somewhat narrower and more na- 
tionalistic outlook than her hero-sire. She 
has, however, inherited his genius for arm- 
ing facts with under-emphasis and marshall- 
ing them in effective formation. The interest 
of her narrative progressively increases until 
it reaches a climax in the passage which tells 
of her father's death. He had given to her a 
last statement which reads in part as fol- 

" We went out to break the connection be- 
tween this country and the British Empire, 
and to establish an Irish republic. We be- 
lieved that the call we then issued was a 
nobler call in a holier cause than any call 
issued to them during this war — having any 
connection with the war. We succeeded in 
proving that Irishmen are ready to die en- 
deavoring to win for Ireland these national 
rights, which the British government has 
been asking them to die to win for Belgium. 
As long as that remains the case the cause 
of Irish freedom is safe." 

Suffering from a fractured thigh bone due 
to a gunshot wound received in the rebellion, 
he was taken from a hospital bed to his ex- 
ecution. When Miss Connolly heard her fa- 
ther was dead, she sought the priest who had 
ministered to him at the last, asking: 

"How did they shoot him; how could 
they shoot him? He couldn't sit up in his 
bed. He couldn't stand up to be shot." 

And the priest answered: "They carried 
him from his bed in an ambulance stretcher, 
down to a waiting ambulance and drove him 
to Kilmainham Jail. They carried him from 
the ambulance to the jail yard and put him 
on a chair. He was very brave and cool. I 
said to him, ' Will you pray for the men 
who are about to shoot you?' 'I will say a 
prayer,' he answered, ' for all brave men 
who do their duty.' His prayer was, ' For- 
give them for they know not what they do.' 
And thev shot him." 

In like manner the early Christians per- 
ished in the arenas of the empire that was 
Rome. Miss Connolly has written one of 
the greatest tragedies of English history. So 
long as the Irish continue to endow the 
world with Connollys, the only solution of 
the Irish question that merits consideration 
is the solution reached by the Irish them- 

• * * * 

In a somewhat furtive fashion Celtic 
France has long been fascinated by Celtic 
Ireland. M. Treguiz is not unique. There 
is a school of French Gaels. So far that 
school has not produced a Gaelic scholar of 
the eminence or notoriety of Kuno Meyer. 
But it has produced many who are greater 
than their reputations and among them is M. 
Treguiz. He tactfully introduces his bro- 
chure by remarking that Ireland interests all 
the Allies, and that, even in England, the 
word " international " has been used in as- 
sociation with the question of Ireland. The 
Allies, if they have not the right to judge, 
have the duty to know the Irish question. 
Therefore, M. Treguiz instructs them in a 
succinct and masterly fashion. France, rather 
than England, was the country menaced by 
the war. Hence, some may be surprised to 
note that M. Treguiz heartily lauds Ire- 
land's efforts in the war. His eloquent 
affirmation of faith in the future of Celtic 
Ireland is immediately followed, perhaps 
without arriere pensee, by the proclamation 
of the republic of Ireland, with which the 
brochure ends. W. J. M. A. Maloney. 


The Whole Truth About Alcohol. By 
George E. Flint. Macmillan Co. 294 pp. 
Price $1.50; by mail of the Survey $1.58. 
The Wild Swans at Coole. By W. B. 
Yeats. Macmillan Co. 114 pp. Price 
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Escape and Fantasy. By George Rostrevor. 
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The Resurrected Nations. By Isaac Don 
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Price $1.60; by mail of the Survey $1.68. 
America's Mission to Serve Humanity. By 
Frank Moss. Stratford Co. 106 pp. Price 
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Altruism, Its Nature and Varieties. By 
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X. Picts-Sacraments. Edited by James 
Hastings. Charles Scribner's Sons. 915 
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Dictionary of the Apostolic Church. 
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James Hastings. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
724 pp. Price $6; by mail of the Survey 
League of Nations. By Alfred Owen 
Crozier. Lecouver Press. 196 pp.; paper 
bound. Price $ .50; by mail of the Survey 
$ .56 
Ten Days That Shook the World. By 
John Reed. Boni & Liveright. 371 pp.; 
illustrated. Price $2; bv mail of the Sur- 
vey $2.10. 
Cooperation and the Future of Industry. 
By Leonard S. Woolf. Macmillan Co. 
141 pp. Price $2; bv mail of the Survey 
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London. 75 pp. Price 2s. 6d. ; by mail 
of the Survey $ .80. 

The Road to a Healthy Old Age. By T. 
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The New Citizenship. By Prof. A. T. 
Robertson. Fleming H. Revell Co. 157 
pp. Price $1 ; by mail of the Survey $1.08. 

Alcohol and the Human Race. By Rich- 
mond P. Hobson. Fleming H. Revell Co. 
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Opportunities in Farming. By Edward O. 
Dean. Harper & Bros. 97 pp. Price 
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What We Eat and What Happens to It. 
By Philip B. Hawk. Harper k Bros. 232 
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sociation Press. 164 pp. Price $1 ; by 
mail of the Survey $1.08. 

Human Infection Carriers. By Charles E. 
Simon. Lea & Febiger. 250 pp. Price 
$2.25; by mail of the Survey $2.35. 

Examinations and Their Relation to Cul- 
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Constable & Co., London. 145 pp. Price 
3s. 6d. ; by mail of the Survey $1.10. 



To the Editor: Please accept the thanks 
of one who is a Methodist and interested 
in social righteousness for publishing Gra- 
ham Taylor's comment on the action of cer- 
tain authorities in our church regarding 
Professor Ward and the Social Service Bul- 

If opportunity presents itself, could you 
not arrange to publish further remarks that 
will help to promote fairness in the posi- 
tion of these men? 

Paul R. Stevick. 
[Methodist University of Oklahoma] 



To the Editor: There is a village which 
must be imagined because it can not be seen, 
for its houses are hidden among the tower- 
ing trees and its spirit is hidden in the 
hearts of men and women, of independent 
people who have learned to love one an- 
other, because in their common work they 
have learned to know one another. And yet 
it is not a dream village, except that it is 
the dream of " a certain rich man," rich 
in that he gave of the little that he had that 
here and now his vision might appear to 

This village is set on a hill in old New 
Jersey, close to our great troubled cities. 
It was built mostly by hands unused to 
toil; nevertheless, for the joy of the working, 
it was added to, until little camps have 
grown into residences. The residents are 
not in trade; they have nothing to sell and 
have made it impossible that anyone should 
speculate in their land, which is still the 
Lord's, although he has given it to all the 
children of men. 

That which was given to them they hold 
in trust for all mankind and persons who 
(because they also are artists or poets or 
craftsmen, will not or can not devour their 
brethren) may come here to find a place 
where thev can live without either paying 
rent or taking tribute. 

They called it Free Acres, realizing the 



ideal of a true cooperation, which is not 
for profit at all. These brethren make no 
laws for one another, neither do they re- 
quire assent to any creed or mode of life; 
for those who would attain freedom must 
begin by leaving others free. So, although 
the land is theirs, whosoever will may come 
and take what he needs of it to hold for- 
ever, so long as he returns his share of the 
cost of communal services which each one 
receives. The members of a hundred fam- 
ilies, working together with no motive for 
display, raise most of what they need to 
eat and have become almost as one free 

The common of the primitive town, the 
open air stages for dancing and for the 
theater, the swimming-hole and the meet- 
ing-room are all maintained for love and 
not for gain. At these come together those 
who mind high things — art and economics 
and literature and the concerns of the spirit. 

In Free Acres at least " the land shall not 
be sold, forever." It is valued each year 
by the assessor, chosen by those who are to 
be assessed, and they themselves agree upon 
what it is worth to them to live in liberty. 
So each one brings into the treasury his 
share of the common cost of taxes, road 
making and water, and so is made free of 
any assessments or taxes laid by state or 

Only seventy acres they have, near Sum- 
mit in the hills of Bernardsville, but sev- 
enty times seven do they show forth the 
ideal of Liberty. 

Come and see, they say. Spend an hour 
in going to a little town that for ten years 
has stood as a sentinel against the age-long 
wrong of monopoly of our Mother Earth. 

New York. Bolton Hall. 


To the Editor: I have just read Jessif 
Fauset's review of The Mulatto in the 
United States which appeared in the issue 
of the Survey for March 1. As to the adverse 
nature of the review, I take no exception. 
It is the function of the reviewer to react 
vigorously and honestly toward the book 
before him. But I believe that I am entirely 
justified in offering a protest when my po- 
sition is misstated, my words misquoted, and 
doctrine attributed to me which I did not 
state and do not hold. I assume that the 
Survey is interested in the truth and ac- 
curacy of the matter appearing in its col- 
umns. For that reason I call your attention 
to certain statements in the review which 
to me appear to be unjustified. 

Your reviewer states : " Miscegenation 
has taken place, even in slavery, he main- 
tains, almost entirely between the better 
types of Negroes and the worst class of 
whites — prostitutes, criminals, jail-birds." I 
have not, to my knowledge, made any such 
assertion, nor have I anywhere made an 
assertion which remotely implies that I hold 
such belief. On the contrary, especially in 
my chapter on the intermixture of races, I 
have repeatedly guarded against just such 

Again, your reviewer attributes to me the 
position that " inherently the black is incap- 
able of leadership." To do this is to mis- 
understand hopelessly the whole trend of 
the argument The book may be conceived 
as being devoted to an elaboration of the 
position that the mulatto's superior status 
is explainable in terms of greater educa- 
tional, economic, and social opportunity. The 
person who can read the book without real- 
izing that the mulatto is more of a social 
than a biological product, reads scientific 
exposition to no purpose. The mulatto has 
more often been treated as a human being 
than has the black Negro. He has responded 
to that treatment in a human way; he has 
been helped by it. I know of no conclu- 

sive reason for believing that the black 
man is incapable of leadership. I recognize 
the fact that he has produced a smaller num- 
ber of leaders, but I have nowhere stated 
that it has been due to an inherent inca- 
pacity for leadership. 

My statement that oratorical ability is 
not primarily an intellectual ability is a 
truism. It is used in the text as my reason 
for placing certain men who possess ora- 
torical power plus superior mentality in an 
intellectual rather than in an artistic cate- 
gory. Your reviewer reverses the statement 
in such a way as amounts to a virtual mis- 

The method of the criticism becomes rather 
crude at the point where Miss Fauset at- 
tacks my statement in regard to the failure 
of the Negroes to support the more radical 
movements for their betterment. My au- 
thority for the statements there made, includ- 
ing the membership of the National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Colored 
People, is given on the same page from 
which the quotation is taken. That authority 
is the Crisis, the official publication of the 
N. A. A. C. P., of March, 1916. That 
issue of the Crisis embodied the latest report 
of the association at the time of writing the 
chapter. That the association has since 
made a rapid growth is a thing of import- 
ance, but it is not a thing for which one 
should be abused because he did not know 
of it before the growth took place. 

In her conclusion your reviewer admits 
the truth of the position that the Negro en- 
deavors to approximate in culture and ap- 
pearance the better standards of Ameri- 
can life. Her effort, however, to make it ap- 
pear that my explanation of this fact is an 
ethnic one is opposed to the whole argument 
of the book. She states that I have reasoned 
that " because of the superiority of white 
blood." Nowhere in the book have I at- 
tempted to explain anything in terms of 
racial superiority. The facts which the re- 
viewer admits I explained in cultural terms. 

I pass certain other things in the review 
which are not in accord with facts, for a 
final affirmative statement. The book is not 
hostile to either the Negro or the mulatto, 
nor is it a eulogy of either. It is a pains- 
taking, scientific investigation of certain im- 
portant phenomena in our racial situation. 
It consequently does not blink facts. Some 
of the facts are not pleasant. But it does not 
alter the unpleasant situation to conceal or 
deny them. It is not even intelligent to do 
so, since any successful effort to bring into 
our racial situation anything remotely re- 
sembling justice for the Negro will have to 
be based on scientific fact however disagree- 
able the fact may be. If effort at social and 
racial betterment is sincere it cannot be 
based on sentimental fiction, however pleas- 
ant that fiction might be. 

E. B. Reuter. 
[Department of Sociology, University of 


To the Editor: After a second examin- 
ation of Mr. Reuter's Mulatto in the United 
States, I still see no reason to change the 
statements of my review. With regard to the 
mingling of whites and Negroes, Mr. Reu- 
ter says on page 130, "Such intermarriages 
as did take place . . . seem to have been in- 
variably with the meanest classes of the 
whites." He speaks of marriage between 
Negro slaves and indentured servants, whom 
he describes as " imported criminals, paupers 
and prostitutes" (page 131). On page 136 
he says, " The mixed marriages as a rule 
are of the lower classes of the whites." On 
page 139, "These mixed marriages are fre- 
quently marriages of mulattoes with the 
poorer and lower class of white women. . . . 

So uniform is it that the groom is of some 
importance and the bride a woman of the 
lower class." 

On page 238, Mr. Reuter speaks of the 
" low level of efficiency that prevails gen- 
erally in the black group." This seems to 
me to point to " inherent inability." But Mr. 
Reuter passes by my thesis which is that he 
assumes that Toussaint L'Ouverture was 
probably not a full-blood Negro, and stops 
short at that without any further proof. My 
objection is to his unscientific method. 

On page 288 we read, " Oratory is an ab- 
dominal rather than a cerebral exercise, so 
there seems no reason for making a special 
category to include men gifted in tkis way." 
The very use of the word gifted by Mr. 
Reuter points to the fact that oratorical 
power in the minds of most people presup- 
poses unusual mentality. If it were really 
an abdominal exercise, every deep-chested, 
trumpet-toned individual on the street could 
claim the title of orator. 

On page 315 Mr. Reuter says, "The de- 
sire of the mixed-blood race is ... to be 
classed with and become a part of the 
superior race." And again, " The ideal of 
beauty ... of all that is good and desirable 
is typified by the superior race." Nothing 
about culture there. On page 318 he does 
mention the " superior culture of the white 
group," but on page 319 he speaks again of 
the " caste feeling of superiority on the part 
of the dominant group." Caste pride is not 
based on culture. 

I admit that I am considerably intrigued 
by Mr. Reuter's criticism on my method of 
criticism. What difference does it make if 
it is crude if it is honest, which I take to be 
synonymous with scientific? What does 
make a difference, though, is that Mr. Reu- 
ter feels he is being abused for not knowing 
of the rapid growth of the N. A. A. C. P. 
But it is his business to know. Even if he 
did write that particular chapter in 1916, the 
book was not published or his preface writ- 
ten until 1918. The proof-sheets must have 
been in his hands many times ia those two 
intervening years. He certainly could not 
have expected the membership to stand still. 
His lack of thoroughness destroys his own 
argument, since it emphasizes the fact that 
the Negroes in two years have practically 
quintupled their membership. At the same 
rate of geometrical progression all the Ne- 
groes in the United States would be mem- 
bers in less than eight years. Incidentally I 
might mention that slowness on the part of 
Negroes to join radical movements is due to 
lack of publicity, not to indifference. Sup- 
pose the N. A. A. C. P. movement were 
given the free advertising of the Zionists! 

Finally, Mr. Reuter concludes from my re- 
view that " the Negro endeavors to approx- 
imate in culture ... the better standards 
of American life." I neither stated nor in- 
timated such a thing. Furthermore, if by 
" better standards " Mr. Reuter means white 
standards, he is greatly mistaken. As I said 
before, the Negro does tend to approximate 
the appearance of white Americans, but that 
is purely " protective coloring " or, rather, 
lack of coloring, sheer adaptation to en- 
vironment. But the American Negro (in- 
cluding the mulatto) does not try, con- 
sciously or otherwise, to approximate white 
American culture. He has tried it and 
found it wanting and he is definitely work- 
ing out a culture and civilization of his own 
which, while affording many points of con- 
tact with white American culture, shall yet 
preserve to him the things which he con- 
siders worth while. It is this tendency of 
Mr. Reuter to misconstrue statements and to 
jump at conclusions that makes this volume 
to my mind a good book for the serious 
student not to buy. 

Jessie Fauset. 





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Pamphlets are listed once in this column 
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Bill to Promote an International Associ- 
ation for the Care of the Needy Or- 
phans of the War. By Senator Cosine 
De La Torriente of Republic of Cuba. 
Translation. Imp. El Seglo XX, January, 
1919, Havana, Cuba. 

Charitable and Philanthropic Organiza- 
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Charities Committee, St, Louis Chamber of 
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Address Delivered at the Opening Session 
of the 1st Jewish Labor Congress. By 
J. L. Magnes. Reprinted from the Jewish 
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Results of Government Control in 1918. 
From E. W. Cooper, 83 John street, New 
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Fifty-Fifth Regiment of the Massachu- 
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Third edition. Riverdale Press, Brookline, 

After the War. A selected reading list on 
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Louis, February, 1919. 

The Negro Question. An address delivered 
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Africa in the World Democracy. Ad- 
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Public Markets. What curb markets may 
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Report on Conditions at the Maryland 
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Poverty in Baltimore and its Causes. Study 
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Problems of Economic Reconstruction. By 
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Compensations of the Great War. By 
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Lookinc Forward. By William Adams 
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Kallikaks and Jukes. By Casper L. Red- 
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Parental Physical Culture Means Su- 
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Marketing Farm Products. By John Morris 
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Handbook on Employment Management in 
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The Physical Examination in the Employ- 
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Labor Laws for Women in Industry in 
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The Training of Teachers in Vocational 
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Clothing for the Family. Bulletin No. 23, 
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Practical Questions and Answers. Fed- 
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Eight Week Club Manual. Publication 
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Heroes of Freedom. Prepared by State Com- 
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Give Back to the Women Who Work the 
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The Spirit of America. By Franz Sigel. 
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Lieber and Schurz. By Evarts B. Greene. 
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The Mortality from Degenerative Di- 
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Advice to Prospective Mothers. Bulletin 
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Some Government War Secrets 

—and the reason for the Victory Liberty Loan 


'E HAD promised the Allied war-chiefs 
that we would have in France by July of 
last year, 600,000 men. On that date we 
had a little over 1,900,000. We had behind them 
nearly 2,000,000 in this country under training who 
would have been on the front before July, 1919, and 
we had behind those 4,000,000 men as many more 
men as were necessary to do the job. 

"Four million men in France meant at least 
20,000,000 tons dead weight of shipping to take care 
of them, and we had that program under way and 
were making our maximum output just about the 
time the armistice was signed. Twenty million 
tons of shipping at present cost means just about 
$4,000,000,000 or a little over. 

"Did you know that those 2,000,000 men in 
France, who did so much to bring the war to an end, 
had only one small battery of American-made artil- 
lery behind them; just one battery of 4.7 and a few 
big naval rifles! The rest of the artillery used by the 
American soldiers was made by Frenchmen in 
France. But, on the way was a great stream of guns 
and shells that would have blown the German army 
off the earth. But that stuff had just come into large 
production in November, I918. And it is for the 
deliveries on that big peak production that we have 
to pay in December and January and will have to 
continue to pay for in February." 

"Our program for tanks, of which few got into 
action, was, I have been told, to provide for a tank 
in 1919 for every 75 feet of the front." 

"Those are some of the things that cost money, 
and practically none of those great supplies of artil- 
lery, of shells or tanks, even of ships, practically none 
of that stuff was ever used. What an awful waste! 
We are asked to pay for a dead horse that never 
drew a load! It is discouraging, paying for some- 
thing that is no good! 

"Well, let's see if it's any good. Do you realize 
that the German army was never really routed; that 
except for a little bit of a stretch down in Alsace- 

Lorraine it was never fighting on German soil? They 
were brave soldiers, the German soldiers. They still 
had millions of them on the Western front. And 
yet they surrendered while they were on foreign soil. 
They had a fleet which had required years and years 
and years to build and it flew the white flag without 
firing a shot." 

* * * 

"I cannot believe that these great stores of muni- 
tions were wasted. In addition to the bravery of the 
American doughboy that arrived in France and got 
into action in numbers about the 15th of July and 
turned the tide and drove the Germans back, in 
addition to his bravery and his almost reckless spirit 
of determination, for which the praise cannot be too 
high, I say in addition to that, I believe there was 
one other factor that brought this war to an end at 
least one year before the most optimistic of us had 
dared to hope for. One other factor, and that was 
that Germany, her general staff, knew that back of 
the few hundred thousand Americans that really got 
into big action, and back of the 2,000,000 in France, 
was another 2,000,000 ready; and despite the fact 
that we had practically no artillery of American 
make on the Western front, that there was a great 
stream of American-made artillery on the way. And 
it is my conviction that the German staff knew that 
if they prolonged the war into 1919, they were invit- 
ing, not certain defeat, but certain annihilation." 

' 'We are asked to pay for things that were never used; 
we are asked to pay for shells that never were fired; 
for cannon that never reached the battlefront, but 
we are asked to pay for those things that helped in 
a major way to bring this war to an end in I918 
instead of 1919. And the bringing of this war to an 
end twelve months before we could logically look 
for it means that we are asked to pay for saving the 
lives of 100,000 or 200,000 American boys who would 
have died on foreign soil had the war continued 
another year." 

— Extracts from a speech by Hon. Lewis B. Franklin, 

Director War Loan Organization, U. S, Treasury "Department. 

ictory Liberty Loan 

The Clean-up 

Space contributed by 


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The Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy 


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First Term, June 16 — July 23 
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New students admitted at the beginning of each term 

General Course for Social Workers 

Special Course in Industrial Service 

Special Recreation Course with Technical classes at Hull-House 

Special Courses for Public Health Nurses 

For information, address the Dean, 2SS9 Michigan Avenue, Chicago 



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A feature of the April issue of 


Other Articles 

Accidental Children, 

by Margaret Sanger 

Race Recuperation, 

by Charles Zueblin 

News and Discussion of the 
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The National League of Women Workers, 
offers a five weeks' course in organization 
and leadership of girls' club work — May 1 2 
to June 14, 1919, at Columbia University, 
New York City. 

The course is designed to train students 
for all forms of girls' club work. Special 
stress will be placed on recreational activi- 
ties for the reconstruction period. 

Students, successfully completing this 
course, will be listed with various place- 
ment agencies specializing in social service. 

Write for prospectus of the course to 

National League of Women Workers 
35 East 30th Street, - New York 

High School and College 
Students — Attention ! 

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Five Timely Addresses By 


" The Moeal Pbhbbquibites or a League of 

Nations " 

" National Self-determination and Its 

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" Religion and the Joy of Life " 

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Your Vacation 

The Summer Ouarter 1919 will receive the added 
inspiration of professors and instructors returning from 
war service in many lands. Students and teachers. 
Interested In keeping abreast of the times or in com- 
pleting work already begun, appreciate the opportunity 
of instruction In a regular season of study under mem- 
bers of the University staff. Scholars desiring to 
prosecute research in the libraries and laboratories will 
find facilities for work under the most favorable con 

Courses are offered In all departments and Include 
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THE American Anti-Boycott Association, 
under its new name of the League for In- 
dustrial Rights, is publishing a periodical 
called Law and Labor which " will seek to 
advise employers and employers' associa- 
tions concerning legal phases of the labor 

THE Social Welfare Committee of the New 
York Mayor's Committee of Women on Na- 
tional Defense maintains a consultation 
office and clearing house for problems of the 
maladjusted — retarded children, truants, de- 
linquents, the mentally abnormal, drug suf- 
ferers — at 217 East 22 street. The chair- 
man of the committee is Sara Graham-Mul- 
hall ; vice-chairman, Mrs. Philip Lydig. 

WOMAN members of the retail clerks' union 
of Des Moines, la., are opposing the erec- 
tion of a hotel for working women. They 
say, " If the employers will pay the girls 
the salary they duly earn, there will be no 
need for such a cheap rooming place. . . . 
Noting the committee appointed to promote 
the hotel, we find they are the ones working 
to keep the wages down. Therefore, we 
condemn the plans of the working girls' 

PROFIT-SHARING in the various indus- 
trial concerns of Uruguay has been intro- 
duced by a bill presented by the government 
itself in the Chambers. It is entirely on the 
old lines and, while providing that 25 per 
cent of the net profits of these institutions 
shall be distributed among the laborers on a 
basis of wages and length of service, stipu- 
lates that this shall give no right to the em- 
ployes to " intervene in accounting." 

PROFITEERING had assumed such pro- 
portions in San Franciico that after a cam- 
paign of several weeks by the San Francisco 
Bulletin, considerable popular support and 
enthusiasm was given to the formation of 
a consumers' cooperative league which it 
started. This organization has for its ob- 
ject to cover the city with a network of 
stores, especially for the distribution of 
food stuffs. It is backed by such diverse per- 
sons as Paul Scharrenberg, secretary of the 
state Federation of Labor and Rudolph 
Spreckels, a member of the well-known 
" sugar family." 

WHEN there is a labor dispute of national 
proportions in France, says Etienne Clemen- 
tel, minister of commerce, he is confronted 
on the one side by the General Federation of 
Labor, representative, intelligent, well docu- 
mented — and on the other by a number of 
employers' associations whose respective im- 
portance it is impossible for him to estimate 
and who often take contrasting views on the 
issue. He has, therefore, with the aid of the 
twenty largest employers' organizations, 
taken the initiative in forming a national 
federation of employers which will represent 
some 5,000 associations and 400,000 indi- 
vidual members. 

FARM wages, according to the most recent 
figures of the Department of Agriculture, 
have more than doubled in sixteen years. 
The highest rates are those paid in the tat 
West, next are those of the west North Cen- 
tral states, lowest are those of the South 
Atlantic states. The statement is added that 



wage earnings measured by purchasing 
power might tell a different story. Day 
wages have increased more than month 
wages during the last sixteen years, and day 
wages for general work have advanced more 
than those for harvest work. The procuring 
of day labor at seasons of the year other 
than the harvest is the biggest problem for 
the farmer. 

TO MEET the large and constantly in- 
creasing demand for trained workers to act 
as organizing secretaries for girls' recrea- 
tion, the National League of Women 
Workers, 35 East 30 street, New York, a 
federation of 125 non-sectarian, self-govern- 
ing girls' clubs, in cooperation with Colum- 
bia University, offers a five weeks' training 
course in organization and leadership of 
girls' club work, to be given at Columbia 
University, New York city, May 12-June 14. 
This course will include lectures, field work 
and round-table discussion. Satisfactory stu- 
dents will receive a certificate of work and 
will be listed with various placement agen- 
cies specializing in social service. Appli- 
cants must have had two years of college 
training, or some experience in social work 
and a high school diploma. 

THEIR pacifism during the period of the 
war has increased for the Doukhobors of 
Canada the contumely of their fellow citi- 
zens. A branch of the Great War Veteran's 
Association is trying to get them deported to 
Russia where the cause of their emigration, 
autocracy, no longer exists. As reasons for 
that demand are stated the refusal of the 
Doukhobors to obey the laws requiring birth, 
marriage and death registration — making 
them a " moral and physical menace " — 
and the fact that some of them, though by an 
early agreement bound to restrict their live- 
lihood to agricultural pursuits, are engaged 
in lumbering and commercial enterprises. 

THE principal women's organizations of 
Chicago are united in lobbying for the bill 
pending before the Illinois legislature ap- 
propriating $250,000 to provide a farm 
colony for delinquent women, about 5,000 of 
whom pass through the city courts every 
year. At a recent meeting of women repre- 
senting nine organizations, Martha P. Fal- 
coner, superintendent of Sleighton Farm in 
Pennsylvania, outlined the colony plan, ad- 
vocated the abolishment of the fining system, 
urged the substitution of probation and the 
placement of those parolled from the colony 
in occupational pursuits under close super- 

INSURGENT Republicans in the New York 
Senate have joined with the Democrats in 
passing three measures in the women's pro- 
gram, including the health insurance bill 
and those providing for a minimum wage 
for women and the 8-hour day for certain 
classes of women workers. The women's or- 
ganizations hope that through the action of 
these insurgents the Assembly may be forced 
to vote on the bills this week against the out- 
spoken opposition of Speaker Sweet, the Re- 
publican leader and chairman of the As- 
sembly committee in which the bills are 
bottled up. 

A CONFERENCE " to take concerted action 
against lynching and lawlessness wher- 
ever found " is to be held in New York, 
May 5-6, under direction of a committee in 
charge of which John F. Moors of Boston, is 
chairman, and John R. Shillady, secretary, 
70 Fifth avenue. The remarkable scope of 
the conference is indicated by the group 
which signed the call. This includes 120 
leading men and women of the country, 
twenty of them from southern states, and in- 
cluding the following: Att'y-Gen. A. Michell 
Palmer and former Att'y-Gens. Charles J. 

Permanent Paying Positions 

Lieu I. Henry F. Meyer 
A.S.A., R.M.A., U.S.A. 

Pritate Harry H. Frank 
6th Infantry Replacement 

Both Meyer and Frank say they never enjoyed 
any line of work so much, and are glad the oppor- 
tunity came their way. They have had only one 
month's training and their earnings equal $30 a 
week and up. 

It will pay you to learn about this money-mak- 
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The Land and the Soldier 


A comprehensive and timely 
program for the organization 
through national, state or local 
action of farm colonies after the 
Danish model, with the social ad- 
vantages of the English garden 
villages. The plan proposes the 
throwing open to use of land never 
properly cultivated, often near our 
large cities, rather than the use of 
reclaimed and distant acreage. 
$1.35 net. 

Charles Scribner's Sons, 


Its Nature and Varieties 


A study of the altruistic impulse; its 
development and relation to egoism in 
modern life. $1.25 net. 

Athletes All 

Training, Organization and Play 


A book for physical directors and scoat 
masters. The new knowledge on play or- 
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WANTED — Five young women with 
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WANTED— Superintendent Relief De- 
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Atlantic City Welfare Bureau wants 
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Salary about Two Thousand Dollars per 
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REFINED working housekeeper, good 
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" Amber Apartment 5, Ambridge, Pa." 

HOUSEHOLD Science Graduates 
wanted to cook and serve Co-partnership 
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woman for parole work in New York. 
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YOUNG American woman, strong and 
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preferably at Summer Camp. Is graduate 
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in settlements, and done farm work and 
gardening. Has exceptional gift for han- 
dling children. Best references. Address 
S. K., 3 Monadnock St., Dorchester, Mass. 

SOCIAL worker, qualified to direct or- 
ganization conducting neighborhood or 
community-wide program, invites inquiry. 
Unusual educational and professional 
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dress 3132 Sukvey. 


TEACHER in own home wishes normal 
boy of four to rear and educate. Address 
3136 Survey. 

YOUNG man, 35, Ph.D. (Columbia), 5 
years settlement work in New York, now 
in charge of Jewish Federation in large 
Eastern city, desires change. Correspond- 
ence confidential. Address 3135 Survey. 

COLLEGE graduate desires summer po- 
sition as governess. Speaks French. Best 
references. Address 3133 Survey. 

WANTED — Secretarial work; part time 
preferred. Publicity, literary, library and 
research experience. Address 3131 Sur- 

Orphanage, having had eleven years of ex- 
perience in both the cottage and Congre- 
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similar position. Address 3114 Survey. 

Bonaparte and Judson Harmon; five gov- 
ernors, Dorsey of Georgia, Davis of Idaho, 
Goodrich of Indiana, Allen of Kansas, and 
Harrington of Maryland; four ex-governors, 
O'Neal of Alabama, Baldwin of Connecticut, 
Dunne of Illinois, Garvin of Rhode Island; 
Senators Capper of Kansas and McCormick 
of Illinois, and the following: Elihu Root, 
Charles E. Hughes, Henry Van Dyck, Chief 
Justice John B. Winslow of the Wisconsin 
Supreme Court, Justice Orrin N. Carter of 
the Illinois Supreme Court, Judge Julian W. 
Mack, Pres. George T. Page of the Ameri- 
can Bar Association, Pres. John G. Milburn 
of the New York Bar Association, Anna 
Howard Shaw, Nicholas Murray Butler, 
Bishop David H. Greer, Adolph Lewisohn, 
John Mitchell, Thomas Mott Osborne, John 
A. Ryan, Jacob H. Schiff and Frank P. 

CHARLES B. BALL, chief sanitary in- 
spector of the city of Chicago, has taken a 
seven months' leave of absence and sailed 
for France, where he will serve under the 
auspices of the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation's educational staff as an expert on 
city planning and housing. 

A LECTURE illustrated by fifty stereopti- 
con slides and based on the government's 
standards for women in industry has just 
been released by the Woman in Industry 
Service of the United States Department of 
Labor at Washington. It consists of a short 
introductory talk on the various types of 
industrial work performed by women be- 
fore and during the war, and takes up in de- 
tail the subjects of the 8-hour day, 44-hour 
week, lunch periods, restrooms and rest 
periods, equal pay for equal work, protec- 
tion against accident and fire, appropriate 
dress for work, employment management, 
and the relations between employer and em- 
ploye. Several sets of the lecture have made 
up for the use of state departments of labor, 
trade unions, women's clubs, schools and 
colleges, employers, and social service or- 
ganizations. Inquiries should state in detail 
where and for what purpose the slides are 
to be used and the approximate size of the 
audience to which they will be shown. 


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Order pamphlets from publishers 

Transactions of the First National Co- 
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Toward thi New Education. The case against 
autocracy in our public schools. 164 pp. 25 
cents. Teachers' Union of the City of New 
York, 70 Fifth avenue, New York city. 

Workshop Committbis. Suggested lines of 
development. By C. G. Senold. Reprinted 
from the Survey for October 5, 1918. Sur- 
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York City. 5 cts. 

Cob Value Received. A Discussion of Indus- 
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" Children's Health Story Number " o» 
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health and hygiene. Five eents a copy. 
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Industrial Council Plan in Great Britain. 
Reprints of the Reports of the Whitley Com- 
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First complete and convenient presentation 
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How the Government Handled Its Labor 
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25c. each, postage 4c. additional. 10 copies, 
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Capitalism Is in Violation or Constitu- 
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Only Hope of Peaceful Reconstruction. 15c. 
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lou Should Know About Credit Unions, a 
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fifty cent* a line per month, four weekly inser- 
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mensions of a terrible calamity. Several 
Eskimo settlements are reported wiped out. 
In the sparsely populated north about SO per 
cent of the population and in the southern 
section one quarter is said by representatives 
of the Montreal Star to have perished. 

LABRADOR has this winter suffered an 
epidemic of influenza that in the absence of 
medical aid and of drugs grew to the di- 

FREE TRADERS in Paris are said to be 
rejoicing over the difficulties experienced by 
the Aerial Advisory Commission of the 
great powers to devise methods of control 
of air traffic. For, with the development of 
commercial aeroplanes and the generalization 
of aeroplane ownership which, it is expected, 
will follow the war, the problems of the 
customs officers seem to become insuperable. 
It would be practically impossible to pre- 
vent aeroplanes coming, for instance from 
England to France, from dropping small 
packages of highly valuable material before 
reporting to the control stations where for- 
eign aeroplanes may have to report on ar- 
rival. The commissioners are working hard 
to devise a system that will be smuggler- 
proof, Lut so far none has been discovered 
that does not cost more than the amount of 
revenue that might be lost by smuggling. 
And the Free Traders say that this coming 
failure of protection is going to do more for 
international peace than a league of nations. 




In order to arouse an interest in the study of topics relating to commerce and industry, 
and to stimulate those who have a college training to consider the problems of a business career, 
a committee composed of 

Professor J. Laurence Laughlin, University of Chicago, Chairman 
Professor J. B. Clark, Columbia University 
Professor Henry C. Adams, University of Michigan 
Hon. Theodore E. Burton, New York City, and 
Professor Edwin F. Gay, Harvard University 

has been enabled through the generosity of Messrs. Hart Schaffner & Marx of Chicago, to 
offer in 1920 four prizes for the best studies in the economic field. 

In addition to the subjects printed below, we will send on request a list of available sub- 
jects proposed in past years. Attention is expressly called to the rule that a competitor is 
not confined to topics proposed in the announcements of this committee, but any other sub- 
ject chosen must first be approved by it. 

1. On what economic basis can a League of Nations be permanently established? 

2. The Future of the Food Supply. 

3. A study of the means and results of economic control by the Allies during the 

European War. 

4. The effects of governmental action in the United States on the wages of labor. 

5. The effect of price-fixing in the United States on the competitive system. 

6. A study of the effects of paper money issues during the European War. 

Class B includes only those who, at the time the papers are sent in, are undergraduates 
of any American college. Class A includes any other Americans without restriction; the pos- 
session of a degree is not required of any contestant in this class, nor is any age limit set. 

A First Prize of One Thousand Dollars, and 
A Second Prize of Five Hundred Dollars 

are offered to contestants in Class A. 

A First Prize of Three Hundred Dollars, and 
A Second Prize of Two Hundred Dollars 

are offered to contestants in Class B. The committee reserves to itself the right to award the 
two prizes of $1,000 and $500 of Class A to undergraduates in Class B, if the merits of the 
papers demand it. The committee also reserves the privilege of dividing the prizes offered, if 
justice can be best obtained thereby. The winner of a prize shall not receive the amount des- 
ignated until he has prepared his manuscript for the printer to the satisfaction of the 

The ownership of the copyright of successful studies will vest in the donors, and it is expected that, 
without precluding the use of these papers as theses for higher degrees, they will cause them to be 
issued in some permanent form. 

Competitors are advised that the studies should be thorough, expressed in good English, and although 
not limited as to length, they should not be needlessly expanded. They should be inscribed with an 
assumed name, the class in which they are presented, and accompanied by a sealed envelope giving the 
real name and address of the competitor. No paper is eligible which shall have been printed or published 
in a form to disclose the identity of the author before the award shall have been made. If the competitor 
is in CLASS B, the sealed envelope should contain the name of the institution in which he is studying. 
The papers should be sent on or before lune 1, 1920, to 

J. Laurence Laughlin, Esq. 

The University of Chicago 
Chicago, Illinois 


Open To Survey Readers Only 

are long since exhausted. The March number is out of stock. Of the April num- 
ber, only a few copies are left. In original articles from practical workers here and 
abroad, digests of plans, government reports, bibliographies, maps, charts and illustra- 
tions, the endeavor is to make each number a time-saver of today and a prospectus of 

The generous gift to Survey Associates which has enabled us once a month, without 
extra charge, to distribute these double numbers throughout 1919 to the full subscription 
list of THE SURVEY is consumed in doing just that. 

How to work out a plan so that in advance of the publication dates these Recon- 
struction Numbers can be put at the disposal of a much larger number of people has beea 
a very keen problem with us for some weeks past. 

We have hit upon such a plan, and have chosen Eastertide, with its growing custom 
of gifts and remembrance cards, as the singularly appropriate occasion to put it into effect. 

Let us explain: Once the presses have started, the cost of extra impressions of a 
periodical is relatively small. It is like adding another plate at table. The only additional 
expenses are those for the actual paper, ink, binding and postage that go into the extra 
copy itself. 

By putting these RECONSTRUCTION NUMBERS before a new and a wider audi- 
ence, at the mere cost of the extra impressions, we can fulfil the broad educational purpose 
with which they were conceived. 

This we propose to do, by throwing open to every present reader of The Survey. 
and only to them, from now until May 1st, the chance to send in three or more new full 
year subscriptions for these once-a-month Reconstruction Numbers ar $1.00 each, or 
exactly one half the regular price. 

To do this and come out even, the following limitations of the offer are necessary : 

At least three Eastertide Gift Subscriptions must be entered at the same time to get 
this special rate of $1.00 per subscription, so as to cut down the clerical cost of handling. 

Money ($3, $4, or $5, as the case may be must accompany the order so as to save all 

The order must be mailed not later than April 30th. 

EVERY Survey reader 
has been sent a pack- 
et of cards for use in act- 
ing on this offer. 

If for any reason your 
packet of cards fails to 
reach you, act on this offer 
without them, and use the 
attached blank. 

While the offer lends itself to 
Easter remembrances, there is no 
reason why any reader of the 
Survey, who is richer in friends 
than in money in pocket, should 
not take advantage of the offer 
and send in a group subscription 
for 3 or 5 of them— getting them 
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ceases April 30. 


112 East 19 St., New York 

Enclosed find $ I am subscribing 

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Industrial History in the Making 

Arthur Gleason 

Tchaikovsky's Social Program 

Lewis S. Gannett 

The Telephone Strike 

Anne TVithington 

The Munition Women of France 

Mary E. McDowell 

Home Service and Civilian Charities 

Anna King 

April 26, 1919 10 Cents a Copy $4.00 a Year 




(Order from publishers) 

Pamphlets are listed once in this column 
without charge. Later listing may be made 
under CURRENT PAMPHLETS (See page 
163). " 

The British Empire and a League of Peace. 
By George Burton Adams. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons, New York. 

Motor Transportation for Rural Dis- 
tricts. By J. H. Collins. Bulletin No. 
770, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

Opportunities in Social Work After the 
War. For the church, its societies and 
members. Brooklyn Bureau of Charities, 
69 Schermerhorn street, Brooklyn. 

Forty Years of Service. Address by 
Thomas J. Riley. Brooklyn Bureau of 
Charities, 69 Schermerhorn street, Brook- 

City Planning. By James S. Pray and 
Theodora Kimball. Harvard University 
Press, Cambridge. Paper bound. Price 
$1 postpaid. 

Economists in Public Service. Annual ad- 
dress of President Irving Fisher to the 
American Economic Association, March, 
1919. From author, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Federal Revenue Act. Complete text with 
reference notes, tables and index. Na- 
tional Bank of Commerce, New York. 

How to Deal With Our Social Unrest. 
With a special message and appeal to the 
churches. By Lawrence Lay. From au- 
thor, 766 Asp, Norman, Okla. 

Autocracy and Paternalism vs. Democracy 
and Liberty. By Frederick L. Hoffman. 
Address delivered at International Ass'n 
of Casualty and Surety Underwriters. 
From author, Prudential Life Insurance 
Co., Newark, N. J. 

Remarks of Mr. Henry P. Davison, Chair- 
man, Committee of Red Cross Societies, 
at the Dinner Given to International 
Press Representatives in Paris. Ameri- 
can Red Cross, Paris. 

Memorandum Submitted by Henry P. 
Davison, Chairman, Committee of Red 
Cross Societies Consisting of Repre- 
sentatives of the Red Cross Societies of 
France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan and 
the United States. American Red Cross, 

The Social Unit Organization of Cin- 
cinnati. By William J. Norton. Studies 
No. 5. From Helen S. Trounstine Founda- 
tion, Cincinnati. Price 15 cents. 

The Unchanging Russia. Friends' War 
Victims' Relief Committee, 91, Bishopgate, 
London, E. C. 2. Price 2d. 

The Machinery of Government. By Hon. 
J. S. McLennan. The Senate, Ottawa, 

Supplementary Report of the Wages of 
Women in Candy Factories in Massa- 
chusetts. Minimum Wage Commission 
bulletin No. 18. Wright k Potter Print- 
ing Co., 32 Derne St., Boston. 

Community Council Work During the 
Period of Demobilization and Readjust- 
ment and the Permanent Organization 
of Communities. Circular No. 4. Coun- 
cil of National Defense, Washington, 
D. C. 

The Problem of Immigrant Education in 
Massachusetts. Bulletin Vol. IV, No. 4, 
Board of Education, Department of Uni- 
versity Extension, State House, Boston. 

Statement of Henry P. Davison, Chair- 
man on Behalf of the American Red 
Cross War Council on its Retirement, 
March 1, 1919. American Red Cross, 
Washington, D. C. 

Americanization. The California Program. 
State Commission of Immigration & Hous- 
ing of California, 525 Market street, San 

Americanization. Suggested lines for speak- 
ers and workers, State Commission of Im- 
migration & Housing, 525 Market street, 
San Francisco. 

The Problem of Juvenile Employment 
After the War. By R. A. Bray, H. M. 
Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kings- 
way, London. Price Id. 

Thoughts on National Kitchens. By Ar- 
nold Bennett. Reprinted from Daily News; 
The Science of National Kitchens. By 
Dr. C. W. Saleeby; National Kitchens 
and Restaurants. A Plea for Perma- 
nency. By Mr. Spencer L. Hughes; 
Handbook of National Kitchens and 
Restaurants. From National Kitchens 
Division of the Ministry of Food, 4, St. 
Paul's Churchyard, E. C. 4, London. 

The Readjustment of Industrial Rela- 
tions. Address by E. J. Barcalo at annual 
meeting of Associated Manufacturers and 
Merchants of New York State. From 
author, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Brewing and Liquor Interests and Ger- 
man Propaganda. Extracts from U. S. 
Senate Hearings 1918-19. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Jewish Dietary Problems. By Mary L. 
Schapiro. Reprinted from Journal of 
Home Economics, February, 1919. Jour- 
nal of Home Economics, Baltimore, Md. 
Price 10 cents. 

Public Kitchens. Their Organization and 
Importance. By Cox, Bradley and Miles. 
Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., 
4 Stationers' Hall Court, E. C, London. 
Price 6d. 

Work and Homes for Our Fighting Men. 
United States Reclamation Service, Dep't 
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China vs. Japan. By Ge-Zay Wood. Chinese 
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New York. 

What the War Has Done to Stamp Out 
Venereal Diseases. War Department, 
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105 West 40 street, New York. 

Coal-Mine Fatalities in the United 
States 1918. Compiled by Albert H. Fay. 
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ington, D. C. Price 10 cents. 

Memorandum Regarding the Persecution 
of the Radical Labor Movement in the 
United States. National Civil Liberties 

' Bureau, 41 Union Square, New York. 

A Business Man's Experience With In- 
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Proposes to Do With It. Training bulle- 
tin No. 10; Seven Million Candidates 
for Training. Training bulletin No. 9. 
United States Training Service, Depart- 
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Private Forestry. By Henry S. Graves. 
Circular 129, United States Department 
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The Billboard Nuisance. By Edward T. 
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Case Civics. A guide to citizenship, for 
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Cold Storage Reports, Season 1917-1918. By 
John O. Bell. Bulletin No. 776, Bureau of 
Markets, United States Department of 
Agriculture. Washington, D. C. 


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They Who Understand. By Lilian Whit- 
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World Power and Evolution. By Ells- 
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War Aims and Peace Ideals. Edited by 
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Italian Women in Industry. By Louise C. 
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The Survey 


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The Munition Women of France . Mary E. McDowell 137 

Home Service and Civilian Charities . . Anna King 139 

Tchaikovsky Lewis S. Gannett 140 

Industrial History in the Making . Arthur Gleason 144 

The Telephone Strike . . . Anne Withincton 145 


Drug Treatment 147 

Drug Addicts in the South 147 

State Supervision of Midwives . 148 

Jane A. Delano 148 

Against Night Work 148 

Making America Sound ....... 148 

Why Infants Die 149 

The Garment Trades 149 

Indiana's Social Legislation 150 

New York's Legislation 150 

Soldiers' Councils 151 

An Industrial Program 151 


The Industrial Council Under Way 152 

Housing Workers in a Powder Plant .... 152 

Volunteer Social Work in Chicago 154 

Teaching English to Adult Women ... . 156 

Jewish District Centers in Boston 156 

Between Infant Welfare Center and School . . . 157 

Arousing Interest in the Feebleminded .... 158 





The Survey for May 3 will contain three special articles on 


Julia C. Lathrop, chief of the federal Children's Bureau, writes 
on the Children's Year, now ending, and of the Children's Era, 
just beginning. 

J. Prentice Murphy, of the Boston Children's Aid Society, dis- 
cusses some of the radical conclusions reached by those who deal 
with the infinitely delicate situations of unmarried mothers and 
their children. 

Henrietta S. Additon and Neva R. Deardorff put the case for 
taking the children's court out of the judicial system and incor- 
porating it in the schools. 

ROBERT W. D« FOREST, President 


ii3 East io street, New York 

955 Grand avenue, Chicago 


ROBERT W. de FOREST, Chairman 


SAMUEL S. FELS, Philadelphia 
JOHN M. GLENN, New York